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29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 1
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 2
COURSE TITLE:- BIOSAFETY, IPR AND BIOETHICS.
COURSE NO:- PBT 510 (2+0)
INTRODUCTION
CURRENT STATUS OF MDICINAL AND AROMATICS PLANTS.
VARIOUS SPECIES OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS.
BIOTRANSFO...
• The age-old traditional knowledge attached with the various forest types and the varieties of forest products
(i.e., med...
• Farming would also benefit the industry in getting uniform raw material, from which products of
consistent quality can b...
CURRENT STATUS:-
• In2012 -2013(Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research,Anand) these crops was in
research a...
Continued:-
• Niaziridin a new nitrile glycosidefrom Moringa oleifera.
• Glycyrrhizin form Glycyrrhiza glabra.
• Lysergol ...
Biodiversity of medicinal plants
Bryophytes (nonvascular
plants, e.g. liverwort and
moss) - 15,350 species.
Seedless vascu...
MEDICINAL PLANTS COMMON NAME EXTRACTED COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS
1. Aloe barbadensis
Family- Liliaceae.
Habitat- perennial herb
...
Cosmetic Products of Aloe vera:-
Nature’s Essence Aloe Vera gel-
• it offer you a treatment moisturizing gel ideal for sof...
Aloe Vera soothing cleanser-
• it is a cleansing product especially if you happen
to travel in a crowded and pollution-fil...
Aloe Vera Moisturizing Cream-
• This delicate cream, rich in Aloe Vera, is blended with natural and herbs
• It soften your...
-
Product-Kleenzie-
• Aloe vera based liquid hand and face wash.
• It cleanses the skin and kills germs, revitalizing the ...
Himalaya's soothing Antiseptic Cream-
• It contains Aloe Vera, Almond, Indian Madder and other natural
ingredients.
• It i...
2. Centella asiatica Linn:-
MEDICINAL PLANTS COMMON NAME EXTRACTED COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS
2. Centella asiatica Linn.
Family- ...
Cosmetic Product of Centella asiatica:-
Facial Serum –
• It is a combination of Centella, Banana flower and Shiso extracts...
Eye Gel -
• It helps you to maintain area of the face young, Light and non-greasy.
• it is soon absorbed, provides preciou...
Centella Asiatica Ampoule-
• For clean, taut, healthy skin, look no futher than Pure Heal's Centella
90 Ampoule.
• it form...
In vitro enhancement of biomass and centelloside production in multiple shoot cultures
of Centella asiatica by biotic elic...
3. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn:-
Medicinal Plants Common name Extraction Commercial products
3. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.
Famil...
Cosmetic Product of Licorice:-
“Himalaya's Clear Complexion Whitening Face Wash”-
• It removes dark spots, cleanses and cl...
Himalaya's Protein Shampoo –
• It provide strength, reduced hair fall and protection from everyday damage.
• It gently cle...
Licorice Skin whitening soap:-
Produce by-Barakhamba Road New delhi.
Lotus Herbals, LICORICE WHITE Skin Whitening Cleanser...
Meladerm® skin lightning product-
• It make skin lightener/brightener.
• 10 active ingredients obtained from natural extra...
MEDICINAL PLANTS Common name Extraction Commercial
products
4. Azadirachta indica
Family- Meliaceae
Habitat-tropical
trees...
MEDICINAL
PLANTS
Common
name
extraction Commercial
products
Percentage
neem oil
from seed-
45%.
• fruit is rich in carbohy...
Cosmetic Product of Neem:-
Lotus herbals neem wash-
• It is combination of neem and clove which removes
surface oils, dirt...
Himalaya's Purifying Neem Foaming Face Wash-
• It is developed after extensive research, is a combination of Neem, Turmeri...
Lotus Herbal Neem Active Neem & Reetha Anti-Dandruff Shampoo-
• It Cleanses Hair & Delivers Moisturizing Proteins.
• It ri...
Neem Oil-
• This is an Indian oil that has been used for thousands of years, it is
used in making cosmetics, it is used as...
Importance of medicinal plants:-
Low Cost.
No Side Effect.
Easily Available.
Permanent Relief.
Increases Resistance.
Culti...
AROMATIC PLANTS
Tagetes Peppermint
geranium
Khus grass Davana
Lemongrass
Palmarosagrass
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR an...
AROMATIC PLANTS:-
Tagetes
Geranium
VETIVER
Davana
Lemongrass
Peppermint
Palmarosa
Tagetes Geranium Geranium with flowers.
...
Medicinal Plants Common name Exracted Commercial
products
1. Tagetes minuta Linn.
Family- Asteraceae
Tagetes oil, Tagetes....
Cosmetic Product of Tagetes:-
Attar Majmua:-
• It is derived from tagetes oil which are used in making
attar.
• Produce by...
Lush Charity Pot Review-
• It is a lotions which the skin-softening by cocoa butter and almond oil to make your skin
feel ...
Friends With Benefits Massage Bar-
• It combined with african tagetes oil and Cocoa Butter which are used massage bar
and ...
Lush's 'Angels on Bare Skin' facial cleanser-
• Tagetes oil works as a sedative, an insecticide, an antiseptic and
disinfe...
Genetic transformation studies in Tagetes through Agrobacterium rhizogenes-
• Genetic transformation studies in Tagetes th...
Medicinal Plants Common name Exracted Commercial products
2. Pelargonium graveolans
Family- Geraniaceae.
Geranium oil, Ger...
Cosmetic Product of Pelargonium graveolans:-
Organic geranium oil-
• it is a skin care oil which protect from drying and i...
Fabindia Rose Geranium Face & Body Gel Scrub-
• It is a gel scrub which derive from rose petals and geranium oil.
• The ro...
Rose geranium face moisturizer-
• It makes the skin soft and has antioxidant property and diminish the sign of
aging and m...
Anti-dandruff herbal shampoo-
It is a natural conditioner which protect the hair from dandruff.
Oil of geranium as an acti...
Transformation in Biosynthetic Pathways:-
Volatile monoterpene oil biosynthesis in rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp....
Medicinal Plants Common name Exracted Commercial products
3. Vetiveria zizanioides. Linn
Family- Poaceae
vetiver, khus , "...
Cosmetic Product of Vetiveria zizanioides:-
Vaadi Herbals Royal Indian Khus Soap-
• It manufacture from khus, Olive & Soyb...
VETIVER & ALOE VERA Purnaturals Body Wash-
• Stimulating shower gel body wash, based on aloe vera & vetiver
formulations.
...
Herbal shampoo-
• It contains Amla, Reetha, Shikakai, Heena Bhringraj
and Khus as active ingredients.
• Safe, nontoxic and...
Production of Antimycobacterial phytomolecule “Khusimol” from Vetiveria zizanioides-
• A phytomolecule khusimol was identi...
Khusimol:-
• It is a Sesquiterpenes(derived from three isoprene units) organic
molecule.
• It is isolated from the roots o...
Medicinal Plants Common name Extracted Commercial products
4. Artemisia annua
Family- Asteraceae
Habitat- annual aromatic
...
Cosmetic Product of Artemisia annua:-
Davana oil-
• It is produced by process of steam distillation of the herb called Art...
Wormwood oil-
• It is prepared from woody stems {bitter in taste} of leaf or
flower ,olive oil, vinegar or water.
• It wil...
.
Natural ARTEMISIA SCOPARIA Oil-
• It remove acne, blocked pores and anti-imflammation .
• It relieve from relieving feve...
Medicinal Plants Common name Extracted Commercial products
5. Cymbopogons flexuosus
Family- poaceae
lemon grass, lemon oil...
Cosmetic Product of Cymbopogons flexuosus:-
.
Body Recipe Lemongrass-
• It is a Skincare lotion which has anti-aging
prope...
BiON Blackhead Whitehead Controller-
• It dissolves sebum plugs that developed into
blackheads {a plug of sebum in a hair ...
.
Body Shop Nutriganics Smoothing Mask -
• It is a deep cleansing mask that leaves skin feeling silky and smooth.
• Produc...
Transformation:-
Genomic manipulation in Cymbopogons-
• The raw autotetraploid clone developed for the Lemongrass (C. khas...
Medicinal Plants Common name Extracted Commercial products
6. Mentha piperita L.
family- Laminaceae
Propagation- stolons
o...
Cosmetic Product of Mentha piperita:-
Beeswax Lip Balm Tube –
• It is a natural lip balm is loaded with coconut and sunflo...
Nubian Heritage, Peppermint & Aloe Soap-
• It is a combination of Aloe, Shea Butter(small tropica African
trees bears oily...
.
Intelligent Nutrients Harmonic Shampoo-
• It is a conditioner for all hair types.
• It is used in extremely dry hair, sk...
Transformations:-
Genetic improvement in Mentha piperita-
• Fifty progenies were raised from different seed and stocks of ...
Medicinal Plants Common name Extracted Commercial products
7. Cymbopogon martini
Family- Poaceae
Rosha grass' or `Russa
gr...
Cosmetic Product of Cymbopogon martini:-
Palmarosa essential oil-
• It has antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial propert...
.
Organic Palmarosa oil-
• It is suitable for dry/hard skin and it helps retain
moisture and encourages natural sebum prod...
Snowberry Cellular Regeneration Night Cream-
• Snowberry Cellular Regeneration Night Cream is an
anti-aging night cream de...
Uses of Essential Oils:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 70
PLANT VARIETIES RELEASED FROM CSIR-CIAMP,Lucknow {2010-2011}:-
Plant Name Variety Name Release Date
Menthofuran rich mint
...
Stevia rebaudiana :-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 72
Medicinal plants Common name Extacted Commercia...
Continued:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 73
Extracted
• It is used as aid in body
weight management ...
Cosmetic Products of Stevia:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 74
Sugar free herbvia 50Sachets-
• Sugar ...
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 75
Stevia skin and hair care products-
• Stevia raw leaf powder when us...
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 76
STEVIA SHAMPOO - FLORAL SCENT-
Ingredients- aqua, Sapindus Mukurossi...
Intellectual Property Rights of DMPAR,ANAND. 2012-2013:-
DMAPR, Anand:- Six germplasm i.e one each in
• Madhunashini (Gymn...
Importance of Aromatic plants:-
6. Aromatic plants are from a numerically large group of economically important plants. Th...
COMMERCIALIZATION OF DRUGS
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 79
Introduction:-
• Medicinal plants play an important role in the development of potent therapeutic agents. Today
estimate t...
Current status:-
• Indian drug majors: "20%+ growth in 2013, driven by exports“.
