PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY PRODUCTION
SUBJECT - ENGLISH
CLASS - IX
CHAPTER - ARTICLES
MODULE - ARTICLES
We cut to MM 1: refer audio clip – articles.wav.
(Animated village characters are to be depicted)
I want to eat a parantha and an
egg for breakfast
( Create a Punjabi boy of 12/13 yrs in a half pant and a T-Shirt)
The egg was hot and delicious, but
the parantha was stale.
I want to eat a parantha and an egg for breakfast.
The egg was hot and delicious, but the parantha was stale.
Cut to the ANCHOR 1:
Rohit says an egg, a parantha, because he is talking about them for the first time. Later on, he
says ‘the egg’; ‘the parantha’ because he now refers to those particular things he had for
breakfast. ‘A’, ‘An’ and ‘The’ are called articles, and if their correct usage has been a confusing
issue for you, fret not, because that is exactly what you will learn in this module!
Cut to our hi-tech board on which the following SUPER appears:
Voice-over with Text on screen
After the completion of this module, students will be able to-
• Learn the basic rules of using the articles 'a', 'an' and 'the'
• Differentiate between definite and indefinite articles
• Select the correct article based upon the count and initial pronunciation of the following
• Use of articles with countable and uncountable nouns
• Be able to find errors in the use of articles a, an and the.
Cut to our hi-tech board on which the following SUPER appears:
What is an Article?
Cut to ANCHOR 2:
There are three articles in English – ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘the’. An article is always placed before a noun.
For example – Mira has a cat – Here, the article ‘a’ is used immediately before the noun ‘cat’.
However, it’s important to note that all articles are used with nouns, but all nouns may not be
used with articles. It becomes important to understand which noun requires an article and which
doesn’t. Also, we need to know which article should be used when one is required.
Of the three, ‘a’ and ‘an’ are called indefinite articles. They do not point to any specific, unique
noun. We use indefinite articles with singular and countable nouns. Consider these examples-
(Show these examples as text on screen, one line at a time, while the anchor talks)
Rahul is reading a book.
My aunt bought me a dress.
A mouse lives in a hole.
I can hear a cuckoo bird singing.
There is a banyan tree near my house.
I had a pear for breakfast today.
Bees live in a beehive.
Many nouns refer to abstract, uncountable ideas. These nouns don't usually have an article (a, an
or the) before them. However, there are always exceptions (see Exceptions below).
• It takes courage to climb the tallest mountain on the continent.
• The editor we hire needs to have enthusiasm, dedication and knowledge.
• Is love the most important emotion?
• As a child she lived in poverty, but now she has great wealth.
• Many people feel that happiness is the most important thing in life.
Some nouns are used as both abstract and concrete nouns. That is, they need no articles in
• Life (or death): We can ask what the most important thing in life is, and we can worry
about death. However, we can also talk about a life or a death, the life or death of one
• Discipline: To succeed in life, you need discipline. When we talk about a discipline, we
are referring to a career or field of study such as architecture or biology.
• Time: Time seems to move faster as we get older. Think of a time when you were young
and a day seemed to last forever.
We use ‘a’ before nouns that begin with consonants. We use ‘an’ before nouns that begin with a
vowel. But We already know that vowels are- a, e, i, o, and u. All the remaining letters in the
alphabet are called consonants.
(Show the alphabets, blink and drag out the vowels at right hand side and show that the
remainings are the consonants)
ABCDEFG AEIOU --- Vowels
WXYZ --- Remaining are the Consonent
However, there are some exceptions to the rule. It is also to be noted that article ‘an’ and ‘a’ are
also used, for eg. An Historian, An Honour, A University etc.
Look at the following sentences- (Show these examples as text on screen without anchor)
She looks like a European.
Seema took an hour to finish her work.
I have a one-rupee note in my pocket.
He has never seen a eucalyptus tree in his life.
The reason for the above exceptions are that words like European and eucalyptus begin with
the phonetic sound similar to ‘y’ and therefore, we say a European, a eucalyptus tree, even
though these words begin with a vowel.
Use of ‘An’
Cut to Anchor3:
We use ‘an’ before a countable noun which is singular and begins with a vowel sound.
An apple an egg an axe
(Show these examples one at a time while the anchor is talking)
Look at the picture of an egg.
Would you like to have an ice cream?
An elephant is a huge animal.
An honest servant is a blessing.
Mr. John is an honourable man.
I read an encyclopaedia in my free time.
Use of ‘The’
Cut to Anchor4:
‘The’ is a definite article. We use ‘the’ before a noun when we are talking about something or
someone in particular. It is important for the other person to know who or what we are talking
Here are some examples- (Show these examples, one at a time, while the anchor says
The street where I live is in central Delhi.
Peter has won the race.
Where is the car?
My mother is laying the table for the guests.
The cow feeds on grass.
The dress you gave me was beautiful!
We also use ‘the’ with superlatives – which is the highest degree of comparison.
Snow White was the fairest of them all.
He is the most intelligent student of the class.
We also use ‘the’ with words like first, last, only, next, etc
Aman is sitting on the last seat.
I am the only child of my parents.
‘The’ is not used with proper nouns. We never say- The Amit is a good boy. However, as an
exception, ‘the’ is used with names of rivers, mountains, holy books, well known buildings,
famous families, etc. Here are some examples- (Show these examples as text on screen
with only anchor’s voice audible)
The Himalayas lie in the north of India.
The Narmada River joins the Arabian Sea.
The Bachhans received a warm welcome in London.
