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X punctuation1

  1. 1. PES/ENG/X/109 • Alpha version of file. • Pl mention all reqd changes at this stage. • Pl mark the portion reqd in Punjabi also. • Word limit- 3400 A PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY PRODUCTION SUBJECT - ENGLISH CLASS - X CHAPTER - PUNCTUATION Anchor - 1 Dear students, do you know that the wrong use of punctuation can even change the sense of a sentence completely. Good punctuation is crucial for a good piece of writing. Many students use little punctuation in their essays beyond commas and full stops. But to be restricted to just two forms of punctuation mark, when writing your essay, is like building a house using only a hammer and a saw: you can do it; but not very well. By learning to use more, or all, of the available forms of punctuation you will be able to communicate and express your ideas, and arguments, more clearly. Before we begin our session today let us see what we are going to learn VO with text on screen Learning Objectives • Definition of punctuation • Uses of comma • Uses of semi - colon • Uses of colon • Uses of full stop • Uses of question mark • Uses of exclamation • Uses of quotation mark • Uses of hyphen • Uses of dash • Uses of apostrophe Anchor - 2 How do you define punctuation? -1-
  2. 2. PES/ENG/X/109 Punctuation is the system of symbols (. , ! - : etc) that we use to separate sentences and parts of sentences, and to make their meaning clear. Each symbol is called a "punctuation mark". This module will help you understand and use different types of punctuation more effectively in your writing. This module begins with the comma, the punctuation mark which usually causes writers the most trouble, before turning to other types of punctuation. Following super appears on board Comma Anchor – 3 A comma in writing is like a pause inside a sentence when speaking. We use commas inside sentences. Commas separate parts of a sentence into logical elements. Commas have no meaning, but they help us to see the structure and therefore the meaning of the sentence. VO with text on screen 1. Use a comma to separate items in a series or list of words, phrases or clauses. In a sentence, the last two items usually do not need a comma between them as they are separated by "and". However, if one or both of the last two items are long, a comma may be useful. • coffee, tea, sugar, milk, eggs, butter, salt • My favourite sports are football, rugby, swimming, boxing and golf. • Harpreet was wearing blue jeans, black shoes, his brand new white shirt, and a brown and green cap. 2. Use a comma between three or more adjectives or adverbs. • I like the old, brown, wooden table. 3. For two adjectives, use a comma where you could use "and". • It was a short, simple film. (It was a short and simple film.) -2-
  3. 3. PES/ENG/X/109 4. Use a comma for numbers over 999. (In English, commas separate thousands and full stop separate decimals.) • 1,000 (one thousand) • 1,569 • 2,000,000 5. Use a comma for addresses, some dates, and titles following a name. • 53, SFS Flats, New Friends Colony, New Delhi, 110029, India • November 4, 1948 • Jaswinder Singh, Professor of English 6. Use a comma before or after direct speech. Do not use a comma for reported speech. • He said, "I love you." • "I love you," he said. • He told her that he loved her. 7. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) to join two independent clauses. If the independent clauses are short and well-balanced, a comma is optional. • He didn't want to go, but he went anyway. • She is kind so she helps people. 8. Use commas for parenthetical elements. A "parenthetical element" is any part of a sentence that can be removed without changing the real meaning of the sentence. • Andrew, my wife's brother, cannot come. • Andrew (my wife's brother) cannot come. 9. Use a comma after an introductory element. A comma is optional for short, simple introductory elements. • Rushing to catch the flight, he forgot to take his phone. • By evening we were getting worried. 10. Sentence adverbs (words like however, unfortunately, surprisingly that modify a whole sentence) often require one or two commas, depending on their position in the sentence. • Amandeep, however, did arrive. • He had, not surprisingly, lost his temper. -3-
