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Provincial architecture

Provincial architecture , Bijapur architecture , Gol Gumbaz , Malwa region , Bengal architecture , Gujrat architecture, Jaunpur, Atala Masjid, Char Minar , Ibrahim Roza

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Provincial architecture

  1. 1. Evolution of Indo-Islamic Architecture Various styles - Sultanate, Provincial and Mughal ARL 2204 HISTORY OF BUILT ENVIRONMENTS -IV B. Arch 4th Semester (Jan- Aug 2015)
  2. 2. UNIT-I •Development of Medieval European Towns. Architectural and urban elements and their interrelationship. •Characteristics of the Gothic Cathedral. Changes in functional, visual and structural elements as compared to Romanesque period. Case examples. •Comparison of Gothic Churches in France and England. UNIT-II •Introduction of Islam in India. New building types, structural and ornamentation systems. Significance of civic architecture. •Evolution of Indo-Islamic Architecture. Various styles - Sultanate, Provincial (Jaunpur, Bengal, Malwa, Bijapur, Gujrat) and Mughal. Role of socio-political, economic, geographic and technological factors in shaping their structural and stylistic characteristics. Significant examples to trace development of the Tomb and the Mosque in each case. UNIT-III •Civic Architecture in Medieval India. Responsiveness to climatic and other locational factors. Examples of individual structures (such as Hauz Khas, Jahaj Mahal), Mughal Palaces (Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri, Shahjahanabad Fort), Rajput Forts( Orchha, Datia). •Town of Medieval India - Jaisalmer, Shahjahanabad and Jaipur Overview of the entire course to be covered during the semester
  3. 3. Provincial Style of Architecture  The Provincial (belonging to some particular province; local) Style of Architecture encompasses the architectural trends and developments noticed in different provincial capitals in India, but specifically in:  Punjab (1150-1325 AD),  Bengal (1203-1573 AD),  Gujarat (1300-1572 AD),  Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD),  Malwa (1405-1569 AD),  Deccan (1347-1617 AD),  Bijapur (1490-1656 AD),  Khandesh (1425-1650 AD) and  Kashmir (1410 onwards). In syllabus In syllabus
  4. 4. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bengal ( 1203-1573 AD) In the thirteenth century Arabs invaded the Bengal province and introduced their architecture for the first time in this region. These Muslim rulers constructed several new cities fortresses, palaces, free-standing victory-towers, citadels, immense land bridges and embankments, etc in this province that included present day Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. These architectures were maintained for a period of two hundred and fifty years. They created the buildings with the locally available building materials combining the regional styles with the typical Muslim features such as domes, arches, the minaret and the mihrab. This amalgamation resulted into a new and improved technique named as Indo-Islamic architecture, enriched with regional building tradition in Bengal
  5. 5. Provincial Style of Architecture – Gujarat (1300-1572 AD) Early in the fourteenth century, Gujarat developed the Islamic style of architecture. When Khalji dynasty of Delhi established their Governors in this province, they started to build their architectures for the first time. They constructed and developed their Islamic architecture until the independent rule of the Ahmad Shahi dynasty declined, and absorbed into the empire of the Mughals in the sixteenth century. They constructed their several mosques, tombs and other buildings with the amalgamation of Hindu culture
  6. 6. Important structures: JAMI MASJID – AHMEDABAD Provincial Style of Architecture – Gujarat (1300-1572 AD)
  7. 7. Provincial Style of Architecture – Gujarat (1300-1572 AD)
  8. 8. Provincial Style of Architecture – Gujarat (1300-1572 AD)
  9. 9. Provincial Style of Architecture – Gujarat (1300-1572 AD)
  10. 10. Important structures: JAMI MASJID – CHAMPANIR Provincial Style of Architecture – Gujarat (1300-1572 AD)
  11. 11. • Built with the Jami Masjid at Ahmedabad as model except on a smaller scale and a few differences. • The entire structure is a rectangle of 270' X 180'. A bit less than half the space is taken up by the sanctuary. Cloisters The courtyard is surrounded by a range of arched cloisters, one aisle deep. • An imposing entrance pavilion projects from the centre of each of the north, south and east cloisters. The eastern pavilion is a fine example of architecture in itself. • A series of moulded buttresses along the exterior of the qibla wall along with traceried openings at close intervals along the entire periphery makes the exterior of the mosque attractive as well. Provincial Style of Architecture – Gujarat (1300-1572 AD)
  12. 12. Provincial Style of Architecture – Gujarat (1300-1572 AD)
  13. 13. Provincial Style of Architecture – Gujarat (1300-1572 AD)
  14. 14. Provincial Style of Architecture – Gujarat (1300-1572 AD)
  15. 15. Provincial Style of Architecture – Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD) • The Governor of Jaunpur, an eastern province of the sultanate was given the title 'Malik-ush-Sharq' (King of the East) by the Tughlaq monarch in Delhi. Hence, the dynasty was called the Sharqi dynasty. • Under the Sharqi monarchs, Jaunpur became an important centre of Islamic art, architecture and learning, a university town known as 'Shiraz-i-Hind' after the city of Shiraz in Iran. • Most of the structures of the style were destroyed when Sikander Lodi of Delhi reconquered Jaunpur, leaving only 5 mosques.