• India's leading pharmaceutical players ...
Continued:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 82
• The annual turnover of the Indian herbal medicinal ind...
Advantages of Herbal Drugs:-
• High Low/Minimum cost.
• Complete accessibility.
• Enhanced tolerance.
• More protection.
•...
Disadvantages of Herbal Drugs:-
• Not able to cure rapid sickness and accidents.
• Risk with self-dosing.
• Complexity in ...
Importance of plants as a source of new drugs :-
• The development of traditional medicinal systems incorporating plants a...
Antidiabetic activity Herbal plants
a drug used to treat diabetes Abroma augusta, Acacia melanoxylon, Acacia modesta, Acac...
Scientific Name with Common Name of Antidiabetic Plants:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 87
Scientific...
Continued:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 88
Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name
...
Continued:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 89
Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name
...
Continued:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 90
Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name
...
Analgesic activity:-
Analgesic activity Herbal plants
a drugs which give relief from pain. Bougainvilla spectabilis, Cheli...
Scientific Name with Common Name of Analgesic Plants:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 92
Scientific Na...
Antifertility activity :-
Antifertility activity :- Herbal plants
A drugs that inhibits
the ability to produce
offspring,c...
Scientific Name with Common Name of Antifertility Plants :-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 94
Scientif...
Continued:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 95
Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name
...
Antipsoriasis activity :-
Antipsoriasis activity Herbal plants
a drug used to treat
psoriasis.
Psoriasis meaning
"itching ...
Scientific Name with Common Name of Antipsoriasis Plants :-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 97
Scientif...
Antidipressive activity:-
Antidipressive activity:- Herbal plants
a drugs used for the
treatment of major
depressive disor...
Scientific Name with Common Name of Antidipressive Plants:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 99
Scientif...
Hepatoprotective activity:-
Hepatoprotective activity Herbal plants
a drug have the ability to
prevent damage to the
liver...
Scientific Name with Common Name of Hepatoprotective Plants:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 101
Scien...
Herbs for Dental care:-
Herbs for Dental care Herbal plants
a drug which maintain
the healthy teeth.
The plants having the...
Scientific Name with Common Name of Dental care plants:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 103
Scientific...
Continued:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 104
Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name...
Medicinal plant parts exported from India, importing medicinal plants and their parts:-
Exporting of herbals Importing of ...
Major plant drugs for which no synthetic one is currently available :-
Drug Plant Use
Vinblastine Catharanthus roseus Anti...
Drug Plant Use
Artemisinin Artemesia annua Antimalarial,
Berberine Berberis leishmaniasis
Pristimerin Celastrus paniculata...
CONTINUED:-
Drug Plant Use
Digitoxin, Digoxin Digitalis, Thevetia Cardio tonic
Elipticine Ochrosia Anticancer
Homoharringt...
Some of the important medicinal plants used for major modern drugs for cancer:-
Plant name/family Drugs Treatment
Cathrant...
Plant derived ethno therapeutics and traditional modern medicine :-
S.No. Drug Basic investigation
1. Codeine, morphine
Op...
New varieties of medicinal plants developed in India:-
Crop Variety Characters (Institution where developed)
Sarpagandha
R...
Companies/Organizations involved in Procurement, Processing & Marketing of Medicinal herbs in
Karnataka:-
Sl.No Address of...
Continued:-
Sl.No. Address of organization Crops interested
4. Care Medimax # 55/1, 4th Main, 2nd Cross
Nagappa Block, Sri...
Companies/Organizations involved in the procurement, processing and marketing of aromatic and dye
plants in Karnataka:-
Sl...
Continued:-
Sl.No. Organization/Companies Crops/Oils
5. Padmini Products 157, K. Kamaraj Road, Bangalore - 42 Patchouli, R...
Continued:-
Sl.No. Organization/Companies Crops/Oils
11. Seven Hill Herbotech, Bangalore Patchouli
12. S.M.Agro Industries...
ROSEMARY :-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 117
AROMATIC PLANTS COMMON NAME EXTRACTED COMMERCIAL PRODUC...
Cosmetic Products of Rosemary:-
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 118
Plantlife, 100% Pure Essential Oil,...
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 119
Rose Marie Swift(RMS Beauty) creamy pots of ultra pure, organic
col...
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 120
Rosaceous Cleansing – Neal’s Yard Remedies Wild Rose Beauty Balm-
•...
29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 121
WELEDA ROSEMARY HAIR OIL-
• A revitalizing & deep-conditioning hair...
CONCLUSION:-
• A golden triangle consisting of Ayurveda, modern medicine and science will converge to form a real discover...
COMMERCIALIZATION OF GE MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS OR DRUGS
COMMERCIALIZATION OF GE MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS OR DRUGS
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COMMERCIALIZATION OF GE MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS OR DRUGS

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INTRODUCTION
CURRENT STATUS OF MDICINAL AND AROMATICS PLANTS.
VARIOUS SPECIES OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS.
BIOTRANSFORMATION IN VARIOUS SPECIES OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS.
COMMERCIAL COSMETIC PRODUCT OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS.
USES OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATICS PLANTS.
RELEASES VARIETIES AND PATENT OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATICS PLANTS.
COMMERCIALISATION OF DRUGS.
COMPANIES/ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN PROCUREMENT, PROCESS AND MARKETING OF MEDICINAL HERBS IN KARNATAKA
WEBSITE LINKS.

Published in: Science
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COMMERCIALIZATION OF GE MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS OR DRUGS

  1. 1. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 1
  2. 2. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 2 COURSE TITLE:- BIOSAFETY, IPR AND BIOETHICS. COURSE NO:- PBT 510 (2+0)
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION CURRENT STATUS OF MDICINAL AND AROMATICS PLANTS. VARIOUS SPECIES OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS. BIOTRANSFORMATION IN VARIOUS SPECIES OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS. COMMERCIAL COSMETIC PRODUCT OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS. USES OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATICS PLANTS. RELEASES VARIETIES AND PATENT OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATICS PLANTS. COMMERCIALISATION OF DRUGS. COMPANIES/ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN PROCUREMENT, PROCESS AND MARKETING OF MEDICINAL HERBS IN KARNATAKA WEBSITE LINKS. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 3
  4. 4. • The age-old traditional knowledge attached with the various forest types and the varieties of forest products (i.e., medicinal plants) have gained remarkable significance in the present century specially for drugs discovery. Furthermore, the cosmetic industries are also using more and more natural ingredients in their products, and these natural ingredients include extracts of several medicinal and aromatic plants. • India and China are two of the largest countries in Asia, which have the richest traditional system of medicines such as Ayurveda, Siddha, traditional Chinese medicines, etc that uses a large number of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs). • In addition, MAPs are also essentially important as alternate income-generating source to the underprivileged communities living in forests. Therefore, strengthening this sector may benefit and improve the living standard of farmers as well as forest dwellers. • The current rising demand of herbal drugs is unfortunately creating heavy pressure on some selected high- value medicinal plant populations in the wild due to over-harvesting. Several of these medicinal plant species have slow growth rates, low population densities and narrow geographic ranges, therefore they are more prone to extinction. • Farming of the medicinal plants thus, is an alternative option to save these species as well assuring quality raw drug to the industry. There are many challenges before the farmers of MAPs. Information on the propagation of MAPs is available only for less than 10% and agro-technology is available only for 1% of the total known plants globally. This trend illustrates the need for developing good agricultural practices (GAP) with WHO as the principal thrust area for research. Introduction:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 4
  5. 5. • Farming would also benefit the industry in getting uniform raw material, from which products of consistent quality can be manufactured. Cultivation also permits genetic improvements for improved variety and improved quality control through GAP. • The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) wisely recognized the growth potential of this newly emerging herbal sector way back in 1992 by creating a National Research Centre for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants at Anand, Gujarat which has been rechristened to Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research (DMAPR) by backward linking of its outreach programme, the All India Coordinated Research Project on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants and Betelvine (AICRP-MAPB). • The DMAPR continues to contribute in this sector in the very basic link of quality raw drug supply by research or area of agriculture which is as important as drug discovery. Research, thus in quality raw drug supply sector demands for varietal improvement, development of good agricultural practices for assuring end quality, quality assessment, quality supply of planting material, fixing of standards, certification, etc. The emerging challenges and opportunities demand for an innovation driven research system using modern tools of ICT, biotechnology, molecular biology, biochemistry, etc to link with all the stakeholders in the entire MAP supply chain. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 5
  6. 6. CURRENT STATUS:- • In2012 -2013(Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research,Anand) these crops was in research and getting acheivements and used commercially like Aloe barbadensis Mill.) •Ashwagandha (Withania somniferaDunal.)• Giloi (Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook f. & Thoms. )•Guggal (Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari)•Isabgol (Plantago ovate Forsk.)• Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Nees ex. Steud Wats.)•Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii Stapf. Var. motia)•Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernades)• Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl). • In 2011-2012 CSIR –(Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants ,lucknow)The efforts are also directed towards finding the safety limits of herbal preparation products. Some of the achievements of the department over the last few years are - • Development of a novel plant system as biosensor for detecting the bioactive molecules and environmental hazards through distinct responses. • Active against vancomycin resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp. (VRSA) . • Identification of novel anti-tuberculosis agents from Curcuma longa and Curcuma amada. • Genetic screen of bacterial and fungal with knocked out or suppressed function for screening phytochemicals as antimicrobials, bioavailability enhancer of antibiotic, vitamins and anticancer drugs. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 6
  7. 7. Continued:- • Niaziridin a new nitrile glycosidefrom Moringa oleifera. • Glycyrrhizin form Glycyrrhiza glabra. • Lysergol from Ipomea muricata. • Indian Traditional Knowledge based formulation coded as “IVT-15” for Rheumatoid Arthritis. • Mechanism of action of hepatoprotective molecule ‘CLIV-92’ earlier isolated from Cleome viscosa. • CSIR – Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Lucknow - India expenditure Total 3766.205[in lakhs] in 2010-11and fund is provided by HRD but in 2011-2013 DMAPR[Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Boriavi, Anand invests capital 1716.82{ in lakhs} but in 2012-2013 invests capital for research and achievements used commercially and fund provided by ICAR. • From the source of National Medicinal Plant Board, New Delhi 6000-7000 Ayurveda, unani, homeopathy, siddha. 960 high traded species, 7263 Medicinal Plants of India. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 7
  8. 8. Biodiversity of medicinal plants Bryophytes (nonvascular plants, e.g. liverwort and moss) - 15,350 species. Seedless vascular plants (commonly called fern) - 12, 157 species Gymnosperm - 760 species. Angiosperm 250,0> 00 species 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 8 • Angiosperms (flowering plants) were the original source of most plant medicines.
