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Sargam Nanotechnology 2


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Student Presentation made for the Sci-Fi course July 11-September 18 (2009) at Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology, Bangalore.

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Sargam Nanotechnology 2

  1. 1. Nanotechnology
  2. 2. What is Nanotechnology? Nanotechnology, or “Nanotech”, is the study of the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. The topic of nanotechnology was first touched upon by physicist Richard Feynman in his talk “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959. It deals with structures of the size 100 nanometres or smaller where One nanometre = one billionth of a millimetre } Top: Hydro Electric Power Generation Bottom: A fly holding a nano microchip chip
  3. 3. FROM LARGER TO SMALLER: Material Perspective Quantum Size Effect is when the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. This effect becomes dominant only at nanoscale. Aluminium cut in half remains aluminium. However, at nanoscale it becomes highly reactive since the molecular structure is changed. Similarly, copper becomes transparent, gold can be liquefied at room temperature and silicon becomes a conductor of electricity. Top: Liquid gold Bottom: Change in colour of a material with reduction in size chip
  4. 4. SIMPLE to COMPLEX: Molecular Perspective Molecular self-assembly NANOLITHOGRAPHY refers to the fabrication of is the process by which molecules nanometer-scale structures developing patterns with at adopt a defined arrangement without least one lateral dimension of the size of an individual guidance or management from an atom and approximately 100 nm. Futuristic companies outside source. like IBM are currently researching on the subject because of its potential in the field of electronics. Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) therefore, would be a branch where “machines at the molecular scale are designed and built atom-by-atom”. Left: Molecular self assembly Right: Silicon fabricated in the IBM research lab chip
  5. 5. Application Medicine Integration of Magnetic nanoparticles offer an nanomaterials with biology has led effective and reliable method to to the development of diagnostic remove heavy metal contaminants devices, contrast agents, analytical from waste water tools, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles. Tissue Engineering Nanotechnology can help reproduce or repair damaged tissues and can replace conventional treatments like organ transplants. Recycling Batteries Today, the huge number of spent batteries represents a disposal problem. Batteries with higher rate of recharging using nanomaterials could be helpful. Magnetic Nanopores
  6. 6. Application Nano-foods Nanotechnology While the canola oil is meant to contain an consumer products are increasing additive called “nanodrops” designed to carry steadily in the market. The Project vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals through on Emerging Nanotechnologies the digestive system, the shake, uses cocoa (PEN) has listed three foods -- a infused with “NanoClusters” to enhance the brand of canola cooking oil called taste and health benefits of cocoa without the Canola Active Oil, a tea called need for extra sugar. Nanotea and a chocolate diet shake called Nanoceuticals Slim Shake Chocolate. Agriculture Nanotechnology has the potential to change the entire agriculture sector and food industry chain from production to conservation, processing, packaging, transportation, and even waste treatment Injection of nanoparticles in food
  7. 7. Future Implications Health Nanotechnology’s health NANOPOLLUTION is a generic name for all implications can be split into two waste generated by nanodevices or during the aspects: have medical applications nanomaterials manufacturing process. This to cure disease, and the potential kind of waste may be very dangerous because health hazards posed by exposure to of its size. It can float in the air and might nanomaterials. easily penetrate animal and plant cells causing unknown effects. Society There is a major possibility of military applications of nanotechnology. The abundance of material caused by nanotechnology can result in the change of global economic and political scenario. An imagined nanopollution scenario
  8. 8. Future Implications Corporate On the structural CARBON NANOTUBES (CNTs) are allotropes level, critics of nanotechnology of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. point to a new world of ownership Their length-to-diameter ratio is up to and corporate control opened up 28,000,000:1. These cylindrical carbon by nanotechnology. For example, molecules exhibit extraordinary strength and carbon nanotubes have a wide range unique electrical properties, and are efficient of uses, especially with respect conductors of heat. Their final usage, however, to computers and its patents may be limited by their potential toxicity. have already been bought by big companies like NEC and IBM Agriculture Applications of nanotechnology have the potential to change the entire agriculture sector and food industry chain from production to conservation, processing, packaging, transportation, and even waste treatment Carbon nanotubes
  9. 9. Future Implications Grey Goo It is a hypothetical end-of-the- world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of- control self-replicating robots consume all matter on Earth while building more of themselves—a scenario known as ecophagy (“eating the environment”). Robots taking over the Earth
  10. 10. Regulation There has been an ongoing NANOTOXICOLOGY is the study of the argument about whether toxicity of nanomaterials. These studies are nanotechnology should be regulated intended to determine the extent of which by the government these pose a threat to the environment and to human beings. For instance, Diesel Regulatory bodies such as the nanoparticles have been found to damage the United States Environmental cardiovascular system in a mouse model. Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration in the U.S. or the Health & Consumer Protection Directorate of the European Commission have started dealing with the potential risks posed by nanoparticles. So far, nothing is subject to any special regulation regarding production, handling or labelling. . Nanotoxicology
  11. 11. What comes under Nanorobotics? According to Dr. Mark, the world is yet to see its first nanorobot, that is if it is necessary to provide a robot with anthropomorphic features. A virus injected in a human body does the task it has to do. But is it considered a nanorobot? If not then why? Do we need to change our perception of robotics? Nanorobotics ???
  12. 12. Nanotochnology and Science Fiction Nanotechnology and its use in fiction have attracted scholarly attention. Arthur Clarke’s “The Next Tenants” (1956) describes tiny machines that operate on a micro scale (one millionth of a metre) Michael Crichton’s novel Prey describes a swarm of molecule-sized nanorobots develop intelligence and become a large scale threat. Top: Arthur Clarke Bottom: Michael Crichton
  13. 13. ? Possible Direction for Science Fiction Grey Goo scenario Nano - robotics Future implications Health Hazards Social Scientists
  14. 14. Thank you Sargam Gupta Science Fiction Visual Communication Design