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BYAWANISH SHUKLA
WATER ISSUES IN INDIA
 None of the 35 Indian cities with a population of more

than one million distribute water for more...
THREAT
 Every 2 out of 3 people will be living with

water shortages by 2025.
 With the growth of demand and decline in
...
Imagine we paying the same amount for water and milk.
DIAGONOSIS…
--BEFORE SOLUTION;
DIAGNOSE

TO
DIAGNOSE
….WATER
AUDITING…
WHAT IS WATER AUDITING
 Water Audit of a water supply scheme can be defined

as the assessment of the capacity of total w...
BENEFITS..
• Improved knowledge and documentation of the

distribution system including problem and risk areas.
• It also ...
 Pressure management to reduce volumes of loss and

frequently of new leaks.
 Level control to reduce overflows from sto...
BASIS OF WATER AUDITING
 It is based on the Continuity Equation
INCOMING = OUTGOING

 Water Balance Equation:-

System i...
Water
accounted

Residential

Commercial

Industrial

Institutional
Special
consumption
+
Operational
consumption
Waterunacco
unted
Loss of
water

Overflow

Leakage

Meteri
ng
errors

Illegal
consum
-ption

Waste

Macrometering
errors

...
Water balance
Water Exported

Own System
Sources Input

Billed Water Exported

Authorised
Consumption

Water
Supplied
(all...
BIGGEST QUEST…..
How losses can
be estimated
practically
TYPES OF LOSSES

LOSSES

APPARENT

REAL
APPARENT LOSSES
 Apparent losses are the non-physical losses that

occur in utility operations due to customer meter
inac...
REAL LOSSES
 Real losses are the physical losses of water from the

distribution system, including leakage and storage
ov...
Control of Real losses
 Leak detection to locate non-visible leakage
 Increased response to visible reported leakage to ...
METHODS OF ACCOUNTING
NIGHT FLOW ANALYSIS
TOP DOWN METHOD
OTHERS
NIGHT FLOW ANALYSIS METHOD
 Measures inflow at night to individual sectors.
 Take away estimates of night consumption.
...
Approach of top and down method
Top Down

WIS (Water into the System) – WB

(Water Build) = X
X = a+b+c+d…….
a = Leakage (...
HOW IT IS DONE
How much water is
being lost?

Where it is lost?

Why it is lost?

What remedial measures
can be done?
AUDIT PROCESS
Measurements
Implementation

Calculations

Planning and process
finalization

Audit observations

Zeroing in...
FIRST STEPS- MEASUREMENTS

DRAW A WATER FLOW CHART

Supply
Underground
Sump
Overhead Tank

Washing
W1 W2 Wn

Toilets
T1 T2...
CASE STUDY:
SRKNEC, NAGPUR UTILITY:
 Locating the sourcers, resevoirs and the network

system.
 Calculating the total in...
Calculations
 After averaging the total water that is billed per month

we found that 7327330 litres is used. (Rs 20 per ...
 This shows that 28.12% of incoming water is incurred

as wastage or losses.
 15000000 litres of water extra (more than ...
Recycling the grey water
 Now as per NMC water tax consideration we are liable

to pay Rs 20 per 1000 litres.
 We found ...
Benefit
 We could save about Rs 4.6 lacs approximately in 10 yrs

if we went for recycling grey water.
 Hence we say tha...
Water usage breakdown as mentioned in Codes
DESCRIPTION

NBC (lpcd)

CPHEEO (lpcd)

Bathing

55

20

Washing of Clothes

2...
CONCLUSION
 We understood the water issues.
 We also understood water auditing is a very useful tool

to find out the lo...
 Ultimately the availability of water in not the actual

problem. But efficient management of water is the
major issue th...
Local to Global
 Water Auditing is a process which can serve the

entire world effectively.
 Water Auditing has now beco...
THANK YOU
Water auditing
Water auditing
Water auditing
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Water auditing

