Eng modals ix_part ii

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Eng modals ix_part ii

  1. 1. PES/ENG/IX/015 • File for Beta Evaluation. • Mark the portion to be delivered in Punjabi also. • Word count - 1996 A PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY PRODUCTION SUBJECT: ENGLISH CLASS: IX CHAPTER: MODALS PART II INTRODUCTION CUT TO ANCHOR 1 Voice over: Friends, a very good morning to all of you! Today we shall continue with our discussion on Modals. In the last episode I had talked about the meaning of the word Modals and why we need to use them in our day to day communications. In other words we dealt with their learning objectives. I had also discussed about a few modals ( as can, could, will, would, shall and should. The way they are used in different modes, was also discussed with examples. Today, I shall continue my discussion about the remaining modals. But before proceeding further listen to the following dialogue between a Postmaster and a postman. -1-
  2. 2. PES/ENG/IX/015 CUT TO MM1 (Show the images/animation as per the text as per voice over one by one highlighting the underlined words.) Postmaster: Mahesh, you ought to go to deliver this post just now? Postman: I will if I could get somebody’s vehicle. Postmaster: You may take my motor cycle. Postman: Thank you, sir. Postmaster: You must return soon. You need to finish your work in the office. Postman: Sir, I have to deliver more than 15 letters. It may take more than one hour. Postmaster: But you must finish this work as fast as you can. CUT TO ANCHOR 2 (Voice over along with the text on screen highlighting the words written in bold ink) Friends, in the above dialogue that you saw the underlined words express a kind of necessity or obligation for doing an action. They are; may, must, need, ought to, dare, have to, used to. NOTE: -2-
  3. 3. PES/ENG/IX/015 (Screen text as per voice over highlighting the words written in bold ink) Let us recall the important points once again before describing the rest of the modals; 1. Modal auxiliaries cannot be used independently as a principal verb. 2. Modal auxiliaries do not change according to the person or number of the subject. 3. They cannot take the infinitive form ‘to’ i.e. we cannot make such uses as to will, to can, to may, to must etc. 4. We cannot add –ing to a modal auxiliary. 5. Modal auxiliaries take only the root form of the verb. CUT TO ANCHOR 3 (Show images as per screen text and Voice Over one by one highlighting the words written in bold ink.) Let us take up the following Modals one by one; may, must, need, ought to, dare, have to, used to. 1. MAY May as a Principal verb is used to indicate permission (Seeking/granting), to express a wish/prayer, to denote uncertainty, purpose, possibility. -3-
  4. 4. PES/ENG/IX/015 (Show images as per screen text and Voice Over highlighting the words written in bold ink.) EXAMPLES: • May God help you! (‘Prayer’) • May your father recover soon from his illness? (Expressing ‘wish’) • You may go out to watch a movie with your friends.(‘granting permission’) • May I use your cell phone? (‘seeking permission’) • Shruti, my friend may come to my house tomorrow. (showing ‘possibility’) • Kamla may win the first prize. (‘possibility’) • We eat so that we may live. (‘purpose’) 2. MIGHT ‘Might’ is the past form of the auxiliary ‘may’. As a modal ‘might’ expresses--- purpose, possibility, permission, and future condition. EXAMPLES: Show images as per screen text and Voice Over highlighting the words written in bold ink.) • They died that we might live. (‘purpose’) • He worked hard so that he might win a scholarship. -4-
  5. 5. PES/ENG/IX/015 (‘purpose’) • Mr. Gupta might have gone on a tour. (‘possibility’) • I hoped that he might admit his mistake. (But he did not) • If I get leave from office, I might attend my cousin’s marriage. (‘Future condition’) 3. MUST Voice over: The auxiliary is used to express necessity, obligation, likelihood, inevitability. EXAMPLES: (Show images as per screen text and Voice Over highlighting the words written in bold ink.) • We must not tell lies. (‘strong moral obligation’) • Soldiers must obey orders without question. (-do-) • A judge must be upright in his decisions. (‘duty’) • Ruchi must have reached home by now. (‘certainty’) • We must all die. (‘inevitability’) CUT TO ANCHOR4 4. OUGHT TO Voice over: -5-
  6. 6. PES/ENG/IX/015 This modal auxiliary is used to express desirability, moral obligation and duty. Ought is a defective verb. It can take present/future time. It takes an infinitive as object. EXAMPLES: (Show images as per screen text and Voice Over one by one highlighting the words written in bold ink.) • We ought to maintain silence in the library. • If he wants to succeed, he ought to work hard. • We ought to obey our parents. • You ought to score better marks in Board’s exams. • Ought we to go to attend Rajat’s wedding? Yes, we ought to. NOTE 1: Voice over ‘Ought to have’ with a past participle is used to show a past obligation that was not fulfilled or carried out. Examples: • You ought to have helped her in the hour of her need. (But you did not) • She ought to have obeyed her husband. (It was her duty to obey her husband.) NOTE 2: Voice over Sometimes ‘ought to have’ takes negative form to indicate disapproval of something that was done in the past. -6-