  9. 9. MEDICINAL PLANTS COMMON NAME EXTRACTED COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS 1. Aloe barbadensis Family- Liliaceae. Habitat- perennial herb {peel bitter}curacao aloe or Indian aloe or{thick skin} Jaffarabad aloe or {native}Barbados aloe. Propagation-suckers Cultivated by-Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, UP. • Leaves contain mucilage(polysaccharides) and • leaf exudates contain aloin and aloe emodine, mucilage has a cooling and moisturizing action and hence used in cosmetic industries. • Aloin and aloe emodine are used as pain killer and purgative. Aloe Vera gel, Beauty-cream, cleanser, Acne-n-Pimple Cream, Hair Care, Aloe Vera Face Pack, Anti-Wrinkle Cream, Protein Conditioner, Antiseptic Cream, baby soap etc. Medicinal Plants:- 1. Aloe barbadensis 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 9 Aloe barbadensis Aloe barbadensis flower Aloe barbadensis leaf Aloe barbadensis suckers Aloe barbadensis gel Aloe barbadensis
  10. 10. Cosmetic Products of Aloe vera:- Nature’s Essence Aloe Vera gel- • it offer you a treatment moisturizing gel ideal for softening the skin. • protecting it from sun damage, and acting as a guard and immunizing agent against skin ailments like dry skin, acne, and itchy skin conditions. • Produce by:- India, Dubai, Phillipines. • The cream gives a fair look when applied. Does not stick much, but when you rub your skin your fingers will find a layer of oil. • It does not form a white layer over your skin, but you can feel your skin carrying the creamy layer. • Regular usage reduces the skin imperfections. • Produce by- India Patanjali-Beauty-cream-sealed-Patanjali-product- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 10
  11. 11. Aloe Vera soothing cleanser- • it is a cleansing product especially if you happen to travel in a crowded and pollution-filled environment. • It is a soap free cleanser, with Aloe Vera extract that hydrates and soothes the skin. • This cleanser lathers away impurities, leaving the skin feeling fresh and soothed. • It is perfect for sensitive skin • Produce by-Maharashtra (India) Himalaya's Acne-n-Pimple Cream- Acne (acne vulgaris, common acne) is a disease of the hair follicles of the face, chest, and back that affects almost all teenagers during puberty. • It cure pimples and skin eruptions, healing infection while keeping the skin soft and smooth. • It has excellent astringent and cooling properties derived from Lentil, Silk Cotton Tree and Five-leaved Chaste Tree extracts, Barbados Aloe and Alum. • Produce by:-MAKALI, BANGALORE 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 11
  12. 12. Aloe Vera Moisturizing Cream- • This delicate cream, rich in Aloe Vera, is blended with natural and herbs • It soften your skin and keep it lovely, smooth and glowing. pH balanced. • Produce by- Canada Natural proteins in Himalaya’s Protein Conditioner – • Repair & Regeneration provide intensive conditioning for dry, or damaged hair. • This conditioner gently repairs, regenerates and protects your hair from future damage, keeping it healthy and soft and ingredients aloe vera and beans. • Aloe Vera contains special enzymes that promote hair growth, leaving it revitalized from the scalp. Bean Sprout provides added nutrition to lifeless hair, restoring split ends and shine. • Produce by-MAKALI, BANGALORE 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 12
  13. 13. - Product-Kleenzie- • Aloe vera based liquid hand and face wash. • It cleanses the skin and kills germs, revitalizing the skin leaving it soft and moisturized. • Kleenzie is an essential oil based herbal product, which gives no any adverse effect on the normal skin. • It is released by CSIR-CIAMP, Lucknow. Aloe Vera Face Pack - Mumbai CSIR-CIMAP institute produce the- • skin care cream from aloe that is “HAloe Skin”product. Uses of cream:- • to cure cracks in heels, chapped hands, dry skin and eczema{batches on skin} etc. • The cream is non irritant and makes the skin soft and glowing. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 13
  14. 14. Himalaya's soothing Antiseptic Cream- • It contains Aloe Vera, Almond, Indian Madder and other natural ingredients. • It is an excellent treatment for cuts, wounds, burns, rashes, sores and fungal skin infections. • Produce by-MAKALI, BANGALORE Himalaya's Anti-Wrinkle Cream- • it is a herbal formulation that works to delay wrinkles and tone up facial skin. • It is enriched with all the natural goodness of Aloe Vera, Grapes, Red Poppy, Lemon and Sandalwood Tree extracts, which has Alpha Hydroxyl Acids (AHAs), skin nutrients and Vitamin E. These combine to prevent oxidative skin damage, skin laxity and appearance of wrinkles. • Produce by-MAKALI, BANGALORE Himalaya’s Fairness Cream - • It combines with natural ingredients like Persian Rose, Mandarin Orange, Walnut and Aloe Vera. • To tackle a dull, uneven complexion and clear dark spots and discolored and pigmented skin. • Its unique formulation ensures ease of application, faster absorption and better nourishment to the skin. • Produce by- MAKALI, BANGALORE . 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 14
  15. 15. 2. Centella asiatica Linn:- MEDICINAL PLANTS COMMON NAME EXTRACTED COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS 2. Centella asiatica Linn. Family- Hydrocotylaceae Habitat-perennial herb Mandukaparni, Indian Pennywort{small round leaves grow in marshy places} . Cultivation- India and Sri lanka Propagation- runners as well as by seeds. • Fresh leaves contain a glucoside asiaticoside and Asiatic acid. Vellarine, pectic acid and resin present in roots and leaves. . Asiaticoside, indocentelloside and than kuniside are the major glycosides which are used in cholera, ulcers, bronchitis, leucorrhoea and leprosy. gray hair and balding, Facial Serum, Eye Contour Care, elimination of scar tissue, healing of skin cells ,face cream , Eye Gel , anti-aging face mask etc. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 15 Indian Pennywort Indian Pennywort flower Indian Pennywort fruits Indian Pennywort seeds Indian Pennywort runners
  16. 16. Cosmetic Product of Centella asiatica:- Facial Serum – • It is a combination of Centella, Banana flower and Shiso extracts. • It helps promote elasticity of skin, resulting in a decrease in wrinkles and enhance skin radiance. • Centella Asiatica extract stimulates the synthesis of collagen and rebuild skin’s network. • Banana flower extract, rich in Mucilages, Phytosterols and Cycloterpene derivatives, stimulates the production of collagen and soothes the skin. • Shiso extract moisturizes and helps protect the skin from premature aging caused by harmful environment • Produce by- Hangzhou, China Healthy Hair- • It combines powerful detoxifying herbs that remove excess pitta from the body that lead to healthy hair growth. • Its main ingredient, Bhringaraj, is known as “the ruler of the hair,” for its historical use as a rejuvenative for the scalp and hair. • Healthy Hair cleanses the liver, helping the body support hair growth, while providing the nutrients that lead to a thick, lustrous head of hair. • Produce by- Hangzhou, China 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 16
  17. 17. Eye Gel - • It helps you to maintain area of the face young, Light and non-greasy. • it is soon absorbed, provides precious nourishing substances and gives a fresh sense of well-being, capable of fading the problem of bags and circles. • Produce by- US Day cream with Gotu Kola Stem Cells- • it help your skin fight environmental damage and free radicals, and 1% Chlorella Growth Factor, shown to support collagen and elastin fibers. • Protects against free radical damage. • For normal to dry skin. • Produce by-New York, USA. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 17
  18. 18. Centella Asiatica Ampoule- • For clean, taut, healthy skin, look no futher than Pure Heal's Centella 90 Ampoule. • it formulated with 90% Centella Asiatica extract and ampoule {capsule with liquid} will hydrate and nourish your skin, tighten pores, brighten complexions, soothe troubled spots, and reduce the appearance of wrinkles. • Produce by- Korea SUNDARI Gotu Kola & Indian Asparagus Mask- • It is a anti-aging moistened solid for your skin. • SUNDARI Gotu Kola & Indian Asparagus Mask delivers a power- packed punch of peptides and tightening botanicals to firm and repair the skin. • It brings hydration and renewal kin to stressed, lackluster skin, transforming it to bright and beautiful again. • Produce by- Salt Lake City, Utah. United States. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 18
  19. 19. In vitro enhancement of biomass and centelloside production in multiple shoot cultures of Centella asiatica by biotic elicitation with peptone-Peptone at various concentrations was found to elicit biomass as well as total centelloside production in in vitro multiple shoot cultures of Centella asiatica. The high growth Index (GI 446) and maximum centelloside (12 mg/gm dwt) was obtained after 20 days old cultures with 0.02% peptone. Centelloside are used in cholera, ulcers, bronchitis, leucorrhoea and leprosy. Development of biosynthetically active and high frequency multiple shoot proliferation from axillary shoots and direct rhizogenesis induced root morphotypes of Centella asiatica - A protocol has been developed for the generation of biosynthetically active and high frequency multiple shoot regeneration from Centella asiatica. Rhizogenesis of these under different hormonal conditions resulted in different morphotypes ranging from long green root type to the short bushy and white type. Combinations of BAP and kinetin were able to produce highest number of multiple shoots in one month growth period and also produced asiaticoside, the medicinally important phytochemical. Incorporation of 14C labeled sucrose into the multiple shoots indicate that they were biogenetically active. Asiaticoside are used in cholera, ulcers, bronchitis, leucorrhoea and leprosy. Source :-CSIR- CIMAP, Lucknow Annual Report. Transformation in Centella asiatica:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 19
  20. 20. 3. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn:- Medicinal Plants Common name Extraction Commercial products 3. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Family- Papilionaceae. Habitat- perennial herb Propagation- seeds, cuttings of both by root and stem and by tissue culture. Jethimadh, Yasthimadhu, Jesthimadhu or Mulahati , licorice{in English root are sweet,a juice made from root, which usedin medicine and sweet} Cultivation- Baramulla, Srinagar, Jammu, Dehradun, Delhi, Anand, Indore and Bangalore. • stems and roots contain 5-20 per cent saponin like glycoside glycyrrhizin which has healing effect on peptic ulcers and coumarine compounds - herniarin and umbelliferone and flavours liquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquirtin and isoliquiritigenin and glycosides- liquiritoside, isoliquiritoside are present. Complexion Whitening Face Wash, Barrier Repair Moistutizer, Protein Shampoo , Baby Lotion, licorice Skin Whitening Cleanser, licorice Skin whitening soap, Care fairness face wash , Cold Cream With Licorice etc. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 20Glycyrrhiza glabra licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra flower Glycyrrhiza glabra fruits Roots Glycyrrhiza glabra seeds
  21. 21. Cosmetic Product of Licorice:- “Himalaya's Clear Complexion Whitening Face Wash”- • It removes dark spots, cleanses and clarifies impurities, revealing a clear, radiant and even complexion and ingredients of Pomegranate, Saffron , Licorice , White Dammer. • Produce by-MAKALI, BANGALORE LICORICE EXTRACT-RESIST BARRIER REPAIR MOISTURIZER WITH RETINOL- • This lotion smoothes out skin, reduces fine lines and leaves skin looking and acting younger. • Anti-Aging cream and removes Wrinkles • Retinol makes skin look younger • Antioxidants stimulate collagen production • Produce by- Seattle, Washington. US 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 21
