Refinery Processing Reactors

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Presentation on Fluidized Bed Reactor

Refinery Processing Reactors

  1. 1. Topics to be discussed  Introduction  Principle  Hydrodynamics  Kinetics Mechanism  Catalyst Requirement  Advantage  Disadvantage  Suppliers  Further Challanges
  2. 2. Introduction  History  Exxon Mobil, 1942  Increase in Demand  Thermal Catalytic Reactor
  3. 3. Applications Petroleum Industry Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Fluidized Bed Coking
  4. 4. Other Applications  PetroChemical Industry  Polymers, rubber, Polyethylenes, styrene  Coal Industry i.e. Gasification  WasteWater Treatment  Nuclear Industry
  5. 5. U.SA Catalytic Cracking Unit Ref: U.S.A Energy Information Administration http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/hist/mcrccus2A.htm
  6. 6. Principle  MultiplePhases  Solid Catalyst  Gas distributors  Liquid Feed  Complex Reactions within same unit
  7. 7. Hydrodynamics
  8. 8. Hydrodynaimcs  Incipient Fluidization  Minimum Fluidization Velocity  Superficial Velocity  Settling Velocity
  9. 9. Minimum Fluid Velocity  Definition  Role  Calculation
  10. 10. Settling Velocity  Definition  Role  Calculation
  11. 11. Fluidization regimes Umf Umb Uch U U Solids Return Solids Return Solids Return Gas Fixed Particulate Bubbling Slug Flow Turbulent Fast Pneumatic Bed Regime Regime Regime Regime Fluidization Conveying Increasing Gas Velocity 24
  12. 12. Kinetic Mechanism Catalyst Modification Flow Regime Reaction Rates calculation Side Reactions
  13. 13. Kinetic Mechanism  Kinetic equation can be presented as:
  14. 14. Kinetic Mechanism  Reaction rates can be presented as:
  15. 15. Catalyst
  16. 16. Catalyst Properties Requirement  Good stability to high temperature and to steam  High activity  Large pore sizes
  17. 17. Catalyst Properties Requirement  Good resistance to attrition  Low coke production
  18. 18. Examples of Catalyst  Zeolites  Faujasite  Mixtures of aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide.
  19. 19. Economics News  Global Demand for catalyst used in the refining industry is set to grow about $3.7 billion dollars in 2011  Under new infiationary economic pressures and environmental demands the market may reach up to $4.8 billion dollars Ref:http://www.nanomarkets.net/
  20. 20. Major Drivers/Suppliers  Albemarle Cooperation  W.R.Grace Company  BASF Catalysts
  21. 21. Advantage
  22. 22. Advantage  Uniform Particle Mixing  Uniform Temperature Gradient
  23. 23. Advantage  High Valued Products  High Efficiency
  24. 24. Advantage  Enhancement of Heat Transfer  Enhancement of Mass Transfer  Continuous State
  25. 25. Disadvantage
  26. 26. Disadvantage Size of Reactor Energy Requirement
  27. 27. Disadvantage  Particle Entrainment  Erosion of Internal Components
  28. 28. Disadvantage  Attrition  Understanding of Kinetics
  29. 29. Before Operation
  30. 30. After Operation
  31. 31. Erosion
  32. 32. Major Driver and Supplier  ABB Lummus Global  ExxonMobil Research and Engineering  Shell Global Solutions  Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation
  33. 33. Major Driver and Supplier  Universal Oil Products  Honeywell  Kellogg Brown and Root  World Largest Reactor
  34. 34. Challenges/Research Areas  Design of Catalyst  Understanding the complex kinetics  Modelling of the Process  Scale up issues
  35. 35. Conclusion  Operation and Understanding of the reactor mechanism is very complex  Each type of reactor has its own merits and demerits and its limitations  Catalyst design plays an important role in operation of reactors
  36. 36. Conclusion  Trickle bed reactor modeling seem to be complex and challenging  Bubble column reactor efficiently work for slow reaction  Moving bed reactor work can efficiently for catalytic cracking
  37. 37. Conclusion  Membrane reactors are most important due to their unique applications  Fluidized bed reactors are integral and most important in catalytic cracking
  38. 38. References  Harvey, H. (1970).’ Challenges facing the petroleum industry to the year 2000: an appraisal’. Fuel, vol. 49, pp. 357-374  Hansen, J.A. & Cooper,B.H. (1992).’ Process simulation of refinery units including chemical reactors’.Computers & Chemical Engi  Han, I.S, Chung, B.C. & Riggs, J.B. ( 2000). ‘Modeling of a fluidized catalytic cracking process’. Computers and Chemical Engineering, vol. 24, pp. 1681-1687  Elnashaie, S.S.E.H & Elshishini, S.S. (1993).’Modelling, simulation and optimization of industrial fixed bed catalytic reactor  Pedernera, M., Borio, D.O & Porras, J.A. (1996).’ A new cocurrent reactor for ammonia synthesis’. Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 51, pp. 2927-2932  Villamil, F.D.V., Marroquin, J.O., Paz, C.d.l.P. & Rodriguez, E. (2004). ‘A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization’. Chemical Engineering and ProcessingI, vol. 43,pp. 1309-1316  Speight, J. & Ancheyta, J. (). Hydroprocessing of heavy oils and residuals.  Furimsky, E. (1998). ‘Selection of catalysts and reactors for hydroprocessing’. Applied Catalysis, vol. 171, pp. 177-206  Mederos, F.S., Ancheyta, J. & Chen, J. (2009).’ Review on criteria to ensure ideal behaviors in trickle-bed reactors’. Applied Catalysis,vol. 355, pp. 1-19  Herk, D.V., Kreutzer, M.T., Makkee, M. & Moulijn, J.A. ( 2005).’ Scaling down trickle bed reactors’.Catalysis Today, vol. 106, pp. 227-232  Urseanu, M.I., Boelhouwer, J.G., Bosman, H.J.M., Schroijen,J.C. & Kwant, G. (2005).’ Estimation of trickle-to-pulse flow regime transition and pressure drop in high-pressure trickle bed reactors with organic liquids’. Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 111, pp. 5-11

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