Imperialism

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Imperialism

  1. 1. SOUTH ASIA COLONIALISM, NATIONALISM, INDEPENDENCE, AND VIOLENCE
  2. 2. Background to British rule <ul><li>The Mughals invaded India and established a dynasty. (1526) </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim Mughal rulers began to persecute Hindus (1630s) . Hindus resisted Muslim rule and the empire began to crumble. </li></ul><ul><li>Maharajas (princes) broke away and formed independent states. </li></ul><ul><li>The East India Company traded with the princely states of the maharajas . (1600-1850s) </li></ul>White areas represent independent princely states ruled by maharajas.
  3. 3. The East India Company Gained Influence <ul><li>British East India Company merchants traded with the maharajas and the company became powerful in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Maharajas got rich through trade with the East India Company. </li></ul><ul><li>The British government let the East India Company run affairs in India. </li></ul><ul><li>The Company hired and trained Indian soldiers called Sepoys to work for them. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Sepoy Mutiny <ul><li>British East India Company ignored Hindu and Muslim religious beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sepoys’ cartridges were greased with beef and pork fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Full-scale rebellion broke out in 1857. </li></ul><ul><li>Maharajas supported East India Company. </li></ul>
  5. 5. British Government Takes Full Control <ul><li>British defeated the sepoys. </li></ul><ul><li>India became a colony, ruled directly by a British viceroy. Princely states remain independent. </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Victoria became empress of India. (1877) </li></ul><ul><li>British built railroads to carry raw materials to the coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Indians received British education, but are treated as second-class citizens. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nationalist Movements Grow
  7. 7. Gandhi Leads Nonviolent Resistance <ul><li>Hindu religious leader, British educated </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mahatma” (Great Soul) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil disobedience (disobeying an unjust law to protest it) </li></ul><ul><li>Passive resistance (refusing to cooperate, but without violence) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Muhammad Ali Jinnah Led the Muslim League <ul><li>At first, Jinnah cooperated with Indian National Congress to work for independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Later he demanded an independent Muslim state. </li></ul>
  9. 9. India Became Independent <ul><li>After World War II, the British gave up their claims to India and granted independence. (1947) </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than one unified Indian nation, two nations were created: a Hindu nation of India, and a Muslim nation of Pakistan. </li></ul>India’s National Flag Pakistan’s National Flag
  10. 10. Migration and Massacres <ul><li>Hindus in Pakistan began moving to India. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims in India began moving to Pakistan. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence broke out in cities; groups of emigrants attacked one another; hundreds of thousands of people were killed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. National Boundaries <ul><li>At first, Pakistan included both gray areas on the map: West Pakistan (today’s Pakistan) and East Pakistan (which today is Bangladesh). </li></ul><ul><li>India later helped the people of Bangladesh fight to gain independence from Pakistan. (1971) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Violence Continues... <ul><li>India and Pakistan continue fighting over territory they both claim in Kashmir . </li></ul><ul><li>Both countries possess nuclear weapons to defend against each other. </li></ul>

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