  22. 22. Himalaya's Protein Shampoo – • It provide strength, reduced hair fall and protection from everyday damage. • It gently cleanses and provides hair with its daily dose of proteins. • It also keeps your hair soft, smooth and healthy and o ingredients provide rich protein like Chickpea and Indian Gooseberry provide natural protein nourishment to your hair and licorice prevent loss of hair. o Produce by -MAKALI, BANGALORE Himalaya’s Baby Lotion- • It keeps your baby's skin soft and supple and protects it from infection. • The ingredients are Olive Oil, Almond Oil, Licorice gently moisturize delicate skin, leaving it soft all day long. • Produce by -MAKALI, BANGALORE 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 22
  23. 23. Licorice Skin whitening soap:- Produce by-Barakhamba Road New delhi. Lotus Herbals, LICORICE WHITE Skin Whitening Cleanser- • It controls melanin make the skin glow with fairness. • Regular use of LICORICEWHITE makes skin visibly whiter and effectively works to remove blemishes. • It contains premium ingredients like Licorice (Mulathi) and Manjishtha in their purest form“. • Produce by- Solan. HP Avon Care fairness face wash- • It cleanses up dirt, excess oils and lipids without over drying the skin, leaving skin clean, refreshed, soft & smooth with glow. Formulated with Licorice extract. • Produce by-India, Dubai, Phillipines. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 23
  24. 24. Meladerm® skin lightning product- • It make skin lightener/brightener. • 10 active ingredients obtained from natural extracts such as Mulberry, Licorice, Lemon, Emblica (Indian Gooseberry) and Bearberry plants (Apha Arbutin). • This product also contains Kojic Acid which offers antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties . • Produce by- Warrenville, United States. Facial Radiance Pads- • Brighten the skin with a combination of lactic and glycolic acids, lemon peel and licorice root. Cucumber and Indian gooseberry tone the skin. • Produce by- US Avon Care Fairness Cold Cream With Licorice. Produce by-80 Feet Rd Bangalore 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 24
  25. 25. MEDICINAL PLANTS Common name Extraction Commercial products 4. Azadirachta indica Family- Meliaceae Habitat-tropical trees . Propagation- Seed root and shoot cuttings. Neem tree,{bark contain margosine chemical} Margosa tree, Indian lilac{Small tree}, White cedar{wood,fragrant}, Paradise tree, China berry or Crack Jack. Cultivation-India ,Siwalik hills in the dry forests of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. • leaves contain minerals like calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus; protein, vitamin A, crude firbe, carbohydrate, fat and alkaloids like quercetin, nimbosterol (ß-sitosterol), azadirachtin, nimboflavone, nomicinol and used to cure diseases of bladder, kidney and eyes; for curing skin diseases. • The trunk bark contains a resin, nimbin, nimbinin, nimbidin, essential oil, tannins, the bitter principle margosine, desa-acetyl nimbin, inorganic phosphorus, sulphur, iron etc. The bark are useful in fever, thirst, nausea, vomiting, skin diseases, scorpion and snake bites. • The flowers contain nim bosterol, nim bosterol, kaempferol, quercetin, myrcetin, nimbosterin, nim bosterol, nimocetin, fatty acids and a highly pungent essential oil. bark possess marked antibacterial spectrum against Gram-ve and Gram+ve bacteria. Herbals neem wash, Purifying Neem Face Wash, Neem Foaming Face Wash, Neem & Turmeric Soap, Anti-Dandruff Shampoo, Purifying Neem Scrub etc. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 25NEEM TREE NEEM LEAVES NEEM FLOWER NEEM BARK NEEM FRUITS NEEM SEEDS
  26. 26. MEDICINAL PLANTS Common name extraction Commercial products Percentage neem oil from seed- 45%. • fruit is rich in carbohydrates and used as a substrate in methane gas generation. • Seeds contain calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, an amorphous morgosopicrin; diacetylnimbin, thionemone, azadirachtin, salanin, nimbin- ß, vilasimin, azadirachtol, nimbine, 6-deacetyl nimbinine, nimbanidol, nomolicinol, salannotide, meliacin-4epinimbin, nimlin, desaccetyl nimbin etc. seed meal contains all the essential amino acids. • Oil are greenish-yellow to brown in colour and has strong characteristic garlic like odour. oil contains salannin, meliaantriol, azadirachtin, 7- acetylneotri-chilenone, azadiradione, azadirone, 6-desacetyl-embinene, 17 epiazadiradione, epoxyazadiradione, framinellone, genunin, meldenin, melianone, nimbanidol, nimbidinin, nimbinene, nimbinin nimbolide, nimbolin, salannol, vepinin, volasinin etc. oil used in stimulative, antiseptic and alterative effect also used for massage of the body and possess anti- inflamatory properties. it is an active remedy against boils and ulcers. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 26NEEM SEEDSNEEM FRUITSNEEM FRUITS NEEM OIL
  27. 27. Cosmetic Product of Neem:- Lotus herbals neem wash- • It is combination of neem and clove which removes surface oils, dirt and pollutants. • It contains active neem extract and neem slices which provide excellent anti bacterial protection to skin. • Produce by- Bangalore, New Delhi, Singapore Himalaya's Purifying Neem Face Wash- • It is a soap-free, herbal formulation that clears impurities and helps clear pimples. • A natural blend of Neem and Turmeric bring together their antibacterial and antifungal properties to prevent the recurrence of acne over time. • Produce by- MAKALI, BANGALORE 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 27
  28. 28. Himalaya's Purifying Neem Foaming Face Wash- • It is developed after extensive research, is a combination of Neem, Turmeric and Vetiver. • Neem is well-known for its antibacterial, antiviral and germicidal properties, which help control acne, pimples and prevents their recurrence. • Turmeric has antiseptic characteristics and soothes the skin. • Vetiver cools the skin and has antibacterial properties. • Produce by- MAKALI, BANGALORE Himalaya's Neem & Turmeric Soap – • Ingredients neem and turmeric mix together and keep your skin protected at all times. • The extracts of Neem, Lemon and Turmeric, which contain antibacterial and antifungal properties, protect your skin from harsh environmental conditions. • Produce by- MAKALI, BANGALORE 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 28
  29. 29. Lotus Herbal Neem Active Neem & Reetha Anti-Dandruff Shampoo- • It Cleanses Hair & Delivers Moisturizing Proteins. • It rich in Soya Proteins & Brahmi that Leaves Hair Shiny & Lustrous. • Soya proteins that gives rich lather to leave the Hair & Scalp Dirt Free. • Produce by- Bangalore, New Delhi, Singapore. Purifying Neem Scrub- • It is formulated from neem and apricot that give you clear, problem-free skin, this scrub works with a dual exfoliation and purifying action. • Neem, well-known for its purifying and antibacterial properties, kills problem-causing bacteria. Combined with exfoliating Apricot granules, it gently scrubs away blackheads, dead skin cells and embedded impurities, leaving your skin, soft, clear, refreshed and problem-free. • Produce by- MAKALI, BANGALORE 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 29
  30. 30. Neem Oil- • This is an Indian oil that has been used for thousands of years, it is used in making cosmetics, it is used as an insecticides, cures skin disorders, it is also anti-fungal, used as contraception, as an immune booster. • Produce by- MUMBAI, INDIA HIMALAYA NEEM FACE PACK- • Neem is well known for its antibacterial properties, it helps control acne and pimples by regulating the secretion of excess sebum while cleansing clogged pores. Turmeric acts as an antiseptic and improves complexion. • Suitable for oily and problematic • Produce by- MAKALI, BANGALORE Aloe Veda Neem & Tulsi Hand and Body Lotion with Sunscreen- • Calming, soothing and enriched with naturally moisturising ingredients such as Aloe Vera Gel, Cocoa Butter, Neem, Tulsi Extracts and Almond Oil that moisturise the skin, leaving it smooth and supple. • Produce by- Periyar nagar, Chennai 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 30
  31. 31. Importance of medicinal plants:- Low Cost. No Side Effect. Easily Available. Permanent Relief. Increases Resistance. Cultivation Highly Profitable. Taken as fresh and dried as well. Foreign exchange earner. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 31
  32. 32. AROMATIC PLANTS Tagetes Peppermint geranium Khus grass Davana Lemongrass Palmarosagrass 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 32 Organic geranium oil Huk Natural Platinum Facial Kit
  33. 33. AROMATIC PLANTS:- Tagetes Geranium VETIVER Davana Lemongrass Peppermint Palmarosa Tagetes Geranium Geranium with flowers. Khus grass Davana Davana Lemongrass Lemongrass Peppermint Palmarosa 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 33
  34. 34. Medicinal Plants Common name Exracted Commercial products 1. Tagetes minuta Linn. Family- Asteraceae Tagetes oil, Tagetes. Cultivation-Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh. Propagation-direct sowing of seeds , raising the seedlings in the nursery. • oil is present in its leaves 0.8% , flowers1.0 % and seeds while, stem is devoid of any oil. • flower oil contain of three monoterpene ketones namely dihydrotagetone, tagetone and ocimenone are the major constituents. • at full blooming - oil yields are maximum, three monoterpne ketones was found as dihydrotagetone (45-60%), tagetone (15-25%) and ocimenone (20-30%). • oil exhibits bronchodialatory, tranquilising, hypotensive, spasmolytic and anit-inflamonatory activities Attar, Tagetes oil, Lip Scrub, Massage Bar, Skin' facial cleanser, Bare Skin etc. MEDICINAL PLANTS:- 1. Tagetes minuta Linn. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 34 TGETES MINUTA TGETES FLOWER TGETES LEAF TGETES SEEDS TGETES OIL
  35. 35. Cosmetic Product of Tagetes:- Attar Majmua:- • It is derived from tagetes oil which are used in making attar. • Produce by-India. Tagetes oil- • It is used an antiseptic, antibiotics, sedatives{induce sleeping}. therefore it is also used as a massage oil for the treatment of various skin conditions to get relief from insomnia{habitual sleepiness} and it also used also cream and lotion. • Produce by-India. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 35
  36. 36. Lush Charity Pot Review- • It is a lotions which the skin-softening by cocoa butter and almond oil to make your skin feel lovely, and it contains- water(aqua), almond oil( prunus dulcis), fair-trade organic cocoa butter(theobroma cacao), glycerine, stearic acid, ylang ylang oil (cananga odorata), geranium oil(pelargonium graveolens), tagetes oil(tagetes minuta), trithanolamine, cetyl alchol, gerniol, cintronllol, linalool*,limonene* perfume, gardenia extract(gardenia jasminodies)methylparaben, proplyparaben. • Produce by- Auckland, New Zealand. Lush Sweet Lips- • It smells like creamy milk chocolate. Vanilla extract keeps your lips moist, castor sugar gently exfoliates, and the rich, deep fragrance of cocoa absolute gives the irresistible touch. And it contains- castor, Sugar, Organic Jojoba Oil (Simmondsia chinensis), Vanilla Extract (Vanilla planifolia), Cocoa Absolute (Theobroma cacao), Tagetes Oil (Tagetes minuta), Flavour. • Produce by- Auckland, New Zealand. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 36
