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Avouris imcl2014


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Keynote talk at Interactive Communication Technologies and Learning IMCL 2014, Thessaloniki November 2014.

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Avouris imcl2014

  1. 1. 1 Designing Mobile Learning Activities in Museums and Sites of Culture Nikolaos Avouris [Univ. Patras, GR]
  2. 2. 2 Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki, photo Thessaloniki, the castles (photo museums sites of culture
  3. 3. 3 Sites of informal learning - How is learning supported in such settings? - How cultural institutions may support their mission with use of technology?
  4. 4. 4 Existing practices for digital learning in museums N.Nikonanou and A. Bounia, Digital Applications in Museums: An analysis from a Museum Education Perspective (2014) In a survey of major educational programs in Greek museums, it was found that … most digital applications seem to reinforce the model of passive reception, where museum provides cultural content and the user is expected to accept and internalize the knowledge. Multiple interpretations, individual meaning making, encouragement of alternative ideas, social interaction are not encouraged or supported.
  5. 5. 5 Learning in Museums - Learning does not take place through words in the “shadow of objects” (like in schools) but through objects (experiential approach) - Active participation in meaning making, knowledge needs to be constructed by the learner (constructivist approach) - Learning as Social experience (learning from each other)
  6. 6. 6 Games in Museums • Games are effective ways to learn in an informal way both for young visitors and for adults • Proliferation of game culture in modern societies (ludic society) [ D. Norman,The Future of Education: Lessons Learned fromVideo Games and Museum Exhibits,, 2001 ]
  7. 7. 7 The audience: living in a ludic century E. Zimmerman: Manifesto for a Ludic 21st Century
  8. 8. 8 Bridge between “High” and “popular” culture • Young generations are attracted by “popular” cultures, like the game culture • However there is a distance of young generations from “high culture”, e.g. the official cultural institutions, monuments, heritage * • This gap may be bridged by mobile games with learning potential * EC.Access ofYoung People to Culture, Final Report EACEA/2008/01
  9. 9. 9 Games as interactive exhibits Images: LondonSciMuseum-2for-web.jpg A quiz discussion table at the London Science Museum D. Norman,The Future of Education: Lessons Learned from Video Games and Museum Exhibits,, 2001 Play the orchestra conductor at Mozart’s house inVienna
  10. 10. 10 Location-based mobile games
  11. 11. 11 Location-based mobile games: moving about in the site • Multiplayer games that take place in an extensive space.The action is affected by the players’ location.The game involves embedding location specific and contextual information in physical spaces, so to create an interlinked physical and digital space .This is achieved through the use of mobile devices, wireless and sensing technologies. • Alternative terms used are hybrid reality games (emphasis in the interlinking of physical and digital realities), augmented reality games, or pervasive games (emphasis on the extension of game in temporal, spatial and social dimensions).
  12. 12. 12 Hybrid game spaces Physical space Game space
  13. 13. 13 Hybrid game spaces Physical space Game space Virtual (Digital) space
  14. 14. 14 • QR codes/ NFC scanning • Image recognition • Gestures • Location-based instructions encoding Intra-spaces connections
  15. 15. 15 Intra-spaces connections NFC (Near Field Communication) Source: Google Goggles at the Getty Museum (Youtube) QR codes Image recognition
  16. 16. 16 Scan an image Invaders Zone usingVuforia framework Gesture-based interaction Source: Rexplorer(Youtube) Intra-spaces connections
  17. 17. 17 Location-based instructions encoding for progressing narration Ruyi from whaiwhai Intra-spaces connections
  18. 18. 18 Primitive player actions The players - through a mobile device - perform actions (selection of an item, reply to a quiz, etc.) that affect the state of the game. The context of actions in game & physical space, and the player identity, give meaning to the actions. e.g. proximity of two players may allow some possible interactions between them, based on the fact that they belong to the same or competing teams.
  19. 19. 19 Examples of actions meaning • Collecting a piece of information • Unlocking next part of a story • Receiving further instructions • Replying to a question (part of a puzzle ) • Linking objects (action as part of a sequence) • Transporting “virtual objects” between positions (action as part of a sequence) • Modifying the state of an object, i.e. locking or unlocking it
  20. 20. 20 Location-based mobile games examples MuseumScrabble BenakiMS CityScrabble Invisible City Invaders Zone
  21. 21. 21 MuseumScrabble
  22. 22. 22 MuseumScrabble link exhibits to themes/concepts
  23. 23. 23 MuseumScrabble Hints Links (exhibit description)
  24. 24. 24 MuseumScrabble Design rationale MuseumScrabble is based on the idea of the popular Scrabble word game. In Scrabble, the aim is to arrange tiles (letters) in meaningful sequences (words). In MuseumScrabble, the letters have been replaced by exhibits to by arranged in topics.They can be linked using hints.
