CONCEPTUAL MAP AND CLASSIFICATION        IN ENSEMBLES OF  AUTONOMIC COMPONENTS: FROM         AWARENESS TO          ORGANIZ...
CONTENTS Background Motivation Trees of concepts Ensemble as whole Single components features Communication Adaptat...
BACKGROUND   Ensembles of autonomic components have to       Be independent       Have little or no human interaction  ...
MOTIVATIONS   Classification as an instrument for:           Design process           Enhancing reutilization of code, ...
CLASSIFYING COORDINATION PATTERNS   Previous focus on:       the ensemble as a whole       Hardware capabilities of the...
THE TREE(S) OF CONCEPTS   Two seeds:       Single component           Communication           Internal architecture   ...
ENSEMBLE AS A WHOLE 1/3                             Organization                                             Unstructured...
ENSEMBLE AS A WHOLE 2/3                        Architecture      Deliberative                  Reactive (!)
ENSEMBLE AS A WHOLE 3/3                      Team Features         Composition                   SizeHomogeneous         ...
SINGLE COMPONENT TREE   Communication:   Direct:     Well defined protocols     Data transmission    Communication can...
LESS DIRECT WAYS FOR COMMUNICATING   Stigmergic approach:           Computational Fields           Virtual Pheromones  ...
COMMUNICATION AND AWARENESS   Communication is used for raising awareness of:     Events     Presence of team mates    ...
CONVENTIONS, SOCIAL RULES … AWARENESS“Imagine that you and a friend need to meet today.  You both arrived in Paris yesterd...
INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE                         1/2[2] G. Cabri, M. Puviani, and F. Zambonelli. Towards a taxonomy of adapti...
INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE                               2/2   Connection with cognitive heuristics self-aware [3]    agents: ...
THE CHALLENGE OF DEFINING AWARENESS Many previous works and classification Many fields/case studies Many open issues:  ...
SOME EXAMPLES IN PHILOSOPHY AND ART            R. Descartes: “Cogito ergo            Sum”            V. Van Gogh          ...
… AND NEUROSCIENCE                                                        Assessing visual                                ...
Assess fake-beliefs         awarenessPicture taken fromhttp://www.asperger-advice.com/sally-and-anne.html
PUTTING ALL TOGETHER     From many definitions and tests for      definingevaluate awareness:       Extract what is rele...
AWARENESS CAPABILITIES
WHAT CAN WE DO WITH THISCLASSIFICATION?   Find the concept of distances in patterns:   Every ensemble organization may r...
EXAMPLE   A Master-Slave configuration requires:     Direct communication     Be aware of other team mates     A proac...
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK   Provide a conceptual map for Multi robot systems       Adaptation       Awareness       S...
THANK YOU   The work is partially supported by:      (EU FP7-FET, Contract No. 257414)       www.ascens-ist.eu           ...
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Conceptual Map and Classification In Ensembles Of Autonomic Components: From Awareness to Organisation

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Presentation by Nicola Capodieci and Giacomo Cabri at the 2nd Awareness Workshop on Challenges for Achieving Self-awareness in Autonomic Systems @ SASO 2012, Lyon, France

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Conceptual Map and Classification In Ensembles Of Autonomic Components: From Awareness to Organisation