  37. 37. Friends With Benefits Massage Bar- • It combined with african tagetes oil and Cocoa Butter which are used massage bar and it gives healing and soothing properties. • Produce by-Ireland. Lush Cosmetic Lad Facial Moisturizer:- • It is a moisturizer which has healing and soothing properties.after shaving. • It derive from Chamomile extract, marigold and chickweed and cocoa butter. • It removes irritations and remove dry and red areas. • Produce by- Auckland, New Zealand. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 37
  38. 38. Lush's 'Angels on Bare Skin' facial cleanser- • Tagetes oil works as a sedative, an insecticide, an antiseptic and disinfectant. • It helps to protect the skin from bacteria and parasites and calms skin problems such as dermatitis and it contains- Ground Almonds, Glycerine, Kaolin, Water, Lavender Oil, Rose Absolute, Chamomile Blue Oil, Tagetes Oil, Benzoin Resinoid, Lavender Flowers, Limonene and Linalool. • Produce by- Auckland, New Zealand. Lush - Angels On Bare Skin:- • It is a is a creamy cleanser and it does not produce foam and prevent the skin from drying. • Produce by- Auckland, New Zealand. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 38
  39. 39. Genetic transformation studies in Tagetes through Agrobacterium rhizogenes- • Genetic transformation studies in Tagetes through Agrobacterium rhizogenes were performed for generating transgenics and producing secondary metabolites. • In case of Tagetes roots were induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes in vitro grown plants. • More than 80% explants showed root initiation after 15 days of infection. These roots were grown in liquid MS media and showed profuse growth. • SOURCE- CSIR-CIMAP, LUCKNOW. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 39
  40. 40. Medicinal Plants Common name Exracted Commercial products 2. Pelargonium graveolans Family- Geraniaceae. Geranium oil, Geranium, rose geranium{oil contain strong rose like odour}. Cultivation- mainly in Nilgiris and Kodaikanal Hills of Tamil Nadu and Bangalore. Propagation- Terminal cuttings. • Geranium oil extracted from leaves and stalk , geranium oil also contains -pinene, ß-pinene, terpinene, myrcene, - phellandrene, limonene, cis-ocimene, trans ocimene, p-cymene, terpinolene, cis-roseoxide, trans-rose oxide, menthone, trans-linalool, iso-menthone, caryophyllene, geranyl acetate, nerol, geranyl formate, gernayl butyrate, geraniol . • But major constituent of geranium oil is geranial and citronellol. • It is used in making scenting soaps and high grade perfumes. Lipstick, ROSE GERANIUM Face & Body Gel Scrub, ROSE GERANIUM LIP BALM, moisturizer, anti- dandruff herbal shampoo , Platinum Facial Kit etc. 2.Pelargonium graveolans:- PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 40GERANIUM GERANIUM FLOWER GERANIUM LEAF GERANIUM OILGERANIUM T. CUTTINGS
  41. 41. Cosmetic Product of Pelargonium graveolans:- Organic geranium oil- • it is a skin care oil which protect from drying and it heals the skin and preventing the formation of red scar. • It derive from Citronellol, geraniol, linalool. • Country of Origin ~ Egypt / South Africa Perfect Rouge Tender Sheer - Rose Geranium Achieves elegant, light and beautiful lips through translucent, dewy colour, silky radiance and a glamorous full look. Produce by –New Zealand 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 41
  42. 42. Fabindia Rose Geranium Face & Body Gel Scrub- • It is a gel scrub which derive from rose petals and geranium oil. • The rose petals have a cooling effect while geranium oil detoxifies the skin. • It is very effective on rough skin over elbows, knees, etc. and works well on the foot too. • Produce by- India BALM BALM ROSE GERANIUM LIP BALM- • It is a which are used in the lip and protect the lip from crack and drying. • Produce by- UK 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 42
  43. 43. Rose geranium face moisturizer- • It makes the skin soft and has antioxidant property and diminish the sign of aging and makes the skin silky and smooth. • Produce by- Atlanta City, US. Rose Geranium Soap- • It is a scent soap will brighten your spirits as you clean, tone and moisturize your skin. • It derive from essential oil of Egyptian rose geranium. Palmarosa, another rosy-scented essential oil, which produce more aroma. • Produce by- Columbia, New York. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 43
  44. 44. Anti-dandruff herbal shampoo- It is a natural conditioner which protect the hair from dandruff. Oil of geranium as an active constituent is detrimental against the dandruff aggravating species of fungi. Formulation is safe, non-toxic, leaving a good conditioning effect and making the hair soft and silky. It is produced by CSIR-CIAMP, Lucknow. Huk Natural Platinum Facial Kit- • Facial kit derive from Platinum Dust, Geranium Oil, Sandalwood Oil, Wheat germ Oil & Aloe Vera. It purifies, brightens and polishes skin. • Platinum particles present in the facial detoxify and leaves the skin youth. • Produce by- India 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 44
  45. 45. Transformation in Biosynthetic Pathways:- Volatile monoterpene oil biosynthesis in rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.)- • Monoterpene biosynthesis in rose scented geranium has been shown to involve non- mevalonate pathway of isoprenogenesis. We have cloned deoxyxylulose-5- phosphate synthase (dxs) gene from its leaves, dxs gene being the committed and regulate pathway. • Monoterpene biosynthesis are produced the monoterpene oil like geranial, Citronellol, linalool and nerol from the leaves. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 45
  46. 46. Medicinal Plants Common name Exracted Commercial products 3. Vetiveria zizanioides. Linn Family- Poaceae vetiver, khus , "Khus Khus" khus grass. means aromatic root., khus oil. Cultivation- Kerala, East Godavari and Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana States. Propagation- seeds or root slips • Oil extracted from root. • And root contains like Khusol, Khusone, Khusene etc. • Oil is widely used in perfumeris, cosmetics, and for scenting of soaps. natural khus powder, Khus Soap, Body Wash, Skin Lightening Gel, shampoo, vetiver scents etc. 3. Vetiveria zizanioides. Linn:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 46 KHUS GRASS KHUS FLOWER KHUS SEEDS KHUS ROOTSLIPS KHUS OIL
  47. 47. Cosmetic Product of Vetiveria zizanioides:- Vaadi Herbals Royal Indian Khus Soap- • It manufacture from khus, Olive & Soybean Oil • Soap has rejuvenating {restoring} property. • It promotes the re-growth of skin cells; which helps in removal of dead cells, fading of marks as well as in bringing newer, softer, younger skin to the surface. • Produce by- Mumbai. Natural khus powder- • The roots of Vetiver and leaves are used in making khus powder. • Produce by- USA. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 47
  48. 48. VETIVER & ALOE VERA Purnaturals Body Wash- • Stimulating shower gel body wash, based on aloe vera & vetiver formulations. • It is a body wash gel with zero chemicals. • it is one of its kind, it cleanses & leaves your skin revitalized • Produced by- Koramangala ,Bangalore. Fair’e Mulethi-Khus Skin Lightening Gel- • It derive from Vetiver roots. • It is a light textured gel helps to fade away dark patches and spots. Vetiver roots promote skin regeneration and rejuvenate the sun damaged skin cells for a visibly fairer and radiant skin. • Produce by-Singapore 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 48
  49. 49. Herbal shampoo- • It contains Amla, Reetha, Shikakai, Heena Bhringraj and Khus as active ingredients. • Safe, nontoxic and environment friendly. • It is produced by CSIR-CIAMP,Lucknow. Lalique’s Encre Noir (the guy’s version)- • it is a Attar derive from southern US type of vetiver. • Produce by- San Diego, United States 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 49
  50. 50. Production of Antimycobacterial phytomolecule “Khusimol” from Vetiveria zizanioides- • A phytomolecule khusimol was identify which act as antibacterial agent from the plant Vetiveria zizanioides. • Khusimol active against virulent strain H37Rv of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. • Khusimol, in in-vitro assay was observed to inhibit the super coiling induction activity of bacterial. • Source- CISIR-CIMAP,lucknow Development of high yielding varieties of khus (Vetiveria zizanoides)- • Ten superior clones with oil content above 2.2% in replicated trial. • Developed polycross progenies were evaluate their fresh root yield and oil content again. • Fresh root yield and oil content ranged from 0.50 – 70.7g/ plant and 2.2 – 2.96 percent, respectively against check (Gulabi-1.76, Kesari-1.04, Dharni-1.92, KS1-2.03%). • Progenies have been raised through seeds for evaluation. • Source- Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, Anand. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 50
  51. 51. Khusimol:- • It is a Sesquiterpenes(derived from three isoprene units) organic molecule. • It is isolated from the roots of vetiver. • It is a major component of the oil of vetiver, which is used to prepare certain high value perfumes. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 51
  52. 52. Medicinal Plants Common name Extracted Commercial products 4. Artemisia annua Family- Asteraceae Habitat- annual aromatic herb Davana, Davana oil. Cultivation- Kashmir valley, Shimla Hills and Nainital Hills, Karnataka, Maharastra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Propagation-seeds. • Leaves and flowers contain essential oil and produce aroma. • Flowers and leaves oil contain aroma and it is due to sesquiterpene ketone called cis-davanone. • Flowers and leaves oil contain sesquiterpene ketone named `artemone', sesquiterpenoids named `davanafurans' and another ketone named`isodavanone‘ and is used in high grade perfumes and cosmetics. Davana oil, wormwood oil, antibacterial soap etc. 4. Artemisia annua:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 52 DAVANA DAVANA FLOWER DAVANA SEEDS DAVANA OIL
  53. 53. Cosmetic Product of Artemisia annua:- Davana oil- • It is produced by process of steam distillation of the herb called Artemisia annua. Davana oil is prepared from unopened flower petals and unbroken stems. • The oil itself has a unique aroma and healing properties which are used widely in cosmetic and aromatherapy {aromatic plant extracts and essential oils for therapeutic purposes} and pharmaceutical industries respectively. • Produce by- Planters Company, Bangalore. Davana oil- • Davana Oil is one of the important essential oil which are used for the manufacture of perfumes, flavours and cosmetics. • Davana oil is prepared from unopened flower petals and unbroken stems. • Produce by- Hosur. Tamil nadu 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 53
  54. 54. Wormwood oil- • It is prepared from woody stems {bitter in taste} of leaf or flower ,olive oil, vinegar or water. • It will be given on the skin in case of insect bites, scrapes and sunburn. • Produce by- LJP Nagar, New Delhi Folium Artemisia Oil- • It can be used to add in skin care products and making, perfume and other related detergent. • Place of Origin- Shanghai China (Mainland) 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 54
  55. 55. . Natural ARTEMISIA SCOPARIA Oil- • It remove acne, blocked pores and anti-imflammation . • It relieve from relieving fever and pain and hair care. • Produce by- china Abaan argy wormwood leaf essential oil antibacterial soap- • It keep skin clear, tender, soft, elastic. • Gentle your sensitive skin, with luxurious foam clear your lather. • It developed for nourishing and nutrition for the skin. It can penetrate into the surface skin cells support skin with natural nutrition. • Place of Origin:- Zhejiang China (Mainland) 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 55