  4. 4. PES/ENG/X/109 11. An adverbial clause often needs a comma when it comes at the beginning of a sentence (but not at the end of a sentence). • If I win the lottery, I will buy a castle. • I will buy a castle if I win the lottery. 12. Do not use a comma to separate two complete sentences. In this case, use a full stop or semi-colon. • Ram wants to go out. Amandeep wants to stay home. • Ram wants to go out, Amandeep wants to stay home. Cut to Anchor – 4 Students, the following paragraph will sum up what we have learnt about comma. Tara, Ram and Amandeep enjoyed their holiday, which they spent in Claro, Trinidad, from December 17, 2010 to January 6, 2011. Unfortunately, although the weather was good, if rather hot, it rained a lot during their last week. Ravi, Tara's uncle, said, "When I was young we had very little rain, but now we have a lot of rain." Ravi, a wealthy, good- looking man, lives in the north of the island. Following super appears on board Semi-colon VO with text on board A semi-colon is used to indicate a longer pause than is indicated by a comma. 1. We sometimes use a semi-colon instead of a full stop. This is to separate sentences that are grammatically independent but that have closely connected meaning. • Mary likes coffee; Josef likes tea. • Taruna is a good speaker; she speaks very clearly. • Ram wants to go out; Akash wants to stay home. -4-
  5. 5. PES/ENG/X/109 Note that in the above examples it is not correct to use a comma instead of the semi- colon. 2. To separate longer clauses from one another. • My friend turned up at the right moment; but we could not attend the meeting 3. Semi-colon is also used to divide clauses which are connected by the conjunctions so, then, therefore, for, still, otherwise, yet, etc: • Walk fast; otherwise you will miss the train. • I called again and again; yet no one answered. 4. To separate independent sentences: • I came; I saw; I conquered. • He is on top; I am at the bottom. Anchor -5 It may be useful to remember that, for the most part, you should use a semicolon only where you could also use a full stop. There is one exception to this guideline. When punctuating a list or series of elements in which one or more of the elements contains an internal comma, you should use semicolons instead of commas to separate the elements from one another: Harry’s mother believes three things: that every situation, no matter how depressing, will be happily resolved; that no one knows more about human nature than she; and that Harry, who is twenty-five years old, will never be able to do his own laundry. Anchor – 6 Writers often confuse the colon with the semicolon, but their uses are entirely different. When to Use a Colon The colon focuses the reader's attention on what is to follow as and as a result, you should use it VO with text on board • before introducing a quotation. -5-
  6. 6. PES/ENG/X/109 Shakespeare says: “Sweet are the uses of adversity.” • Before giving some justification or explanation or a statement given earlier: A mathematician should know all branches of Mathematics: Algebra, Calculus, Arithmetic, Co-ordinate and Solid geometry. • To introduce a list or before an enumeration: The following students on the prize: Harpreet, Sandeep, Gagan, Vikram. • To introduce a statement explaining or supporting the previous statement: I like him: he is so considerate. I refused to go to pictures: I was so tired. VO continues When Not to Use a Colon You should not place a colon between a verb and its object or subject complement, or between a preposition and its object: [WRONG] His neighbour lent him: a pup-tent, a wooden canoe, and a slightly battered Coleman stove. (colon between verb and objects) [RIGHT] His neighbour lent him a pup-tent, a wooden canoe, and a slightly battered Coleman stove. [WRONG] Her three goals are: to improve her public speaking skills, to increase her self-confidence and to sharpen her sales techniques. (colon between verb and subject complement) [RIGHT] Her three goals are to improve her public speaking skills, to increase her self-confidence and to sharpen her sales techniques. [WRONG] We travelled to: London, Wales and Scotland. (colon between preposition and objects) [RIGHT] We travelled to London, Wales and Scotland. VO with text on board 1. Use a full stop at the end of a sentence: • The man arrived. He sat down. 2. Use full stops with abbreviations: • Co. (Company) -6-
  7. 7. PES/ENG/X/109 • etc. (et cetera) • M.P. (Member of Parliament) 3. Do not use full stops with contractions: • Ltd (Limited) • Dr (Doctor) • St (Saint) The main function of a question mark is to indicate a question or query. 1. Use a question mark at the end of all direct questions: • What is your name? • How much money did you transfer? 2. Use a question mark after a tag question: • Snow isn't green, is it? • He should go and see a doctor, shouldn't he? 3. Don't forget to use a question mark at the end of a sentence that really is a direct question: • How else would I get there, after all? • What if I said to you, "I don't love you any more"? Note: Be careful not to use a question mark at the end of an indirect question. Indirect questions are simply statements, and therefore end with a full stop: The teacher asked who was chewing gum. 4. Do not use a question mark after an indirect or reported question: • The teacher asked them what their names were. (What are your names?) • John asked Maria if she loved him. (Do you love me?) • I'm wondering if she's coming. (Is she coming?) 5. Many polite requests or instructions are made in the form of a question. But because they are not really questions, they do not take a question mark: • Could you please send me your catalogue. • Would all first-class and business-class passengers now start boarding. -7-