  1. 1. CONCEPTUAL MAP AND CLASSIFICATION IN ENSEMBLES OF AUTONOMIC COMPONENTS: FROM AWARENESS TO ORGANIZATION Nicola Capodieci and Giacomo Cabri University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
  2. 2. CONTENTS Background Motivation Trees of concepts Ensemble as whole Single components features Communication Adaptation Awareness Conclusions and future work
  3. 3. BACKGROUND Ensembles of autonomic components have to  Be independent  Have little or no human interaction  Be reliable  Be adaptive  Self-organize  Self-express  Self-aware (*-awareness)  ….  FOCUS ON: DARS and self-expression
  4. 4. MOTIVATIONS Classification as an instrument for:  Design process  Enhancing reutilization of code, projects etc… Older classification of autonomic components  Sometimes outdated  No focus on adaptive capabilities, awareness  Building a general framework for self-expression
  5. 5. CLASSIFYING COORDINATION PATTERNS Previous focus on:  the ensemble as a whole  Hardware capabilities of the single robot Current trend on:  What makes a single component adaptive?  New approaches for ensemble coordination  *-Aware components Our approach:  Try to consider, integrate and discuss all the previous topics.
  6. 6. THE TREE(S) OF CONCEPTS Two seeds:  Single component  Communication  Internal architecture  Awareness capabilities  Ensemble as a whole  Organization  Global architecture  Team features
  7. 7. ENSEMBLE AS A WHOLE 1/3  Organization Unstructured Structured Swarm Leader Peers Role Based
  8. 8. ENSEMBLE AS A WHOLE 2/3  Architecture Deliberative Reactive (!)
  9. 9. ENSEMBLE AS A WHOLE 3/3  Team Features Composition SizeHomogeneous Large Small Heterogeneous
  10. 10. SINGLE COMPONENT TREE Communication: Direct:  Well defined protocols  Data transmission Communication can be used for raising awareness.  Direct communication are characterized by  Bandwidth and Range.
  11. 11. LESS DIRECT WAYS FOR COMMUNICATING Stigmergic approach:  Computational Fields  Virtual Pheromones  … Sensing approach:  “Sensing” changes in the environment  Giving them different meanings according to the state in which the unit is located
  12. 12. COMMUNICATION AND AWARENESS Communication is used for raising awareness of:  Events  Presence of team mates And managing COORDINATION What about non-communicative coordination? Strictly related to Awareness  Social rules, conventions, common pre-shared knowledgeSee: Common Expected Payoff in [1][1] J.R. Kok, M.T.J. Spaan and N. Vlassis Non-communicative multi-robotcoordination in dynamic environments, in Robotics and autonomousSystem, Multi-Robots in dynamic Environments, Vol. 50, Issues 2-3, 28Feb. 2005, p. 99 - 114
  13. 13. CONVENTIONS, SOCIAL RULES … AWARENESS“Imagine that you and a friend need to meet today. You both arrived in Paris yesterday but you were unable to get in touch to set a time and place. Nevertheless, it is essential that you meet today. Where will you go, and when?” Vohra 1995 AAAI Symposium on active learning
  14. 14. INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE 1/2[2] G. Cabri, M. Puviani, and F. Zambonelli. Towards a taxonomy of adaptiveagent-based collaboration patterns for autonomic service ensembles.2011 Collaborative Technologies and Systems, Philadelphia (USA), May 2011.
  15. 15. INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE 2/2 Connection with cognitive heuristics self-aware [3] agents:  Feedback  Reasoning  Learning  Planning  Goal driven  …[3] A. Guazzini A Cognitive Heuristic model for Local CommunityRecognition Lecture at AWASS 2012, June 2012 Edinburgh, Scotland,U.K
  16. 16. THE CHALLENGE OF DEFINING AWARENESS Many previous works and classification Many fields/case studies Many open issues:  Evaluating  Assessing  Definition  …  LOT OF CONFUSION!
  17. 17. SOME EXAMPLES IN PHILOSOPHY AND ART R. Descartes: “Cogito ergo Sum” V. Van Gogh “People say - and I’m quite willing to believe it - that it’s difficult to know oneself ...”
  18. 18. … AND NEUROSCIENCE Assessing visual Self-awarenessPicture taken from: http://hellbox.org/squeezebox/archives/cat_sketchbook.html
  19. 19. Assess fake-beliefs awarenessPicture taken fromhttp://www.asperger-advice.com/sally-and-anne.html
  20. 20. PUTTING ALL TOGETHER  From many definitions and tests for definingevaluate awareness:  Extract what is relevant for autonomic components  Making clear distinctions when needed  Context and perception are critical when trying to classify the degree of awareness. The link between the three module internal architecture and the five degrees of Self-consciuosness by Neisser et. Al[4][4]U. Neisser The roots of self-knowledge: Perceiving self, it, and thou inAnnals of the NY AoS., vol. 818, pp. 1933, 1997.
  21. 21. AWARENESS CAPABILITIES
  22. 22. WHAT CAN WE DO WITH THISCLASSIFICATION? Find the concept of distances in patterns: Every ensemble organization may require different features of the trees. A requirement may be internal or external, strong or weak.
  23. 23. EXAMPLE A Master-Slave configuration requires:  Direct communication  Be aware of other team mates  A proactive internal architecture  Heterogeneous composition  … A Swarm configuration requires:  Stigmergy  Be aware of the environment and events  A reactive internal architecture  Homogeneous composition  …
  24. 24. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK Provide a conceptual map for Multi robot systems  Adaptation  Awareness  Software and Hardware features Study how to express the concept of distances in patterns:  Estimate the effort for dynamically change a coordination pattern  More formal definitions  Implementing test scenarios  Model checking
  25. 25. THANK YOU The work is partially supported by: (EU FP7-FET, Contract No. 257414) www.ascens-ist.eu (nicola.capodieci, giacomo.cabri)@unimore.it http://agentgroup.unimo.it/

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