  56. 56. Medicinal Plants Common name Extracted Commercial products 5. Cymbopogons flexuosus Family- poaceae lemon grass, lemon oil grass. Cultivation- Kerala, nothern district of Travancore and Cochin, Assam, Maharastra, parts of Uttar Pradesh, Jamind etc. Propagation- seeds, rooted slips. • Leaves and Shoot of lemongrass produce oil. • Lemongrass oil contain myrcene (0.02%), p-cymene (0.04%), terpinene (0.60%), beta terpineol (0.40%), alpha terpineol (2.25%), triphenyl acetate (0.90%), borneol (1.90%), geraniol + nerol (1.50%), citral-b (27.7%), citral-a(46.60%), farnesol (12.80%), farnesal (3.00%). • lemongrass oil is mainly used in the manufacture of perfumes for soaps, hair oils, scents and medicines. Body Scrub, in Skincare product, Blackhead Whitehead Controller, face Mask, body oil etc. 5. Cymbopogons flexuosus:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 56 LEMON GRASS LEMON GRASS SHOOT LEMON GRASS FLOWERS LEMON GRASS ROOT SLIP LEMON GRASS OIL
  57. 57. Cosmetic Product of Cymbopogons flexuosus:- . Body Recipe Lemongrass- • It is a Skincare lotion which has anti-aging property and make the skin smooth and soft. • Produced by- Philippines Naturopathica Lemongrass Mimosa Body Scrub- • It is a massaging cream of the body skin it does not produce foam. • it derive from thick walnut shell powder and shea butter based paste that’s creamy. • Produce by-southwest pacific • Naturopathica means alternative medicine is prepared based on the theory that diseases can be successfully treated and prevent use of drugs. Ex- exercise, control of diet, massage. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 57
  58. 58. BiON Blackhead Whitehead Controller- • It dissolves sebum plugs that developed into blackheads {a plug of sebum in a hair follicle, darken due to oxidation} and whiteheads{a pale and white topped pustule(pimple with pus) on the skin} and inhibits the development of new plugs. • If acne is also present, use the Blackhead/Whitehead Controller. • Produce by- Redding, Canada. Young Living’s Purification- • Purification can be used directly on the skin to cleanse and soothe{reduce pain} insect bites, cuts, and scrapes{injury or mark}. • It is mix with Citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia) lavandin (Lavandula x hybrida), and myrtle (Myrtus communis). • Produce by- Singapore 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 58
  59. 59. . Body Shop Nutriganics Smoothing Mask - • It is a deep cleansing mask that leaves skin feeling silky and smooth. • Produce by- South America. Biotique citronella refreshing body oil- • Moisturising body oil and remove acne and red areas. • Produce by- India, New delhi. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 59
  60. 60. Transformation:- Genomic manipulation in Cymbopogons- • The raw autotetraploid clone developed for the Lemongrass (C. khasianus) clone. “Suwarna”has been screened for cytological purity and progressive polyploid stability. • Source- DMAPR, Anand. Polyploidy breeding in Cymbopogons- • Genetically stable clones developed in Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), Citronella (C. winterianus), Palmarosa (C. martinii), and geraniol rich species namely C. nardus (clone CN-5)- C. jwaruncusha x confertiflorus, all with 2n=20, 4x=40, and Cymbopogon khasianus x pendulus – clone CKP-25 (2n=60, 4x=120) were evaluated in the randomized block design. • It Observed that the tetraploid of C. flexuosus, clone ‘Krishna’ and clone ‘Pragati’, auto- tetraploids of C. winterianus clone Bio-13, and CIM- Jeeva, and the auto-tetraploids of geraniol rich species, C. nardus {clone CN-5}-C. jwaruncusha x confertiflorus, and C. winterianus exhibit superior oil yield and oil content. • Source- DMAPR, Anand. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 60
  61. 61. Medicinal Plants Common name Extracted Commercial products 6. Mentha piperita L. family- Laminaceae Propagation- stolons or suckers. Peppermint(aromatic leaves), peppermint oil and (M.spicata L.- separmint or garden mint), (M.citrata Ehrh.- bergamot mint or orange mint(oily substances obtain variety of Seville orange) . (Mentha arvensis- corn mint(yellow flower plant common weed of cornfields) or Field mint or Japanese mint). Cultivation-Japanese mint- Tarai region (Nainital, Badayun, Bilaspur, Rampur, Moradabad and Bareilly), Indo- Gangetic Plains (Barabanki and Lucknow) and parts of Punjab (Ludhiana and Jalandhar). • Peppermint oil is extracted from leaves. Pepper mint oil contain 35-50 per cent. • Menthol other constituents are menthyl acetate (14- 15%), menthone (9-25%) menthofuran and terpenes like pinene and limonene. • It is used in flavouring of pharmaceuticals and preparations of tooth pastes, dental creams, mouth washes, in cough drops, chewing gums, confectionery and alcholic liquors. Lip Balm, Peppermint Brown Sugar Scrub, refreshing soothing essential oils, Peppermint & Aloe Soap, Shampoo, Body Wash etc. 6. Mentha piperita L.:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 61 PEPPERMINT PEPPERMINT FLOWERS PEPPERMINT STOLON PEPPERMINT OIL
  62. 62. Cosmetic Product of Mentha piperita:- Beeswax Lip Balm Tube – • It is a natural lip balm is loaded with coconut and sunflower oils, rich in vitamins and essential fatty acids, to nourish and soften lips. Beeswax seals in hydration, even peppermint oil added for a refreshing tingle(stinging sensation). • Produce by- Canada. Soothing Touch Herbal Therapy Peppermint Brown Sugar Scrub- • It is a combination of peppermint oils and brown sugar produces natural fatty acids, which lock in moisture, prevent from drying, diminish the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and leave skin silky smooth. • Produce by-Conshohocken, USA. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 62
  63. 63. Nubian Heritage, Peppermint & Aloe Soap- • It is a combination of Aloe, Shea Butter(small tropica African trees bears oily nuts like-Vitellaria paradoxa, Butyrospermum parkii), Peppermint oil, baking soda, Almonds. • It is an effective cleanser for skin conditions. The oxygen action of baking soda makes the skin smooth and soft and Peppermint oil give aroma stimulates the senses. Crushed Almonds add antioxidant and gentle exfoliation to this rich lathering, invigorating and skin soothing . • Produce by- US. Mentha Piperita 100 refreshing soothing essential oils- • It is used in the acne / FACIAL and have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory property. • Cosmetic features-Purity, Odor, Psychological effect, Absorbance, Skin effect. • Produce by- China. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 63
  64. 64. . Intelligent Nutrients Harmonic Shampoo- • It is a conditioner for all hair types. • It is used in extremely dry hair, skip shampoo and cleanse with conditioner. • Produce by- Orgeon, US. Nubian Heritage, Body Wash • It is derive from Peppermint & Aloe With Baking Soda. • It has Anti-Inflammatory property and make skin smooth and soft. • It is suitable for Oily to Normal Skin. • Produce by- USA. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 64
  65. 65. Transformations:- Genetic improvement in Mentha piperita- • Fifty progenies were raised from different seed and stocks of Mentha piperita evaluate their oil yield potential. • Out of 50, only 8 seed progenies showed high oil yield potential than their seed parents at first instance. • The strain MPH-1,mint variety CIMAP- Patra, showing oil yield potential of about 60-65 kg/ha with menthofuran content 46% in its oil, • It has been released and licensed to AM Todd Company Limited Veer Nariman Road, Mumbai (Birendra Kumar). • Source- DMAPR. Anand. Identification of high yielding clone in Mentha arvensis/ Japanese mint – • Menthol mint clone MBB- 1022 has been identify and evaluated that oil content 0.8% and 78 – 80 % menthol in the off season crop. • Clone MBB-1022 is suitable for growing in late kharif season after the harvest of main crop. • Source- DMAPR. Anand. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 65
  66. 66. Medicinal Plants Common name Extracted Commercial products 7. Cymbopogon martini Family- Poaceae Rosha grass' or `Russa grass‘, Palmarosa oil grass.(shoots) Cultivation-Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra and Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Andhar Pradesh, Jodphur (Rajasthan), Karnataka, Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh. Propagation- nursery raised seedlings, root- cuttings, root slips. • Oil of Palmarosa is obtained from shoots and above ground parts. • Oil of palmarosa chiefly contains 70-80 per cent geraniol and other constituents present in the oil are pinene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cinene, ß- terpinene, n-hexanol, prenyl-isovalerate, amyl hexanoate, linaool, prenyl hexanoate, ß- caryophyllene, neryl formate, geranial, gernyl acetate, nerol, prenyl octanoate, geranyl butyrate, geranyl isovalerate, 6,7-geranyl exposide, 2,3-geranyl epoxide, caryophyllene epoxide, geranyl hexanoate; p-mentha, 1,8 (10)- dien-9-yl-acetate, geranyl octonoate, p-mentha- 1,8 (10)-dien-9-01 etc. • Oil of palmarosa is used in perfumery, flavouring in tobacco and blending in soap and perfumes, Palmarosa essential oil, Face Scrub, skin and bodycare oil, anti aging cream, moisturizer cream etc. 7.Cymbopogon martini:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 66 PALMAROSA GRASS PALMAROSA FLOWER PALMAROSA SEEDS PALMAROSA OIL
  67. 67. Cosmetic Product of Cymbopogon martini:- Palmarosa essential oil- • It has antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial properties. • Oil could be used for acne, boils, shingles(severe pain), and skin issues related to yeast or yeast overgrowth. • Excellent oil for skin care, especially dry skin, wrinkles or lack luster skin. • Produce by- Lincoln, Nebraska, US. Real Shaving Company Daily Face Scrub- • It is a face scrub which is fight for acne and remove red areas from skin makes skin soft and healthier. • Produced by- New York, USA. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 67
  68. 68. . Organic Palmarosa oil- • It is suitable for dry/hard skin and it helps retain moisture and encourages natural sebum production. Valuable in all types of skin care and also lightly antiseptic. • origin - Nepal and India. Citronella Essential Oil- • Citronella oil is produced from steam distillation and aroma of oil uplifting the emotions and refreshing, balancing and calming. • Produce by- Burlington, Ontario. Canada 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 68
  69. 69. Snowberry Cellular Regeneration Night Cream- • Snowberry Cellular Regeneration Night Cream is an anti-aging night cream designed to naturally repair skin by neutralizing free radicals. • Produce by-New York, USA. Palmarosa essential oil product- • It is a combination of citronella oil and rose geranium oil. • It is used in skin and hair care products. Suitable for all skin types and it protects the hair and skin and is helpful with skin regeneration. • Produce by-Nazareth, Belgium.. Western Europe. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 69
  70. 70. Uses of Essential Oils:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 70
  71. 71. PLANT VARIETIES RELEASED FROM CSIR-CIAMP,Lucknow {2010-2011}:- Plant Name Variety Name Release Date Menthofuran rich mint (Mentha piperita L.) CIMAP- Patra 25.9.2010 Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) CIMAP- Madhu 29.1.2011 Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) CIMAP- Ajay 29.1.2011 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 71
