CONCEPT OF STATE & SYSTEM
OF GOVERNANCE
AIM

• To brief you about concept of state and different forms of
governance
STATE

• A state is an organized community living under one
government
• Societies are politically organized under a commo...
BASIC ELEMENTS OF STATE
People

Sovereignty

STATE

Government

Territory
PEOPLE
• Since state is a human institution so
there can be no state without human
beings
• There is no limit for the numb...
DEFINED TERRITORY
• A modern state cannot exist
without territory
• Nomadic tribes and gypsies
wandering from one place to...
GOVERNMENT
• Government is an essential element of the state
• Agency through which the will of the state is formulated,
e...
SOVEREIGNTY
• Sovereignty means supremacy of the state
• Most important element of the state
• Sovereignty that differenti...
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STATE &
GOVERNMENT

• State is a broader term which include four elements
• Government is one function/...
GOVERNMENT

Executive

Judiciary

Legislature
TYPES OF STATEs

By
Power
Structure

•
•
•
•

Confederation
Federation
Unitary State
Empire
CONFEDERATION
• Permanent union of political units for common action
• Usually created by treaty but often later adopting ...
FEDERATION

• Political entity characterized by a union of partially selfgoverning states or regions
• Self-governing stat...
UNITARY STATE

• A unitary state is a state governed as one single unit
• Central government is supreme
• Administrative d...
EMPIRE

• Multi-ethnic state or group
• Established usually through coercion
• Includes self-governing regions, but these ...
TYPES OF STATEs
Oligarchy

Authoritarian

Monarchy

Democracy

Theocracy

Power
Source

Anarchy
DEMOCRACY
• A system of government by the whole population or all
the eligible members of a state, typically through elect...
DEMOCRACY

Direct
Democracy

Representative
Democracy

• Pure democracy
• People decide policy
initiatives directly
• Swit...
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY
• Presidential System
• System of government where a head of government is
also head of state and...
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY
• Parliamentary System
• Executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy
from legislature
• Ex...
PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM
• Unicameral
• Legislature which consists of one chamber or house
• Finland, Hungry, Sri Lanka
• Bica...
MONARCHY

• Form of government in which sovereignty is actually or
nominally embodied in a single individual
• Government ...
MONARCHY
• Absolute monarchy
• Form of government in which the ruler has absolute
power
• An absolute monarch uses unrestr...
OLIGARCHY
• Form of power structure in which power effectively rests
with a small number of people.
• These people could b...
AUTHORITARIAN
• Form of government
• Characterized by
• Absolute or blind obedience to authority as against
individual fre...
THEOCRACY
• God is officially recognized as the civil Ruler and official
policy
• Governed by officials regarded as divine...
ANARCHY
• Society without a publicly enforced government
• When used in this sense, it intended to imply political
disorde...
THANKS
Concept of State & Various Government Systems
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Concept of State & Various Government Systems

