Krakatau

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Krakatau

  1. 1. Krakatau Volcano
  2. 2. Krakatau volcano is best known for its catastrophic 1883 eruption which resulted in at least 36000 deaths, primarily due to the resulting massive tsunamis inundating the surrounding coastlines. The eruption reshaped Krakatau, destroying most of the pre-1883 edifice.
  3. 3. Krakatau is located in the shallow waters of the Sunda Strait over a brittle zone in the lithosphere, where a NNE trending volcanic fault zone meets a fracture zone running in a NNW-SSE direction along which all historical volcanism at Krakatau has taken place.
  4. 4. The Sunda Strait is seismically and tectonically active and marks a transition zone between the Sumatra and Java fault zones which are both associated with subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate under the South East Asian Plate upon which Krakatau is located.
  5. 5. Krakatau is an unusual stratovolcano which appears to cycle through basaltic, basic andesitic, acidic andesitic and dacitic phases. Each of these cycles is thought to culminate in a massive destructive dacitic eruption before the cycle recommences at the basaltic stage.
  6. 6. Before the 1883 eruption , lots of seismic energy could be felt, with some earthquakes felt as far as Australia. Eventually eruptions of ash started and explosions occurred regularly , but then activity died down at the end of May . On the 16th of June , activity came back with more explosions and ashes covered the skies for 5 days and earthquake shocks could be felt again.
  7. 7. By August 26th conditions were severe, with heavy ash fall and small tsunamis. On the 27th there was an explosion that could be felt and heard 3,000 miles away. The explosion was followed by a tsunami told to be at least 30 meters high. This explosion was roughly 4 times as strong as the Tsar Bomba the most powerful thermonuclear weapon detonated by man, and the explosion was equivalent to 200 megatons of TNT.
  8. 8. After 1883 eruption:

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