  72. 72. Stevia rebaudiana :- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 72 Medicinal plants Common name Extacted Commercial products Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Hemsl. Family- Asteraceae. Habitat- Slender Perennial herb. Stevia Cultivation- USA, Brazil, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and South East Asia. Japan and Korea (marshes and grasses). Propagation- cuttings or seed or by tissue culture. • leaves of steiva contain sweetening compounds namely Stevioside (3-10%), Rebaudiside-A (13%), Rebaudiside-B,C and six other compounds, which have the insulin balancing properties. • This sweetener imparts 250 times more sweetness than table sugar and 300 times more than sucrose. Stevia has become a potential alternative source by replacing artificial sweetners like Saccharin, Aspartane, Asulfam-k etc. • stevia has been named as ‘calorie free bio-sweetener of high quality’. • Leaves of stevia imparts a pleasant flavour apart from increasing sweetness of the product. • It can be used in most of typical Indian dishes like sakkare pongal, payasam, ravaladdoo, jam, juice, tea, coffee etc. • It can be used in herbal medicine and tonics for diabetic patients. It can be used in tooth pastes and mouth freshners as it has antibacterial and antifungal properties. A wet stevia leaf bag placed over eyes for a few mintues effectively tighten skin and smoothes out wrinkles. Stevia has a healing effect on
  73. 73. Continued:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 73 Extracted • It is used as aid in body weight management and weight losses. It also tends to lower the elevated blood pressure, incidents of colds and flu. • Glucoside groups are removed from stevioside to produce steviol. In addition, it is also used in the production of Gibberellic acids from the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi mutants. Stevia Stevia flowers Stevia fruits Stevia seeds
  74. 74. Cosmetic Products of Stevia:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 74 Sugar free herbvia 50Sachets- • Sugar Free Herbvia is a perfect choice of Herbal Stevia Sweetener for health and fitness conscious people who want to control their calorie intake. • It is also suitable for diabetics and obese people wanting to reduce weight, the herbal way. • Produce by- Gota, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Puresati Everyday Soothing Face Wash- • With Stevia as an ingredient, this facewash is highly effective as anti acne and for tightening of the facial skin. • Honey and Apricot removes the tan and further nourishes the skin respectively. • Saffron cleanses and contains active compounds that help in reducing scars, pigmentation, tan and acne marks. Its regular use will result in a deep cleansed and radiant skin. • Produce by- GreenRev Agro Private Limited Powai, Mumbai, India.
  75. 75. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 75 Stevia skin and hair care products- • Stevia raw leaf powder when used in form of a face pack results in visible difference in terms of tightening the skin of the face, reducing fine lines and also reducing scars and pigmentation. • It should be blended with Aloe Vera gel and rose water or milk to form a paste and then kept applied over the face for about 20 minutes. • Stevia also shows very positive results in reducing pigmentation. Being anti bacterial, stevia is highly effective in healing skin blemishes and acne and also it acts as a highly effective ingredient for anti dandruff shampoo & hair conditioners. • It is a good moisturizer, it also nourishes the scalp if used in hair care products. • Produce by-GreenRev Agro Private Limited Powai, Mumbai, India. PYURE BRANDS: SWEET SUCCESS- • Pyure has developed an organic stevia syrup substitute, nectür (right), which, will act as a replacement for both honey and a maple flavors. • it is blend 1:1 ratio with table sugar for baking and cooking needs. • Produce by- Southwest Florida, US.
  76. 76. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 76 STEVIA SHAMPOO - FLORAL SCENT- Ingredients- aqua, Sapindus Mukurossi Extract,Coco Glucoside, Sodium Chloride, Glycerin, Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaf Extract, Equisetum Arvense Extract, Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract, Juniperus Communis Fruit Extract, Salvia Officinalis Leaf Extract, Xanthan Gum Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten,Benzylalcohol, Stevia Rebaudiana Leaf Extract,Citric Acid. Produce by- Geldrop, Netherland. ALOE VERA MASSAGE CREAM with stevia- Produce by- UK.
  77. 77. Intellectual Property Rights of DMPAR,ANAND. 2012-2013:- DMAPR, Anand:- Six germplasm i.e one each in • Madhunashini (Gymnema sylvestre)DGS-22 • Kalmegh (Andrographispaniculata) DMAPR AP3 • (Aloe barbadensis) DMAPRAB1 • Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) DWS-6 and • Guggal (Commiphora wightii)NRC CW2 & NRC CW1 were identified and registered with NBPGR, New Delhi during the year. The details are as follows. 1. DGS-22 (INGr13041): A high fruit producing plant type of Madhunashini 2. DMAPR AP3(INGR-13042): Narrow leaf type with high andrographoloide content of Kalmegh 3. DMAPR AB1(INGR-13043): A yellow flowered plant type with 22.23% Aloin A content of Aloe. 4. NRC CW2 (INGR-13044): A male plant of erect or divergent branches with 0.125% guggulosterone Z content of Guggal. 5. NRC CW1(INGR-13045): A female plant of drooping or weeping branches with 0.176% guggulosterone Z content of Guggal. 6. DWS-6(INGR-13047): A procumbent plant type of Ashwagandha. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 77
  78. 78. Importance of Aromatic plants:- 6. Aromatic plants are from a numerically large group of economically important plants. These are increasing demand for essential oils, aroma chemicals drugs and pharmaceuticals in the world market since two decades. Aromatic compounds are present in plants i.e. in root, wood, bark, foliage, flower, fruit, seed etc. 1. Aromatic plants produce essential oils, perfumes and flavours are in use with our civilization since several thousand years. 2. Due to Vast area and varied agro-climatic condition, it can be commercial cultivated in different part of India successfully. 3. Essential oils and aroma chemicals are indispensable in various human activities. 4.They are adjuncts of cosmetics, soaps, pharmaceutical preparation, perfumer confectionery, ice-cream, aerated waters, disinfectants, agarbatti etc. 5. Some of the important aromatic plants like Lemon grass, Citronella, Palmarose, Vetiver, Geranium, Lavender, Dawana etc. have great demand in our country. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 78
  79. 79. COMMERCIALIZATION OF DRUGS 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 79
  80. 80. Introduction:- • Medicinal plants play an important role in the development of potent therapeutic agents. Today estimate that about 80 % of people in developing countries still relays on traditional medicine based largely on species of plants and animals for their primary health care. • About 500 plants with medicinal use are mentioned in ancient literature and around 800 plants have been used in indigenous systems of medicine. • Herbal drugs are use of therapeutic herbs to prevent and treat diseases and ailments or to support health and healing. • World Health Organization (WHO) has distinct herbal drugs as complete, labeled medicinal products that have vigorous ingredients, aerial or secretive parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. • World Health Organization has set precise guidelines for the evaluation of the safety, efficacy, and quality of herbal medicines . Herbal drug is a chief constituent in traditional medicine and a common constituent in ayurvedic, homeopathic, naturopathic and other medicine systems. • The use of herbal drugs due to toxicity and side effects of allopathic medicines, has led to rapid increase in the number of herbal drug manufacturers. For the past few decades, herbal drugs have been more and more consumed by the people with no prescription. These drugs have survived real world testing and thousands of years of human testing. Some drugs have been discontinued due to their toxicity, while others have been modified or combined with additional herbs to counterbalance side effects. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 80
  81. 81. Current status:- • Indian drug majors: "20%+ growth in 2013, driven by exports“. • India's leading pharmaceutical players will continue to experience revenue growth of over 20% this year, primarily led by exports and especially to the US, says a new report from India Ratings. • The US market will remain Indian pharma's main focus area in the medium to short term, mainly because of the sheer size of generic opportunities there, it says. The US generic market, now worth about $100 billion, could grow at an annual average rate of around 8%-9% in the medium term, due to patent expiries - set to be worth around $125 billion during 2013-15 - coupled with pro-generic policies. • The report also sees continued good growth for Indian-made generics in other developed and "pharmerging" markets, due to patent expiries and cost-cutting measures by payers. On the back of this increasing demand, exports now account for 60% of the Indian pharma sector's total revenues and they grew by an annual average of 19% between 2008 and 2012. In January-October 2012, Indian drug exports were worth 620 billion rupees, an increase of around 28% year-on-year. • MCE Society's Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Research Academy located at Azam Campus Pune organised 2nd international conference on herbal and synthetic drug studies at Azam campus in association with University of Kansas Cancer Centre (UKCC), USA here recently. • The objective of the conference was to bring the scientists community together to discuss the advances in the preparation of herbal and synthetic drugs, finding new experimental methodologies for their characterisation using various analytical/biochemical techniques and their applications. Speakers of conference was from USA, England, Germany and national research institutes of India such as IICT {Indian Institute of Commerce and Trade},lucknow and NIAB (Hyderabad), NCI (Kolkata) {National Cancer Institute}, Lupin Research Park (Pune), Suarashtra University (Rajkot), IIT Madras (Chennai). 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 81
  82. 82. Continued:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 82 • The annual turnover of the Indian herbal medicinal industry is about Rs. 7,500 crore as against the pharmaceutical industry’s turnover of Rs. 14,500 crores with a growth rate of more than 15 percent. As per study commissioned by the “Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry {ASSOCHAM}”the Indian herbal industry is projected to double to Rs.15, 000 crore by 2015, from the current 7,500 core business. The apex chamber estimates global herbal industry to grow to Rs 70,000 crore by 2015, more than double from the current level of Rs 30,000 crore.Small-scale sector are likely to witness brighter times ahead. • The study reveals that there is a growing demand for raw stock which is Amla, Isabgol, Senna, Henna, Ashwagandha, Aloe-vera and Myrobalans (Hartaki), which comprises over 75 percent of the raw materials employed in Ayurvedic medicines. • Traditional Chinese Medicine uses over 5000 plant species; India uses about 7000. According to Export-Import Bank, the international market for medicinal plant related trade having a growth rate of 7% per annum. • China’s share in world herbal market is US$ 6 billion while India’s share is only US$1 billion. • India exports crude drugs mainly to developed countries viz. USA, Germany, France, Switzerland, UK and Japan. • Aconite, Aloe, Belladonna, Acorus, Cinchona, Cassia tora, Dioscorea, Digitalis, Ephedra, Plantago and Senna are the principal Indian herbal drugs exported to foreign countries. • Medicinal plant parts exported from India, importing medicinal plants and their parts. • . About 121 (45 tropical and 76 subtropical) major plant drugs have been identified for which no synthetic one is currently available.