  25. 25. 25 From a board game to location-based game • A topic is a concept or field of knowledge or category, related to parts of the museum collection or the themes of the museum. Examples are geography, feminism, religion, art etc. • Each topic contains several hints. A hint is a short sentence that can be applied to exhibits in the museum related to the topic. • The challenge to the players is to link an exhibit to a relevant topic by discovering which exhibit fits the particular topic-hint pair in a meaningful way. Evaluation of MuseumScrabble: [Sintoris et al. 2010]
  26. 26. 26 Playing MuseumScrabble: findings • The game was designed with a top-down strategy in mind, where the players pursue their goal by selecting a topic, searching for objects of interest, creating links and so on. • However, some of the players switched to bottom-up strategies, first scanning an object and then flipping through the topics searching for a hint that can be used in a meaningful link. Based on Sintoris et al. 2012, evaluation of MuseumScrabble
  27. 27. 27 MuseumScrabble: factual information- disconnected objects Exhibits as cut out letters (Yiannoutsou et al, 2012)
  28. 28. 28 Visual vs cognitive hints: preference to visual hints that were consumed faster in the first part of the game Preference for visual keys
  29. 29. 29 Invisible City: Rebels vs Spies
  30. 30. 30 Invisible City: Rebels vs Spies (RvS) Inspired by: Mafia game, aka Night in Palermo,Werewolves... a social game of trust, deception, observation and performance
  31. 31. 31 tasks and game activity are spread in the city Expanding the concept Invisible City: Rebels vs Spies (RvS)
  32. 32. 32 A leader is selected, then the leader assigns missions to the players and becomes a normal player. Some missions are critical, some are not. If a critical mission fails, the round goes to the spies Invisible City: Rebels vs Spies (RvS)
  33. 33. 33 Spatial expansion From the room →To the city Locations are spread out Players cannot observe each other Backstory for the action (rebels, spies) Situated play and contextual knowledge Incorporate historical (factual) information Engagement through physical involvement Integrate a coherent narrative Expanding the concept Invisible City
  34. 34. 34 [ Extract 1 ] R. Did you learn something about the city that you didn’t know before playing the game? A:We didn’t know any of it…. it was all new. S:Yes, everything was new …. M: …. we walk every day by these sites but we had no idea of all these things about them Invisible city findings: Familiar places seen through a new perspective
  35. 35. 35 [ Extract 2 ] R: So, what would you say that you learned? S.That the church of Pantocratoras was an ancient temple before. M: I was impressed with the information about the Mayor (information about an ex Mayor during the period 1949-1967) Invisible city findings: The historic layer
  36. 36. 36 [ Extract 3 ] R: Do you think that the game would be useful for a visitor who doesn’t know the city? A:The game is not about “getting to know” the city, it is about “discovering the city”. The game is not designed for a visitor who wants to learn the main sites of this city are.The questions are about discovering the invisible city- things that were hidden and not obvious when you look at the buildings for example. Invisible city findings: Visitors vs locals learning
  37. 37. 37 Invisible city findings: Selective attention [ Extract 4 ] R: Did you have the chance to look around when you were playing? K: I knew the surroundings more or less. …. Engaged in the game activity, they missed the no-game related activity
  38. 38. 38 Invisible city findings: Fragmented experience • More interesting were the meeting points where all players gathered than executing the tasks when learning about the city takes place. • Tasks interrupted by city events • Tiring experience
  39. 39. 39 Taggling
  40. 40. 40 Mobile Learning in a Museum: at the Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art (MMCA) Hands on experience This afternoon at 7:00 pm Taggling
  41. 41. 41 Taggling Players are given sets of tags that need to untangle by placing them to the corresponding artwork
  42. 42. 42 Taggling Action: tags attached and moved between exhibits
  43. 43. 43 Taggling Guided group discussion on the tags- exhibits relations Exploring these relations, rediscovering art
  44. 44. 44 On designing mobile games
  45. 45. 45 Designing for-with culture sites • Design in respect to the organization. Technology embedded smoothly to the ecology • Design for engaging the users, or viewing the exhibits vs “playing with them” • Design for unobtrusive presence. Not to isolate the visitors. • Design for enriching interaction between the museum end the user • Design for collaboration between users
  46. 46. 46 Viewing vs Playing : situating exhibits in the context of a game The difference between viewing and playing with the exhibits would be something like learning geometry for knowing it or learning geometry because you need it to construct something (Papert 1993). Yiannoutsou et al. “Playing with” vs “Viewing” museum exhibits: designing educational game-like activities mediated by mobile technology (2009)
  47. 47. 47 Design decisions • Types and strength of links physical-to-digital i.e. One to many, Paths: A is linked to B, then to C etc,Thematic lists: linking concepts to objects • Content: selection themes and objects – Selecting the places of the site that will become part of the game – analyzing them according to the structure of the game and the site narrative • Rules: how you win points, what to do next, when do you win (score) • Events (surprise elements, dangerous zones etc)
  48. 48. 48 Design guidelines
  49. 49. 49 Collaborative study of U.Patras and U.Bari 2010-2011 (networkTwinTide) • Followed a ‘case study methodology’ of analysis of published papers of 3 mobile games • Identified game design issues (317 issues) • Through focus group analysis the issues were reduced to 94 related to design of location- based games and learning • Card sorting techniques for grouping the issues in 5 design dimensions
  50. 50. 50 Design Dimensions (Ardito et al. 2011) • Game General Design, which refers to issues related to the overall game design process; • Control/Flexibility, which is a basic dimension of system usability, that with respect to the games considered in this paper, also refers to helping players to be aware of the effects of their choices on the game execution; • Engagement, which informs on how to provide an experience that captivates the players, by providing hints on how to structure the game, which tools to adopt, etc.; • Educational Aspects, which informs on interweaving of learning content into the game context, so that the game can have a valid learning influence on the players; • Social Aspects, which concerns the interaction among the players, role allocation etc. (the underlying assumption is that social activity, e.g. competition, can act as a motivational factor).