  7. 7. PES/ENG/IX/015 For example; • Geeta ought not to have laughed at her sister’s mistakes. • He ought not to have disrespected his country’s national flag. 5. NEED Voice over: Need is used to indicate ‘necessity’ and ‘obligation’. EXAMPLES: (Show images as per screen text and Voice Over one by one highlighting the words written in bold ink.) • You need not answer all the questions. • He need not go to the park with his friends. • Need she apologize to him? • You need not consult anyone in this matter. Voice over: NOTE: You must have observed that ‘need’ as a model takes ‘negative’ and ‘interrogative’ forms of sentences and not the assertive form. 6. USED TO Voice over: The modal ‘used to’ indicates habitual/repeated action in the past, not accustomed to and to show permanent state in the past. -7-
  8. 8. PES/ENG/IX/015 EXAMPLES: (Show images as per screen text and Voice Over highlighting the words written in bold ink.) • My grandfather used to exercise daily when he was young. (Was in the habit of) • I used to participate in all the cultural activities of my school. (Repeated action in the past) • As they were not used to live in a humid climate, they fell ill. (Not accustomed to) • There used to be a cinema house at this spot before the World War II. (Indicating ‘permanent state’) • I am not used to walking long distances. (not accustomed to) • Reshu used to visit the temple every Sunday. CUT TO ANCHOR5 7. HAVE TO/ HAD TO Voice over: The model expresses necessity/ obligation in the present tense as well as in the past tense. In the present tense ‘have to’ is used where as in the past tense we use ‘had to’. EXAMPLES: (Show images as per screen text and Voice Over one by one highlighting the words written in bold ink.) -8-
  9. 9. PES/ENG/IX/015 • She has to cook meals for the family everyday. (‘necessity’) • They have to play accurate to score a win. • I have to reach office at 9.00 a.m. tomorrow instead of ten. • We had to support him to win the elections. (Past form of ‘have to’) 8. DARE Voice over: ‘Dare’ as a modal is used in the present tense as well as in the past tense to show courage, to throw a challenge and in interrogative sentences. EXAMPLES: (Show images as per screen text and Voice Over one by one highlighting the words written in bold ink.) • He dare not oppose us. • The teacher dare not punish the child. (‘challenge’) • How dare you ride a bicycle without brakes? (‘interrogative’) • They dared not say such a thing again. (‘past tense’) Before we come to the end of this episode,I am sure you would like to try out this game on the use of ‘Modals’. It is based on the use of ‘ could be,’’may be,’ can’t be’,’ought to’,has to’, -9-
  10. 10. PES/ENG/IX/015 Voice over: You don’t have to worry about me telling you what you should do or how you could/may/might deal with modals. This activity is one of my favorites for teaching or revising modal verb ,and you must try it. Choose ten small objects at home and put each one in a paper bag with a number. Students will have to guess what the objects are by only reaching in and touching them. Some of these objects should be easily identifiable – a pencil or a paperclip – but others should be harder or even misleading – a packet of Maggi Noodles; a DVD for a CD;A credit card for a library card etc. Students reach in the bags one by one, and in pairs write down what they think the object is. They pass the bags around for about five minutes. Don’t give them too long and don’t let them cheat by looking! When they finish, write their possible answers on the board, allowing for some natural discussion. Still without revealing what each object is (because this is to practice modals in the present), you can discuss this: the CD – it could/may/might be a CD, or it could/may/might be a DVD: it’s hard to tell just by touching it. But for the library card…it could/may/might be a library card, a video rental card, or an ID card…do they think it is a credit card? No, the students should say, that’s impossible, they can’t feel the bumps that would be the numbers or name which are usually indented. Aha, you say, so it can’t be a credit card. So it “can’t be” a credit card and it “must be” an Identity card. If the language is new, this is a good context so students can start with the meaning (I’m not sure what this is, or I feel certain about this even though I can’t see it to verify it) and then go to the form (It may/might/could be a … or It must be a…). Obviously you have to choose the right objects for this to be challenging and interesting, so plan in advance. You can adapt it to higher levels by making them draw conclusions about the past (Number 7 could have been a comb…), or you can use it as revision for either past or present by asking students to discuss in pairs what the objects are, using modal verbs. Also obviously, there are ways to do this activity without using modal verbs at all, so you do have to point out to your students that this is one of the goals and they should use them. - 10 -
  11. 11. PES/ENG/IX/015 You must try playing this guessing game, using the modals, taught in the class. I am sure you will like it and enjoy playing it! Friends, now we have come to the end of today’s episode. Here I would like to make one point clear to you. Most of the modals that we have discussed today express the ‘necessity’, ‘obligation’ or ‘moral duty’ on the part of the subject. Thus, we can use one or the other modal depending on the purpose of the action. I am sure; you must have got a clear picture about the various ways in which we can make use of these modals. Now when you are in the class, you will face them confidently. THANK YOU AND HAVE A GOOD DAY!! This script has been reviewed by - ------------------------------- Signature - ---------------------------------------------------- Date - ---------------------------------------------------- - 11 -
  12. 12. PES/ENG/IX/015 - 12 -

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