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Water auditing

  1. 1. BYAWANISH SHUKLA
  2. 2. WATER ISSUES IN INDIA  None of the 35 Indian cities with a population of more than one million distribute water for more than a few hours per day, despite generally sufficient infrastructure.  Owing to inadequate pressure people struggle to collect water even when it is available.  According to the WORLD BANK, none have performance indicators that compare with average international standards.  A 2007 study by the Asian Development Bank showed no city had continuous supply.
  3. 3. THREAT  Every 2 out of 3 people will be living with water shortages by 2025.  With the growth of demand and decline in fresh water availability and the adverse health effect from poor water quality, scarcity will result in violence and water wars.
  4. 4. Imagine we paying the same amount for water and milk.
  5. 5. DIAGONOSIS… --BEFORE SOLUTION; DIAGNOSE TO DIAGNOSE ….WATER AUDITING…
  6. 6. WHAT IS WATER AUDITING  Water Audit of a water supply scheme can be defined as the assessment of the capacity of total water produced by the Water Supply Authority and the actual quantity of water distributed throughout the area of service of the Authority, thus leading to an estimation of the losses.
  7. 7. BENEFITS.. • Improved knowledge and documentation of the distribution system including problem and risk areas. • It also becomes a valuable tool to manage resources, by getting a better understanding of what is happening to the water after it leaves the treatment plant. • Leak detection programs are effective ways to minimize leakage and to fix small problems before they become major ones.
  8. 8.  Pressure management to reduce volumes of loss and frequently of new leaks.  Level control to reduce overflows from storage.  Corrosion control to reduce frequency of new leaks  Main replacement  Main Rehabilitation  Service replacement
  9. 9. BASIS OF WATER AUDITING  It is based on the Continuity Equation INCOMING = OUTGOING  Water Balance Equation:- System input volume:- the annual volume input to a transmission and/or a distribution system, including water exported to other supply systems. SIV = [Actual consumption] + [ Losses ]
  10. 10. Water accounted Residential Commercial Industrial Institutional Special consumption + Operational consumption
  11. 11. Waterunacco unted Loss of water Overflow Leakage Meteri ng errors Illegal consum -ption Waste Macrometering errors Micro-metering errors (House connection meters) Estima -tion errors
  12. 12. Water balance Water Exported Own System Sources Input Billed Water Exported Authorised Consumption Water Supplied (allow Water for Imported known errors) Billed Authorised Consumption Revenue Water Billed Metered Consumption Billed Unmetered Consumption Unbilled Authorised Consumption Apparent Losses Water Losses Real Losses NonRevenue Water Unbilled Metered Consumption Unbilled Unmetered Consumption Unauthorised Consumption Customer Metering Inaccuracies Leakage on Mains Leakage and Overflows at Storages Leakage on Service Connections upto point of Customer Metering
  13. 13. BIGGEST QUEST….. How losses can be estimated practically
  14. 14. TYPES OF LOSSES LOSSES APPARENT REAL
  15. 15. APPARENT LOSSES  Apparent losses are the non-physical losses that occur in utility operations due to customer meter inaccuracies, systematic data handling errors in customer billing systems and unauthorized consumption. In other words, this is water that is consumed but is not properly measured, accounted or paid for. These losses cost utilities revenue and distort data on customer consumption patterns.
  16. 16. REAL LOSSES  Real losses are the physical losses of water from the distribution system, including leakage and storage overflows. These losses inflate the water utility's production costs and stress water resources since they represent water that is extracted and treated, yet never reaches beneficial use.
  17. 17. Control of Real losses  Leak detection to locate non-visible leakage  Increased response to visible reported leakage to reduce annual loss volumes.  Zoning to identity volumes of loss in a continuing and efficient manner  Pressure management to reduce volumes of loss and frequently of new leaks.  Level control to reduce overflows from storage.  Corrosion control to reduce frequency of new leaks  Main replacement  Main Rehabilitation  Service replacement