  16. 16. Important structures: ATALA MASJID • The Atala Masjid stands on the site of a Hindu temple of Atala Devi. It was built in 1408 by Sultan Ibrahim (1401- 1440), Sharqi Sultan of Jaunpur on foundations laid during the reign of Tughluqid Sultan Firuz Shah III • A large number of its pillars, brackets, lintels and flat ceilings were extracted from Hindu monuments. • The mosque complex consists of a long rectangular prayer hall that opens onto a large square courtyard to the west. • The courtyard is enveloped by a two-story veranda on the exterior that are used by merchants and visitors. • It is entered from three domed gates facing north, east and west • Inside, the courtyard is enveloped by a three-bay deep double-story colonnade on three sides. The screened upper story was most likely reserved for women AExterior around the East entrance BCentral iwan CPrayer room-Facade- DSouth wing EDomed Chamber FNorth wing Provincial Style of Architecture – Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD)
  17. 17. • The mosque occupies the western side of the courtyard; its facade is marked by an imposing central portal -- close to twenty-three meters tall -- flanked by secondary portals. • Its plan is centered around a tall domed sanctuary behind the central portal, with two long three- bay deep galleries to the north and south. • The dome of the main sanctuary is carried on squinches. Although it is raised on an octagonal drum, it is still not visible from the courtyard due to the imposing height of the entry liwan, a distinctive element of Jaunpuri architecture. • Inside the sanctuary is stone mihrab niche with a ribbed semi-dome, flanked by the stone minbar. The decoration consists mainly of carved floral patterns. • The gallery wings have two-floors and are centered around domed rooms with a mihrab and courtyard entrance. • Their flat ceilings are supported on twin columns and beams resting on brackets. The three domed rooms of the prayer hall project beyond the qibla wall, with tapering turrets bracing their corners in the manner of Delhi's Tughluqid architecture. Provincial Style of Architecture – Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD)
  18. 18. Provincial Style of Architecture – Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD)
  19. 19. Provincial Style of Architecture – Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD)
  20. 20. http://tybarchhistory.weebly.com/atala- masjid.html Provincial Style of Architecture – Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD)
  21. 21. Important structures: JAMI MASJID - JAUNPUR Provincial Style of Architecture – Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD)
  22. 22. • The Jami Masjid is the largest and the most ambitious of the Jaunpur mosques. It was built in 1470 by Husayn Shah (1458-1483), the last ruler of the Sharqi dynasty. • Built on a six meter high plinth, the mosque is accessed by an imposing flight of steps. • Its plan, similar to previous Sharqi mosques, consists of a long rectangular prayer hall occupying the western side of a colonnaded courtyard. • The prayer hall is centered around a square sanctuary, covered by a dome that measures 11.4 meters in diameter. • Windows pierced into the dome's drum illuminate the interior. • On either side of the sanctuary are barrel-vaulted galleries that are accessed from three arched openings along the courtyard facade. A:East gate -facade- B:Prayer room -exterior- and west side of the south corridor C:South gate and east side of the south corridor D,D':Central iwan E:Domed chamber -interior- F:North wing of the prayer room G:Corridors H:South wing of the prayer room Provincial Style of Architecture – Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD)
  23. 23. Provincial Style of Architecture – Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD)
  24. 24. Provincial Style of Architecture – Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD)
  25. 25. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) Malwa province experienced the Indo-Islamic architecture in the late medieval period with the invasion of Muslim invaders. This province which included the cities of Dhar and Mandu also experienced a large number of Islamic architectures during the Muslim dynasty. Initially they constructed new buildings on the ruins of Hindu and Jain temple materials. Gradually they developed their own style in building art of Islamic culture.
  26. 26. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) • The cities of Dhar and Mandu of the Malwa province provide examples of distinct architectural elements in the form of polychromatic ornamentation of buildings, which was obtained by the use of coloured stones and marble as well as by means of encaustic tiles. • The earliest buildings of this period are the Kamal Maula Masjid (1400) and the Lat Masjid (1405) at Dhar and the Dilawar Khan Masjid (1405) and the Malik Mughis mosque (1452) at Mandu. • The architectural activity took a new turn with the establishment of the capital at Mandu, especially under the rule of Hoshang Shah (1405-1435). • Important buildings in Mandu are the Jahaz Mahal (a 120 meter long 'ship palace' built by Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din-Khilji between two artificial lakes Munj Talao and Kapur Talao), • Taveli Mahal with two wells called Ujali and Andheri Baoli, Hindola Mahal, Dilawar Khan's Mosque, Hoshang Shah's Tomb, Ashrafi Mahal and the Jami Masjid built by Mahmud Shah Khilji I. • The city also has several gateways like the Delhi Darwaza, the Alamgir and Bhangi Darwaza, Rampol Darwaza, Jehangir Gate and Tarapur Gate.