  8. 8. PES/ENG/X/109 Note that there should be no space immediately before a question mark. Following super appears on board Anchor – 7 An exclamation mark usually shows strong feeling, such as surprise, anger or joy. Using an exclamation mark when writing is rather like shouting or raising your voice when speaking. Exclamation marks are most commonly used in writing quoted speech. You should avoid using exclamation marks in formal writing, unless absolutely necessary. VO with text on screen 1. Use an exclamation mark to indicate strong feelings or a raised voice in speech: • She shouted at him, "Go away! I hate you!" • "Good heavens!" he said, "Is that true?" • "Help!" • "Shut up!" 2. Many interjections need an exclamation mark: • "Oh! When are you going?" • "Ouch! That hurt." 3. A non-question sentence beginning with "what" or "how" is often an exclamation and requires an exclamation mark: • What idiots we are! (We are such idiots.) • How pretty she looked in that dress! (She looked very pretty in that dress.) 4. In very informal writing (personal letter or email), people sometimes use two or more exclamation marks together: • Remember, don't be late!! • I'll never understand this language!!!! Remember, try to avoid exclamation marks in formal writing such as an essay or business letter. -8-
  9. 9. PES/ENG/X/109 Anchor – 8 We use quotation marks to show (or mark) the beginning and end of a word or phrase that is somehow special or comes from outside the text that we are writing. Quotation marks can be double ("...") or single ('...') - that is really a matter of style. Quotation marks are also called "quotes" or "inverted commas". VO with text on screen 1. We use quotation marks around a piece of text that we are quoting or citing, usually from another source: • In The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of The English Language, David Crystal argues that punctuation "plays a critical role in the modern writing system". 2. Use quotation marks around dialogue or direct speech: She said, “I like helping others.” 3. Use quotation marks around a word or phrase that we see as slang or jargon: • The police were called to a "disturbance" - which in reality was a pretty big fight. 4. Use quotation marks around a word or phrase that we want to make "special" in some way: • Note that sometimes we use "italics" instead of quotation marks. A quotation within a quotation is marked by single inverted commas. • He said to her: "I thought 'Titanic' was a good film." Punctuation inside or outside final quotation mark? If the quoted words end with a full stop, then the full stop goes inside the quotation marks. If the quoted words do not end with a full stop, then the full stop goes outside the quotation marks: • He said: "I love you." • She has read "War and Peace". -9-
  10. 10. PES/ENG/X/109 Anchor – 9 A hyphen is a very short horizontal line between words. Note that there is no space between a hyphen and the character on either side of it. Do not confuse a hyphen (-) with a dash (-), which is longer. The rules about hyphens are not fixed. The points below are guidelines rather than rules. VO with text on screen 1. Use a hyphen to join words to show that their meaning is linked in some way: • book-case (or bookcase) • race-horse (or racehorse) • pick-me-up 2. Use a hyphen to make compound modifiers before nouns: • a blue-eyed boy (but The boy was blue eyed.) • the well-known actor (but The actor is well known.) • their four-year-old son (but Their son is four years old.) 3. Use a hyphen with certain prefixes. The prefixes all-, ex-, and self- usually need a hyphen: • all-inclusive • ex-wife • self-control When a prefix comes before a capitalized word, use a hyphen: • non-English When a prefix is capitalized, use a hyphen: • A-frame 4. Use a hyphen when writing numbers 21 to 99, and fractions: • twenty-one • two-thirds - 10 -
  11. 11. PES/ENG/X/109 5. Use a hyphen to show that a word has been broken at the end of a line (hyphenation): 6. Use a hyphen with "suspended compounds". When we use several very similar compounds together, it may not be necessary to repeat the last part of the compound: • They need to employ more full- and part-time staff. (not They need to employ more full-time and part-time staff.) • This rule applies only to 12-, 13- and 14-year olds. (not This rule applies only to 12-year olds, 13-year olds and 14-year olds.) Anchor -10 A dash is a horizontal line that shows a pause or break in meaning, or that represents missing words or letters. Note that dashes are rather informal and should be used carefully in writing. Dashes are often used informally instead of commas, colons and brackets. A dash may or may not have a space on either side of it. Do not confuse a dash (—) with a hyphen (-), which is shorter. VO with text on screen 1. Use a dash to show a pause or break in meaning in the middle of a sentence: • My brothers—Raman and Jasdeep—are visiting Halwara. (Could use commas.) • In the 15th century—when of course nobody had electricity—water was often pumped by hand. (Could use brackets.) 2. Use a dash to show an afterthought: • The 1st World War was supposed to be the world's last war—the war to end war. • I attached the photo to my email—at least I hope I did! 3. Use a dash like a colon to introduce a list: • There are three places I'll never forget—Toronto, London and New York. • Don't forget to buy some food—eggs, bread, milk and butter. 4. Use a dash to show that letters or words are missing: • They are really f––––d up. (Typically used for offensive words.) • I will look ––––– the children. (Typically used in "missing word" questions.) - 11 -
