Conceptual Map and Classification In Ensembles Of Autonomic Components: From Awareness to Organisation
CONCEPTUAL MAP AND CLASSIFICATION IN ENSEMBLES OF AUTONOMIC COMPONENTS: FROM AWARENESS TO ORGANIZATION Nicola Capodieci and Giacomo Cabri University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
CONTENTS Background Motivation Trees of concepts Ensemble as whole Single components features Communication Adaptation Awareness Conclusions and future work
BACKGROUND Ensembles of autonomic components have to Be independent Have little or no human interaction Be reliable Be adaptive Self-organize Self-express Self-aware (*-awareness) …. FOCUS ON: DARS and self-expression
MOTIVATIONS Classification as an instrument for: Design process Enhancing reutilization of code, projects etc… Older classification of autonomic components Sometimes outdated No focus on adaptive capabilities, awareness Building a general framework for self-expression
CLASSIFYING COORDINATION PATTERNS Previous focus on: the ensemble as a whole Hardware capabilities of the single robot Current trend on: What makes a single component adaptive? New approaches for ensemble coordination *-Aware components Our approach: Try to consider, integrate and discuss all the previous topics.
THE TREE(S) OF CONCEPTS Two seeds: Single component Communication Internal architecture Awareness capabilities Ensemble as a whole Organization Global architecture Team features
ENSEMBLE AS A WHOLE 1/3 Organization Unstructured Structured Swarm Leader Peers Role Based
ENSEMBLE AS A WHOLE 2/3 Architecture Deliberative Reactive (!)
ENSEMBLE AS A WHOLE 3/3 Team Features Composition SizeHomogeneous Large Small Heterogeneous
SINGLE COMPONENT TREE Communication: Direct: Well defined protocols Data transmission Communication can be used for raising awareness. Direct communication are characterized by Bandwidth and Range.
LESS DIRECT WAYS FOR COMMUNICATING Stigmergic approach: Computational Fields Virtual Pheromones … Sensing approach: “Sensing” changes in the environment Giving them different meanings according to the state in which the unit is located
COMMUNICATION AND AWARENESS Communication is used for raising awareness of: Events Presence of team mates And managing COORDINATION What about non-communicative coordination? Strictly related to Awareness Social rules, conventions, common pre-shared knowledgeSee: Common Expected Payoff in  J.R. Kok, M.T.J. Spaan and N. Vlassis Non-communicative multi-robotcoordination in dynamic environments, in Robotics and autonomousSystem, Multi-Robots in dynamic Environments, Vol. 50, Issues 2-3, 28Feb. 2005, p. 99 - 114
CONVENTIONS, SOCIAL RULES … AWARENESS“Imagine that you and a friend need to meet today. You both arrived in Paris yesterday but you were unable to get in touch to set a time and place. Nevertheless, it is essential that you meet today. Where will you go, and when?” Vohra 1995 AAAI Symposium on active learning
INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE 1/2 G. Cabri, M. Puviani, and F. Zambonelli. Towards a taxonomy of adaptiveagent-based collaboration patterns for autonomic service ensembles.2011 Collaborative Technologies and Systems, Philadelphia (USA), May 2011.
INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE 2/2 Connection with cognitive heuristics self-aware  agents: Feedback Reasoning Learning Planning Goal driven … A. Guazzini A Cognitive Heuristic model for Local CommunityRecognition Lecture at AWASS 2012, June 2012 Edinburgh, Scotland,U.K
THE CHALLENGE OF DEFINING AWARENESS Many previous works and classification Many fields/case studies Many open issues: Evaluating Assessing Definition … LOT OF CONFUSION!
SOME EXAMPLES IN PHILOSOPHY AND ART R. Descartes: “Cogito ergo Sum” V. Van Gogh “People say - and I’m quite willing to believe it - that it’s difficult to know oneself ...”
… AND NEUROSCIENCE Assessing visual Self-awarenessPicture taken from: http://hellbox.org/squeezebox/archives/cat_sketchbook.html
Assess fake-beliefs awarenessPicture taken fromhttp://www.asperger-advice.com/sally-and-anne.html
PUTTING ALL TOGETHER From many definitions and tests for definingevaluate awareness: Extract what is relevant for autonomic components Making clear distinctions when needed Context and perception are critical when trying to classify the degree of awareness. The link between the three module internal architecture and the five degrees of Self-consciuosness by Neisser et. AlU. Neisser The roots of self-knowledge: Perceiving self, it, and thou inAnnals of the NY AoS., vol. 818, pp. 1933, 1997.
WHAT CAN WE DO WITH THISCLASSIFICATION? Find the concept of distances in patterns: Every ensemble organization may require different features of the trees. A requirement may be internal or external, strong or weak.
EXAMPLE A Master-Slave configuration requires: Direct communication Be aware of other team mates A proactive internal architecture Heterogeneous composition … A Swarm configuration requires: Stigmergy Be aware of the environment and events A reactive internal architecture Homogeneous composition …
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK Provide a conceptual map for Multi robot systems Adaptation Awareness Software and Hardware features Study how to express the concept of distances in patterns: Estimate the effort for dynamically change a coordination pattern More formal definitions Implementing test scenarios Model checking
THANK YOU The work is partially supported by: (EU FP7-FET, Contract No. 257414) www.ascens-ist.eu (nicola.capodieci, giacomo.cabri)@unimore.it http://agentgroup.unimo.it/