  51. 51. 51 4.1 Design guidelines / educational aspects Consider to include a pre-game activity to prepare players (e.g. some lessons in classroom explaining the historical context in which the game is set)
  52. 52. 52 4.2 Game should emphasize either vertical or horizontal exploration of a place/topic, i.e., deeply exploring a limited space (or few objects or a specific topic) vs. more superficially exploring a broad space (or many objects or several topics)
  53. 53. 53 Balance between competition and knowledge acquisition. Too much competition may have a negative impact on knowledge acquisition 4.4
  54. 54. 54 Include a debriefing phase after the game to allow players to reflect on the game experience. Design it as an individual/ collaborative game/activity that supports players to clarify and consolidate the game experience 4.5
  55. 55. 55 Open Design Patterns An open repository of design knowledge for location-based games Similar to: Pervasive Games Design Patterns Davidsson, Peitz, & Björk, 2004, Björk &Peitz, 2007 Game Ontology Project (Hochhalter, Lichti, & Zagal, 2005)
  56. 56. 56 Pompeii Game DesignWorkshop • The task is to design a game for the archaeological site of Pompeii, given design material and a design framework • Objective is to observe design activity of different design groups and deduce common design patterns for this class of games
  57. 57. 57 The Pompeii DesignWorkshop
  58. 58. 58 Pompeii Design Workshop: theWorksheet The objective What is the aim of the game? What will you explain to the players that they have to do? How will the player know about success? The rules What are the basic rules? How are they guide the game to the end? Are there roles? Is there a narrative? Use of tools & technology How will the mobile will be used? As information screens, communication, barcode scanners, GPS, maps, radar, compass, flashlight...? Mechanisms How are the rules enforced? How is the game paced? Is there immersion in the atmosphere of the game?What about player communication? Awareness of the actions of the other players? Competion? Cooperation? Deception? Location and real-world objects How are they involved in the game? How are the players interacting with them? Behaviors and aesthetic result How do you expect the game to evolve over time? How will the players feel playing it?
  59. 59. 59 32 game designs were produced in 6 workshops in 4 different countries Zakynthos, GR : Summer School onTechnologies for Cultural Heritage
  60. 60. 60 Design workshops Pecs, HU, Erasmus IP on cultural heritage management
  61. 61. 61 Using design patterns • Using it as a checklist • Getting new ideas • Refining an initial idea • Checking old solutions to new problems • Relating structure of the game to game elements
  62. 62. 62 Participatory design
  63. 63. 63 Players as Designers • Contributing content • Modifying game elements • Using existing design patterns –Previous design knowledge is re-used in new design problems
  64. 64. 64 Learning through participation in design • Active –constructive learning (users: co- creators of new ideas, knowledge and products, public meta-artifacts) • Rich learning opportunities: analysis and synthesis around the city space and the spatial content that is going to be integrated in the game • Ownership of information
  65. 65. 65 Support for participation in game design Sintoris, et al. 2014 (e.g. a school teacher can design a specific version of the game for a school visit)
  66. 66. 66 TaggingCreaditor: a tool to edit content for location-based games Physical space Virtual space
  67. 67. 67 Name: Retort house (D6) Information: Black coal was carried here by stokers in order to be overheated and generate gas.The procedure lasted approximately 5 hours and the black coal was heated in a temperature of about 1000 °C. Radius: 10m.
  68. 68. 68 Reflection
  69. 69. 69 Location based Games mostly focus on factual information → games as vehicles for transferring new information to the players. Yet searching for this information in an intriguing, engaging and pleasant activity.
  70. 70. 70 In the context of this type of games exhibits or buildings are often treated as a bunch of disconnected and de-contextualized things
  71. 71. 71 Game vs Fun: Players observed that the needed attention on the place and on factual information is “the price they had to pay” in order for the fun to continue
  72. 72. 72 However information is all there is to learn about a site? e.g. Embodied experience Location narrative
  73. 73. 73 thank you Designing Mobile Learning Activities in Museums and Sites of Culture [N. Avouris]