The enlightenment


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The enlightenment

  1. 1. The Enlightenment<br />Modern European History and World History: Patterns of Interaction<br />
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  3. 3. The Important Timeline of the Enlightenment<br />1690 John Locke publishes the Essay Concerning Human Understanding and The Second Treatise of Government<br />1748 Montesquieu publishes The Spirit of the Laws<br />1751-1772 28 volumes of the Encyclopedia are published<br />1759 Voltaire publishes Candide<br />1762 Rousseau published Emile and the Social Contract<br />
  4. 4. The Important Timeline of the Enlightenment<br />1764- CesareBeccaria publishes the Essay on Crimes and Punishments.<br />1776- Adam Smith publishes the Wealth of Nations<br />1795 Condorcet’s Progress of the Human Mind is published<br />
  5. 5. The Enlightenment<br />Also known as the Age of Reason<br />Dominant intellectual movement of the 18th century<br />The achievements of the Scientific Revolution (the ability of the human mind to penetrate the secrets of the physical universe) influenced the birth of this period.<br />Philosophers admired Newton because he had used reason to explain the laws governing nature.<br />
  6. 6. Scientific Rev and Enlightenment<br />The difference between Scientific Revolution movers and the Enlightenment thinkers:<br />The former used their intellectual powers to discover the natural laws that governed the operation of the physical universe. (Newton’s 3 laws of motion, Rene Descarte’scogito, ergo sum and Discourse Method 1637.<br />The latter sought through reasoning to discover the natural laws that governed the affairs of human beings and human society.<br />
  7. 7. Major Criticisms from the Enlightenment Thinkers<br />The existing institutions of absolute monarchy.<br />Proposed a broad range of reforms designed to eliminate abuses and to promote individual freedom.<br />What is absolute monarchy?<br />
  8. 8. Absolute Monarchy<br />Absolute monarchs believed that all power within their state rested in their hands.<br />GOAL: To control every aspect of society.<br />Absolute monarchs believed in the “divine right”<br />Monarchy was created by God and that the head of the monarchy acted as God’s representative on earth.<br />Philip II and Louis XIV<br />
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  11. 11. Assignment<br />Give me 5 examples of clothing that were used to convey or express power/authority.<br />½ crosswise<br />
  12. 12. Two Views on Government<br />Thomas Hobbes’s Social Contract and John Locke’s Natural Rights<br />Both Hobbes and Locke experienced political turmoil of England early in the 1600s. <br />Tell me if their conclusions about government and human nature differ from one another. If so, in what extent?<br />
  13. 13. Hobbes’s Social Contract <br />Leviathan (1651), Hobbes wrote of his horrors of the English Civil Way and began to conlude the following:<br />Humans were naturally selfish and wicked.<br />Without government to keep order, there would be “war of every man against every man.”<br />Hobbe’s suggestion therefore is to escape such bleak life by giving up their rights to a strong leader. In exchange, they could gain law and order. <br />
  14. 14. To Hobbes, the best government was one that had the “awesome” power of a sea monster (leviathan). Such government was an absolute monarchy which could impose order and demand.<br />
  15. 15. John Locke and Natural Rights<br />Held a more positive view of human nature.<br />Believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves.<br />He also believed that people had the natural ability to govern their own affairs and to look after the welfare of society. <br />He criticized absolute monarchy and favored the idea of self-government.<br />
  16. 16. John Locke<br />Argument: All people are born free and equal with three natural rights:<br />LIFE<br />LIBERTY<br />PROPERTY<br />
  17. 17. John Locke<br />Sees the government to have the main purpose of protecting these rights.<br />OLD IDEA: A monarch’s rule is justified by divine right.<br />NEW IDEA: A government’s power comes from the consent of the people (governed).<br />
  18. 18. Philosophes<br />Enlightenment reached its height in France in 1700s.<br />Paris – became the meeting place for people who wanted to discuss politics and ideas.<br />Philosophes- social critics of this period in France.<br />BELIEF: They could apply reason to all aspects of life.<br />
  19. 19. FIVE IMPORTANT CONCEPTS THAT WERE FUNDAMENTALS OF THEIR PHILOSOPHY<br />REASON<br />Absence of intolerance, bigotry, prejudice.<br />Truth be discovered through reason/ logical thinking.<br />NATURE<br />Referred to nature frequently<br />What was natural was also good and reasonable.<br />HAPPINESS<br />Believed that a person who lived by nature’s laws would find happiness.<br />Possible to find well-being on earth.<br />PROGRESS<br />Society and mankind could be perfected.<br />LIBERTY<br />Through reason all things could be set free.<br />