  12. 12. PES/ENG/X/109 VO with text on screen 1. Use an apostrophe in possessive forms: • Tara's sister • my friend's mother 2. Use an apostrophe in contracted forms (the apostrophe shows that letters have been left out): • cannot > can't • they have > they've 3. You can use an apostrophe to show the plural of letters and numbers: • You should dot your i's and cross your t's. • Do you like music from the 1950's? Possessive pronouns or determiners (except one's) do not use apostrophes. Do not confuse them with contractions. The following are typical mistakes Anchor – 11 Let us recapitulate all the punctuation marks that we have seen so far Following super appears on board Summary of Punctuation Marks Children, you cannot master grammar by merely reading the rules and examples. You should Practice. Don’t neglect to do the exercises. Let’s revise what we learnt through these tests. Cut to text with VO (For MM) Show the question first and then on the same frame show the explanation for the answers given Identify Punctuation Errors - 12 -
  13. 13. PES/ENG/X/109 Indicate whether each sentence is punctuated correctly or incorrectly. 1. I wrote letters to: my aunt, the cable company, and my close friend Bernice who moved to Boston four years ago. 1. Correct 2. Incorrect Answer: The answer is 2. Explanation: You should punctuate the sentence as follows: I wrote letters to my aunt, the cable company, and my close friend Bernice, who moved to Boston four years ago. You should never use a colon between a preposition and its objects. The comma after "company" is optional, but you need the comma after "Bernice" because the material that follows is giving extra information. 2. "Can working with a computer really improve one's writing?" they asked. 1. Correct 2. Incorrect Answer: The answer is 1. Explanation: The material inside the quotation marks is dialogue and is a question; therefore, the question mark must fall inside the final quotation marks. 3. We cancelled our subscription to the magazine after it published an anti-national article; likewise, a number of our friends boycotted the publication. 1. Correct 2. Incorrect Answer: The answer is 1. Explanation: The semicolon correctly joins the two independent clauses, and the comma is necessary after the conjunctive adverb "likewise." 4. My sister's skin used to be as smooth as a childs. - 13 -
  14. 14. PES/ENG/X/109 1. Correct 2. Incorrect Answer: The answer is 2. Explanation: You should punctuate the sentence as follows: My sister's skin used to be as smooth as a child's. You need the second apostrophe to indicate that the noun "child's" is possessive. 5. "Take me with you," she said. "This little town and it's little people are more than I can bear, but I know everything will be different in New York". 1. Correct 2. Incorrect Answer: The answer is 2 Incorrect. Explanation: You should punctuate the sentence as follows: "Take me with you," she said. "This little town and its little people are more than I can bear, but I know everything will be different in New York." The original sentence contained only two mistakes: (1) "its" is the possessive case and therefore is spelled without the apostrophe, and (2) the full stop belongs inside the closing quotation marks. Anchor – 12 I hope from now onwards you will not make all your efforts to mark the required punctuations in your English writing. See you next time with a new topic. ALPHA STAGE OF SCRIPT Subject: _________________________________, Class: ________________________ Topic: _________________________________________________________________ Script ID: ______________________________________________________________ Date of Receiving by PES: ________________________________________________ Date of Receiving by Subject Specialist: ____________________________________ - 14 -
  15. 15. PES/ENG/X/109 Name of Subject Specialist: _______________________________________________ Tick (√ ) any one of the following: 1. This Script is approved and frozen for Production. 2. Necessary corrections in the Script are suggested and submitted back to Service Provider for making its Beta file. Signature of the Subject Specialist Date and Time: _______________ Countersigned by: Dy. Director SISE Submitted to Service Providers Date _____________________ - 15 -