  27. 27. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) Important structures: The Jami-Masjid at Mandu • The Jami-Masjid near the centre of the Mandu plateau was one of the finest achievements of the Ghauri dynasty. • A mosque, with its necessarily vast scale to accommodate numerous worshipers, is monumental by its nature, and to endow it with elements of humanism can be counted as a very difficult exercise in design.
  28. 28. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) • Of the elements that make up this mosque, the monumental entrance from the east with a main arched doorway flanked by two smaller openings. • A squat yet well-proportioned dome crowns this entrance, with its profile being reflected in smaller domes over the cloisters surrounding the central court, their proportions being ‘not unlike in profile to the so-called shoulder shaped contours of the shikharas of Orissan temples. • The courtyard is surrounded on three sides by columned cloisters with galleries of majestic arches.
  29. 29. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) The whole building is faced with red sandstone, with little concession to decoration. Indeed, the only departure from sobriety is in the chattri inside the mosque, next to the mihrab, which shows influences from florid Gujarati architecture.
  30. 30. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD)
  31. 31. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) Important structures: Hoshang Shah’s Tomb
  32. 32. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) • Conceived and partly built by Hushang Shah, completed by Mahmud I in 1440 A.D. • The tomb stands in a square enclosure contiguous with the western wall of the Jami Masjid at Mandu, approached by a domed portico on the north, with a pillared cloister on the west for devotions or accommodation. • The tomb itself if a square structure of 86' side, with 30' high walls surmounted by a large central dome with a cupola on each corner, standing on a square plinth of 100' side. • The walls are faced with white marble relieved by occasional patches of colour. • There are triple openings on two of its sides, with the central archway on the south providing the entrance, while the other two sides are plain, uninterrupted walls. Plan of Hoshang Shah’s Tomb Combined Plan of Hoshang Shah’s Tomb & Jami Masjid, Mandu
  33. 33. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) Important structures: ASHARFI MAHAL Although little remains of the Asharfi Mahal, to the east of the Jami-masjid, it was an extraordinary achievement in its time, serving as a madrassa with open courts surrounded by cells for students on several levels. Here also are the remains of a seven- storey victory tower – which collapsed in the 17th century – echoing Ala-ud-din’s megalomaniac flights of fancy near the Qutb.
  34. 34. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD)
  35. 35. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD)
  36. 36. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) Important structures: Hindola Mahal
  37. 37. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD)
  38. 38. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) This vast longitudinal room enormous arches punctuating its length - and is uncharacteristically massive, with strongly battered walls adding to its ponderousness. One theory is that it was originally intended to have several more storeys above.
  39. 39. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) Important structures: Jahaaz Mahal
  40. 40. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD)
  41. 41. Provincial Style of Architecture – Malwa (1405-1569 AD) • The Jahaz Mahal, built by Mahmud Khilji, was a departure from the previously stolid and somber style at Mandu. The most striking thing about this monument is its location between two water bodies, the Kaphur Talao and the Munja Talao, which gives the building the appearance of floating on water, hence its name, literally the ‘ship palace’. • Architecturally, the building consists of a series of compartments and corridors over the Munja Talao, with terraces, kiosks and numerous open-air baths conforming to the lifestyle at Mandu, which was slowly sliding into decadence. • The Jahaz Mahal proved an inspiration for later Khilji sultans to dot the landscape with their own pleasure pavilions and summer retreats.
  42. 42. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  43. 43. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  44. 44. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD) Style of architecture
  45. 45. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD) Style and features of architecture
  46. 46. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  47. 47. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD) Important structures: Jami Masjid At Bijapur
  48. 48. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD) • Construction of the mosque began in the city's eastern quarter, in 1576 under Ali Adil Shah I (r.1558-1580). • It is the largest mosque of Bijapur, covering an area of 54, 250 square feet. • The main entrance gate is from the east, though the north gate is used more frequently. • The ground plan is a large rectangular structure measuring 492 by 262 feet (150 by 80 meters) with a square courtyard of 164 feet (50 meters). • A passage from the eastern gate leads into the courtyard, which has fountains and a large reservoir in the center. • The perimeter walls are articulated on the exterior by two orders of superimposed arches
  49. 49. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD) • The lower ones are ornamental while the upper ones form a continuous open gallery that runs along three sides of the mosque and courtyard. • The arches of the gallery facing the courtyard have fine proportions and simple lines. • There are also several windows of pierced stone-work carved in a variety of pattern. • The prayer hall on the west side has a façade of seven bays, each bay having an arched opening. • The arches are equal in size, while the central arch is delineated through delicate arabesque patterns in stucco. • The prayer hall is crowned by an elegant, well- proportioned dome. It has a diameter of 57 feet (17.4 meters) and rises to 120 feet (36.6 meters) from the ground.