  18. 18. METHODS OF ACCOUNTING NIGHT FLOW ANALYSIS TOP DOWN METHOD OTHERS
  19. 19. NIGHT FLOW ANALYSIS METHOD  Measures inflow at night to individual sectors.  Take away estimates of night consumption.  What remains is background (undetectable) leakage.  Here we get the actual real losses.
  20. 20. Approach of top and down method Top Down WIS (Water into the System) – WB (Water Build) = X X = a+b+c+d……. a = Leakage (Estimated starting level) b = Metering Errors (Estimated starting level) c = Legally supplied but not billed or accounted for d = Unauthorised Connections
  21. 21. HOW IT IS DONE How much water is being lost? Where it is lost? Why it is lost? What remedial measures can be done?
  22. 22. AUDIT PROCESS Measurements Implementation Calculations Planning and process finalization Audit observations Zeroing in on conservation steps that can be taken Discussions Report
  23. 23. FIRST STEPS- MEASUREMENTS DRAW A WATER FLOW CHART Supply Underground Sump Overhead Tank Washing W1 W2 Wn Toilets T1 T2 Tn Sewage Gardening G1 G2 Gn Drinking D1 D2 Dn
  24. 24. CASE STUDY: SRKNEC, NAGPUR UTILITY:  Locating the sourcers, resevoirs and the network system.  Calculating the total incoming water from the water bills of the college, of past 1 year.  Since because of continous water recharge and lack of metering system, it became difficult to analyze the actual daily consumption.  So, we used the NBC and CPHEEO norms to calculate the per day water usage.
  25. 25. Calculations  After averaging the total water that is billed per month we found that 7327330 litres is used. (Rs 20 per unit and 1 unit = 1000 litres).  And after using the norms that is 135 lpcd for resedential and 45 lpcd for public or office buildingds and working out the worst possible condition, we came to a conclusion that we use around 5267000 litres of water.  That shows that around 206000 liters of water is incurred as losses and wastages.  Water Balance Equation : inflow-outflow=losses
  26. 26.  This shows that 28.12% of incoming water is incurred as wastage or losses.  15000000 litres of water extra (more than what the code suggests) is being wasted on gardening and other purposes.  Therefore we were interested if we recycle the same 1500000 litres of water from the grey water that our system produces. Would it be feasible?
  27. 27. Recycling the grey water  Now as per NMC water tax consideration we are liable to pay Rs 20 per 1000 litres.  We found (after taking into considerations the mathematics of present cost of annuity, depreciation, maintenance and operation costs for 10 yrs to recycle) that it would only take Rs 14 per 1000 lts for the recycled water against fresh water for washing and gardening purposes.
  28. 28. Benefit  We could save about Rs 4.6 lacs approximately in 10 yrs if we went for recycling grey water.  Hence we say that in-house recycling of grey water and using it for gardening and other washing purposes we save both, water as well as funds.
  29. 29. Water usage breakdown as mentioned in Codes DESCRIPTION NBC (lpcd) CPHEEO (lpcd) Bathing 55 20 Washing of Clothes 20 25 Flushing of WC 30 40 Washing of house 10 - Washing of utensils 10 20 Drinking 5 3 Cooking 5 4 Gardening - 23 • 45 lpcd is required for day schools/offices • Gardening and lawn sprinkling – 2 to 3 litres/sq m/day
  30. 30. CONCLUSION  We understood the water issues.  We also understood water auditing is a very useful tool to find out the loop holes in a water distribution system.  Through the field exercises in our college premises we understood the processes , problems and all the requirements to carry out a water audit.  We understood the working of the water auditing software.  Recycling and reusing of water was proven beneficial. It reduces the cost upto 30%-40% and water wastages are taken care of.
  31. 31.  Ultimately the availability of water in not the actual problem. But efficient management of water is the major issue that we need to work on.  And for this efficient management we have the best tool :“WATER AUDITING”.
  32. 32. Local to Global  Water Auditing is a process which can serve the entire world effectively.  Water Auditing has now become an essential part in world’s megacities.  So, if it can be easily applied at local level, it does not stop us to use this tool at a global level.  The process for the global level remains the same vis a vis local level. The only change is the quantity of data.
  33. 33. THANK YOU

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