My visit to the Taj Mahal was the most memorable event of my life.
I am learning to play the guitar.
Cut to MM2
The following dialogue takes place between two policemen Inspector Karan and
Inspector Yadav sitting inside a jeep, while they are chasing a car full of thieves.
Inspector Karan- Hurry up, Inspector Yadav. There is a thief in that car.
Inspector Yadav drives faster. Then he takes out his revolver and shoots the car’s driver.
Inspector Karan- Oh no Inspector Yadav! You killed the driver by mistake. What have you done!
Inspector Yadav (looking shocked) – But you said, “There is a thief in that car”. So I thought
there is only one person!
Both together- “Oh no!”
Cut to ANCHOR 4:
PROPER USE OF AN ARTICLE
Dear children, we must note that the use of an article can change the meaning of a sentence!
I saw a black and white cow sleeping under a tree. This indicates only one cow.
I saw a black and a white cow sleeping under a tree. This indicates two cows.
Anil is sitting in the front of the car. This indicates that Anil is sitting in the front seat inside the
Anil is sitting in front of the car. This indicates that Anil is sitting outside the car, near its front.
Summary (Anchor continues)
Let us quickly recapitulate the main points once again-
• A, AN and THE are known as ARTICLES. A and AN are INDEFINITE ARTICLES while
THE is a DEFINITE ARTICLE
• An is used
o Before a vowel sounds (eg – an umbrella, an axe)
o Before a word beginning with a vowel sound, even though it starts with a
consonant sounds(eg – an hour, an honest man, etc)
• The is used
o When a singular noun represents a whole class (eg- The dog is a man’s best
o However in the use of MAN and WOMAN as the whole class, THE is NOT
USED. (eg- Man is the most intelligent of all living creatures)
o To denote a particular person or thing that has already been mentioned. (eg- I
asked the man if he wanted to drink water)
o With superlatives (eg- This is the best song I ever heard!)
o When we refer to classical books. (eg- The Gita, The Bible, etc)
o When we refer to newspapers, magazines etc. (eg- The Tribunes)
o When referring to names of specific geographical bodies (eg- The Ganga, The
Himalayas, The Great Wall of China, etc)
o Before nouns that are unique (eg- the sun, the earth, etc)
o With cardinal numbers (eg- Refer to the first, second and third chapter of this
o With the names of musical instruments. (eg- the Harmonium, the Tabla etc)
• Articles are omitted or not used under certain conditions-
o Before the two common nouns ‘man’ and ‘woman’ when these nouns are used to
represent mankind or womankind as a whole
o Before a proper noun (eg- Mumbai is a big city)
o Before material nouns (eg- Aluminium is a cool metal.)
o Before abstract nouns (eg- Speech is silver but Silence is gold)
o Before languages (eg – Children should speak English in school.)
Question answer Session
Reframe the following sentences by putting the appropriate article at the right place-
Would you like apple?
Ans. Would you like an apple?
Have you seen Principal today?
Ans. Have you seen the Principal today?
Anju is youngest daughter in family.
Ans. Anju is the youngest daughter in the family.
We live in small flat near City Centre.
Ans. We live in a small flat near the City Centre.
My sister is doctor.
Ans. My sister is a doctor.
I must go to bank to get some money.
Ans. I must go to the bank to get some money.
Seema bought newspaper and magazine this morning.
Ans. Seema bought a newspaper and a magazine this morning.
We stayed in expensive hotel in Goa.
Ans. We stayed in an expensive hotel in Goa.
My sister has got job in Florida.
Ans. My sister has got a job in Florida.
What bright day it is!
Ans. What a bright day it is!
Given below are a set of sentences. Which of these do you think are correct- the first or the
1. I have headache.
2. I have a headache.
1. What a shame! He does not obey his parents.
2. What shame! He does not obey his parents.
1. Man is a social animal.
2. The man is social animal.
1. His uncle is florist.
2. His uncle is a florist.
1. I go to the dentist once a month.
2. I go to dentist once a month.
1. Cloth is sold by a meter.
2. The cloth is sold by a meter.
3. Cloth is sold by the meter.
1. Raj is always in hurry.
2. Raj is always in a hurry.
1. English are honest by nature.
2. The English are honest by nature.
1. Can I talk to manager please?
2. Can I talk to the manager please?
1. A man and a woman were sitting in front of me.
2. A man and woman were sitting in front of me.
The following sentences have errors in them. Try to find and correct them.
1. More we get, more we want.
Ans. The more we get, the more we want.
2. Amit is most intelligent student in the class.
Ans. Amit is the most intelligent student in the class.
3. Mr. Iyer is excellent guitar player.
Ans. Mr. Iyer is an excellent guitar player.
4. Ritu has bad cold today.
Ans. Ritu has a bad cold today.
5. This is interesting book from experienced writer.
Ans. This is an interesting book from an experienced writer.
6. Good breakfast will give you energy you need.
Ans. A good breakfast will give you the energy you need.
7. The brave men do not lose the heart even when they do not succeed.
Ans. Brave men do not lose heart even when they do not succeed.
8. Next week we are shifting to the new house.
Ans. Next week we are shifting to a new house.
9. Andaman and Nicobar islands is union territory with the Port Blair as capital.
Ans. Andaman and Nicobar islands is a union territory with Port Blair as the capital.
10. I hate going to a dentist.
Ans. I hate going to the dentist.
Cut to ANCHOR:
Dear children, I hope you are now clear with what articles are, their proper usage, and also the
exceptional cases where articles must be omitted.