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  • Since state is a human institution and highest of all human associations there can be no state without human beings. There is no limit for the number of citizens in a state. Their number should neither be too small to be self-sufficient nor too large to be well governed. The People’s Republic of China is the largest state in respect of population and San Marino in Italy is the smallest.32,000
  • 17,098,242 km2110 acres
  • Government is an essential element of the state. It is the agency through which the will ofthe state is formulated, expressed and realised. It is the duty of the government to protect thesovereignty and integrity of the state, maintain law and order, protect citizens from externalaggression, solve the dispute among citizen and work for the all round development of the people.Hence Government is indispensable because there can be no civilised existence without it.Government may vary from state to state.
  • Sovereignty means supremacy of the state. It is the most important element of the state. It issovereignty that differentiates the state from all other social organisation. Since state is supreme ininternal and external matters. Sovereignty is of two types-internal sovereignty and externalsovereignty. Internal sovereignty means that the state has no control over the institutions and thepeople of the state. External sovereignty means that the state is free from the control of other states.
  • A confederation is a permanent union of political units for common action in relation to other units. Usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution, confederations tend to be established for dealing with critical issues (such as defense, foreign affairs, or a common currency), with the central government being required to provide support for all members. A confederation, in modern political terms, is usually limited to a permanent union of sovereign states for common action in relation to other states. The closest entity in the world to a confederation at this time is the European Union. Other examples are Belgium & Switzerland. The Swiss Confederation consists of 26 cantons.3 regions
  • A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, are typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body.
  • A unitary state is a state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate. The great majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government.
  • An empire is a multi-ethnic state or group of nations with a central government established usually through coercion (on the model of the Roman Empire). An empire often includes self-governing regions, but these will possess autonomy only at the sufferance of the central government.
  • A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. A government in which the supreme power is assigned in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation.
  • Direct DemocracyDirect democracy (also known as pure democracy) is a form of democracy in which people decide policy initiatives directly. SwitzerlandRepresentative DemocracyRepresentative democracy (also indirect democracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people. Representatives generally hold the power to select other representatives, presidents, or other officers of government.
  • Presidential System. A presidential system is a republican system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. USA, Afghanistan, Brazil
  • A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected. India, Pakistan
  • Unicameral. A unicameral parliament or unicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of one chamber or house. Unicameral legislatures typically exist in small and homogeneous unitary states, where a second chamber is considered unnecessary. Finland, Hungry, Sri Lanka.Bicameral. A Bicameral Legislature is a system of government legislature, which normally has two chambers or houses. In this form of government, before a bill is passed to become a law, it has to be approved by the members of the two chambers.
  • Monarchy. A monarchy is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally exemplified in a single individual.
  • Absolute monarchy. Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government in which the ruler has absolute power among his or her people. An absolute monarch wields unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people. KSA, Vatican City, Brunei.Constitutional monarchy. Constitutional monarchy is a form of democratic government in which a nonpolitical monarch acts as head of state within the boundaries of a constitution, whether written or unwritten. UK, Australia.
  • Oligarchy. Government by few personsOligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. These people could be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, education, corporate, or military control. Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next
  • Authoritarian. Authoritarian is a form of government. It is characterised by absolute or blind obedience to authority, as against individual freedom and related to the expectation of unquestioning obedience.The most important goal of authoritarian regimes is the maintenance of power and the personal enrichment on cost of the country and its population.
  • Theocracy. Theocracy is a form of government in which a God is officially recognized as the civil Ruler and official policy is governed by officials regarded as divinely guided, or is pursuant to the doctrine of a particular religion or religious group. From the perspective of the theocratic government, "God himself is recognized as the head" of the state.
  • Anarchy. Anarchy is to refer to a society without a publicly enforced government. When used in this sense, it intended to imply political disorder or lawlessness within a society
  • Concept of State & Various Government Systems