  50. 50. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  51. 51. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  52. 52. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD) Important structures: IBRAHIM RAUZA
  53. 53. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  54. 54. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD) This is the tomb of Ibrahim Adil Shah II (ruled 1580-1627), known for religious tolerance. Built on a single rock bed, it is noted for the symmetry of its features. It is said that the design for the Ibrahim Rauza served as an inspiration for that of the famous Taj Mahal
  55. 55. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  56. 56. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  57. 57. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD) Important structures: GOL GUMBAZ
  58. 58. Surroundings • The mausoleum is part of a bigger complex. • The other buildings in the complex are a mosque (to the west), a gateway called Naqqar Khana (drum house) and a dharmasala or rest-house. Mosque Naqqar Khana Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  59. 59. • Gol Gumbaz is one of the biggest single chamber structures in the world. • The central dome is the second largest in the world (the largest being the dome of St Peter s Basilica in Rome) which stands unsupported by pillars measuring at 38 meters in diameter and covering an area of 1700 sq m with 51 meters in height. • The structure is composed of a cube, 47.5 metres (156 ft) on each side, capped by a dome 44 m (144 ft) in external diameter. • The walls are 3 m thick and 30.5 m in height. The measurement from the interior is 41m on each side. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  60. 60. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD) PLAN At each of the four corners of the cube, is a dome-capped octagonal tower seven stories high with a staircase inside.The upper floor of each opens on to a round gallery which surrounds the dome. A small annex to the north side might have been intended as a resting- place for his mother, but it is a later, unfinished addition. The walls are 3 m thick. N
  61. 61. •The effect of the building is derived from the fine proportions between its various elements, especially between the cubical part below and the domed part above. SECTION "Eight intersecting arches created by two rotated squares that create interlocking pendentives" support the dome. The eight high pointed arches bisect in the interior of the cube at regular intervals. There are six openings at its base. The low drum below the dome is encircled by a foliated band. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  62. 62. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)  Inside the mausoleum hall, is a square podium with steps on each side.  In the middle of the podium, a cenotaph slab on the ground marks the actual grave below.  A very strong circular foundation was discovered in the basement that resembled the circular opening of the dome above. But this foundation supports only a platform and a light wooden pavilion.  The real graves are in the basement, which can be accessed by a staircase below the entrance on the west.  The south door is the main entrance to the tomb.
  63. 63. The use of groined compartments or pendentives, which counteract the outer thrust of the dome. They have a large central arch, above which is a cornice of grey basalt and a row of small arches carrying a second line of plain work crowned by a balustrade 6 feet high. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  64. 64. Dome with intersecting arches from the inside The interior of the dome converges with the edge of the circle by about 4 m so that part of the weight falls on the intersecting arches that bear and neutralize any other exterior forces. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  65. 65. The base of the monumental dome of the Gol Gumbaz is carved with beautiful petals that cover the drum. Horizontal courses of brick have been used in the construction of the dome which has a flat section at its crown. It has been cemented with lime and has a total of six openings at the base. It is in the eighth storey is a broad gallery around the dome which hangs out at around 11 feet. It can be reached by means of winding staircase in the four towers. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  66. 66. On the exterior side of the structure there are three great blind arches. The central arch is the widest of all and is decorated with wooden panels (chajja ) and has a small rectangular entrance and three rows of windows with arches. The cornice and parapet of the building is the most distinct characteristic of the façade. The cornice rests on highly carved stone corbels that project to about 3 m from the wall. The cornice supports the parapet, which has a row of arched openings and leaf-shaped walls. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  67. 67. The Whispering Gallery Inside, at the base of the dome is the 'Whispering Gallery‘, where even minute sounds can be heard clearly 37 metres away. A particular attraction in this monument is the central chamber, where every sound is echoed seven times. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  68. 68. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD) Important structures: Mihtar Mahal
  69. 69.  Though modestly sized, Mehtar Mahal dated to 1620 is one of the most elegant structures in the fort  Mehtar mosque is a three-storey building. It has two slender minarets that are covered with delicately carved birds and rows of swans.  The carvings are in Hindu architectural style, in the form of brackets supporting the balconies and stone trellis work.  The building has a flat roof and minarets have rounded top Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  70. 70. Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)
  71. 71. Doorway of the Mehtar Mahal Provincial Style of Architecture – Bijapur (1490-1656 AD)

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