    1. 1. CONCEPT OF STATE & SYSTEM OF GOVERNANCE
    2. 2. AIM • To brief you about concept of state and different forms of governance
    3. 3. STATE • A state is an organized community living under one government • Societies are politically organized under a common law within a prescribe boundaries • The state is a people organized for law within a definite territory
    4. 4. BASIC ELEMENTS OF STATE People Sovereignty STATE Government Territory
    5. 5. PEOPLE • Since state is a human institution so there can be no state without human beings • There is no limit for the number of citizens in a state • Their number should neither be too small to be self-sufficient nor too large to be well governed • China is the largest state in respect of population and San Marino in Italy is the smallest
    6. 6. DEFINED TERRITORY • A modern state cannot exist without territory • Nomadic tribes and gypsies wandering from one place to another could not form a state • No limit can be laid down on territory as in population • The largest state in size is the former U.S.S.R whereas Vatican in Rome is the smallest
    7. 7. GOVERNMENT • Government is an essential element of the state • Agency through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and realized • Duty of the government • Protect the sovereignty and integrity of the state • Maintain law and order • Protect citizens from external aggression • Solve the dispute among citizen • Work for the all round development of the people • Government is indispensable • Government may vary from state to state
    8. 8. SOVEREIGNTY • Sovereignty means supremacy of the state • Most important element of the state • Sovereignty that differentiates the state from all other social organization • State is supreme in internal and external matters • Sovereignty is of two types • Internal sovereignty • External sovereignty
    9. 9. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STATE & GOVERNMENT • State is a broader term which include four elements • Government is one function/element of state
    10. 10. GOVERNMENT Executive Judiciary Legislature
    11. 11. TYPES OF STATEs By Power Structure • • • • Confederation Federation Unitary State Empire
    12. 12. CONFEDERATION • Permanent union of political units for common action • Usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution • Confederations tend to be established for dealing with critical issues • Defense • Foreign affairs • Common currency • The closest entity in the world to a confederation at this time is the European Union. Other examples are Belgium & Switzerland
    13. 13. FEDERATION • Political entity characterized by a union of partially selfgoverning states or regions • Self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, are typically constitutionally entrenched • Status can not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body
    14. 14. UNITARY STATE • A unitary state is a state governed as one single unit • Central government is supreme • Administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate • The great majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government.
    15. 15. EMPIRE • Multi-ethnic state or group • Established usually through coercion • Includes self-governing regions, but these will possess autonomy only at the permission of the central government
    16. 16. TYPES OF STATEs Oligarchy Authoritarian Monarchy Democracy Theocracy Power Source Anarchy
    17. 17. DEMOCRACY • A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives • Supreme power is assigned to the people • Power exercised by people directly or indirectly through a system of representation • By Abraham Lincoln • Government of the people, by the people, for the people
    18. 18. DEMOCRACY Direct Democracy Representative Democracy • Pure democracy • People decide policy initiatives directly • Switzerland • Indirect democracy • Elected officials Representatives hold the power to select other officials of government
    19. 19. REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY
    20. 20. REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY • Presidential System • System of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. USA, Afghanistan, Brazil • Semi Presidential System • The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a popularly elected fixed term president exists alongside a prime minister and Cabinet who are responsible to the legislature of a state. France, Sri Lanka
    21. 21. REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY • Parliamentary System • Executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from legislature • Executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected. • India, Pakistan • Types • Unicameral • Bicameral
    22. 22. PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM • Unicameral • Legislature which consists of one chamber or house • Finland, Hungry, Sri Lanka • Bicameral • Legislature, which normally has two chambers or houses • Pakistan, India, UK
    23. 23. MONARCHY • Form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in a single individual • Government by a single ruler • Types • Absolute monarchy • Constitutional monarchy
    24. 24. MONARCHY • Absolute monarchy • Form of government in which the ruler has absolute power • An absolute monarch uses unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people. • KSA, Vatican City, Brunei • Constitutional monarchy • Form of democratic government in which a nonpolitical monarch acts as head of state within the boundaries of a constitution • UK, Australia
    25. 25. OLIGARCHY • Form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. • These people could be distinguished by • Royalty • Wealth • Family ties • Education • Corporate • Military control. • Controlled by a few prominent families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next
    26. 26. AUTHORITARIAN • Form of government • Characterized by • Absolute or blind obedience to authority as against individual freedom • Related to the expectation of unquestioning obedience • The most important goal of authoritarian regimes is the maintenance of power and the personal enrichment on cost of the country and its population.
    27. 27. THEOCRACY • God is officially recognized as the civil Ruler and official policy • Governed by officials regarded as divinely guided, or is pursuant to the doctrine of a particular religion or religious group • From the perspective of the theocratic government, "God himself is recognized as the head" of the state
    28. 28. ANARCHY • Society without a publicly enforced government • When used in this sense, it intended to imply political disorder or lawlessness within a society
    29. 29. THANKS

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