  83. 83. Advantages of Herbal Drugs:- • High Low/Minimum cost. • Complete accessibility. • Enhanced tolerance. • More protection. • Fewer side-effects. • Potency and efficiency is very high. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 83
  84. 84. Disadvantages of Herbal Drugs:- • Not able to cure rapid sickness and accidents. • Risk with self-dosing. • Complexity in standardizations. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 84
  85. 85. Importance of plants as a source of new drugs :- • The development of traditional medicinal systems incorporating plants as means of therapy can be traced back to the Middle Paleolithic age some 60,000 years ago as found from fossil studies . • In recent times, developed countries are turning to the use of traditional medicinal systems that involve the use of herbal drugs and remedies18 and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), almost 65% of the world’s population has incorporated the value of plants as a methodology of medicinal agents into their primary modality of health care . It is often noted that 25% of all drugs prescribed today come from plants. • This estimate suggests that plant-derived drugs make up a significant segment of natural product– based pharmaceuticals. Out of many families of secondary metabolites, or compounds on which the growth of a plant is not dependent, nitrogen containing alkaloids have contributed the largest number of drugs to the modern pharmacopoeia, ranging in effects from anticholinergics (atropine) to analgesics (opium alkaloids) and from antiparasitics (quinine) to anticholinesterases (galantamine) to antineoplastics (vinblastine/vincristine). 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 85
  86. 86. Antidiabetic activity Herbal plants a drug used to treat diabetes Abroma augusta, Acacia melanoxylon, Acacia modesta, Acacia nilotica, Aconitum ferox, Adhatoda vasika, Adiantum capillus, Adiantum incisum, Agrimonia eupatoria, Allium sativum, Aloe barbadensis, Althaea officinalis, Apium graveolens, Arctium lappa, Commiphora abyssinca, Embilica officinalis, Eucalyptus globules, Ginseng panax, Gymnema sylvestre, Inula helenium, Juniperus communis, Medicago sativa, Nigella sativa, Orthosiphon stamineus, Panex quinquefolius, Polygala senega, Plantago ovata, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis, Scoparia dulcis, Tanacetum vulgare, Taraxacum officinale, Tecoma stans, Trifolium alexandrinum, Trigonella foenum, Turnera diffusa, Urtica dioica, Xanthium strumarium, Zea mays and Zingiber officinale, Annona squamosa Antidiabetic activity:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 86 Abroma augustum Ginseng panax Adhatoda vasica Acacia melanoxylon Urtica dioica
  87. 87. Scientific Name with Common Name of Antidiabetic Plants:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 87 Scientific Name Common Name Abroma augusta Devil's Cotton, Cotton Abroma, Acacia melanoxylon Australian Blackwood, Sally Wattle, Lightwood, Hickory, Mudgerabah, Tasmanian Blackwood or Black Wattle. , Acacia modesta Amritsar-Gum, Black Sally, Blackwood, Phulai. Acacia nilotica Indian Gum Arabic Tree, Black Babool, Babul. Aconitum ferox Himalayan monkshood, Monk's hood, Indian aconite, Vachnag. Adhatoda vasika Adatodai, Arusa, Adulsa, Bakas, Malabar Nut Tree. Adiantum capillus Southern maidenhair fern, black maidenhair fern, and venus hair fern, garden fern.
  88. 88. Continued:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 88 Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Adiantum incisum Maiden-hair Fern, Embilica officinalis Indian Gooseberry, Amla. Agrimonia eupatoria Church Steeples, Churchsteeples, Cockleburr, Sticklewort, Stickwort. Eucalyptus globules Tasmanian Blue Gum, Eurabbie, Blue Gum, Blue Eucalyptus. Allium sativum, Garlic. Ginseng panax Asian Ginseng, Asiatic Ginseng, Chinese Ginseng, Chinese Red Ginseng, Ginseng, ASHWAGANDA. Althaea officinalis Marsh Mallow, Common marshmallow. Gymnema sylvestre Gemnema Melicida, Gimnema, Gurmar, Gurmar, Gurmarbooti, Vishani, Madhunashini. Apium graveolens Celery, Wild Celery, Bari ajmod, Ajmod. Inula helenium Wild sunflower, Horseheal, Yellow Starwort, Scabwort, Elf Dock and Velvet Dock. , Arctium lappa, Bardana, Beggar's Buttons, Burr Seed, Cockle Burr, Fox's Clote, Lappa, Lappa minor, Thorny Burr. , Juniperus communis Juniper Berries, Juniper bush, Juniper bark, Common Juniper, Dwarf Juniper. Commiphora abyssinca Abyssinian myrrh. Medicago sativa Alfalfa, bastard medic, buffal herb, lucerne, purple medic, sand lucerne.,
  89. 89. Continued:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 89 Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Nigella sativa, fennel flower, nutmeg flower, black caraway, Roman coriander, and black cumin, onion seed and black sesame. , Scoparia dulcis Sweet Broom Weed, Sweet Broom Wort, Mithi patti. Orthosiphon stamineus White Cat's Whiskers, java tea / misai kuching / kumis kucing Tanacetum vulgare common tansy, bitter buttons, garden tansy, golden buttons. Panex quinquefolius American ginseng, Canadian ginseng, five-fingers, occidental ginseng, sang, seng. Taraxacum officinale, Dandelion, Polygala senega Seneca snakeroot, Seneca- snakeroot, Senega root, Senega snakeroot, rattlesnake root, mountain flax, white snakeroot. Tecoma stans Yellow bells, Yellow trumpet, Yellow- Elder, Piliya. Plantago ovata, Desert Indianwheat, Blond Psyllium, Isabgol. Trifolium alexandrinum Berseem, berseem clover, Egyptian clover. Punica granatum Pomegranate, Anar. Trigonella foenum Fenugreek, methi.
  90. 90. Continued:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 90 Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Urtica dioica nettle, stinging nettle. Xanthium strumarium Common Cocklebur, broad bur, burdock datura, clotbur, rough cocklebur, chota dhatura. Zingiber officinale Ginger Root, Ginger. Annona squamosa sugar-apples.
  91. 91. Analgesic activity:- Analgesic activity Herbal plants a drugs which give relief from pain. Bougainvilla spectabilis, Chelidonium majus, Ficus glomerata, Dalbergia lanceolaria, Glaucium grandiflorum, Glaucium paucilobum, Nepeta italic, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida acuta, Stylosanthes fruticosa, Toona ciliate, Zataria multiflora and Zingiber zerumbet 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 91 Bougainvillea spectabilis Chelidonium majus Ficus glomerata Dalbergia lanceolaria Glaucium grandiflorum nepeta italica Polyalthia longifolia Sida acuta Stylosanthes fruticosa Toona ciliate
  92. 92. Scientific Name with Common Name of Analgesic Plants:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 92 Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Bougainvilla spectabilis bonggavilla, Napoleón, Santa Rita. Polyalthia longifolia Ashoka tree. Chelidonium majus greater celandine, wartwort, yellow spit. Sida acuta Common Wireweed. Ficus glomerata Cluster Fig Tree, Indian Fig Tree or Goolar (Gular) Fig Stylosanthes fruticosa, African stylo. Dalbergia lanceolaria Indian rosewood, East Indian rosewood, dalbergia, Himalaya raintree, Indian dalbergia, penny leaf tree, penny-leaf tree, shisham, sisso, sissoo. Toona ciliate red cedar, Burma cedar, Indian cedar, moulmein cedar, Australian red cedar. Glaucium grandiflorum Red-horned Poppy Zataria multiflora Avishan-E-Shirazi, Satar or Zaataria. Glaucium paucilobum Zingiber zerumbet Shampoo Ginger, Pinecone Ginger. Nepeta italic catnip, catswort, or catmint.
  93. 93. Antifertility activity :- Antifertility activity :- Herbal plants A drugs that inhibits the ability to produce offspring,contraceptive Amaranthus retroflexus, Artabotrys odoratissimus, Barberis vulgaris, Carica papaya, Dieffenbachia seguine, Evodia rutacapra, Fatsia horrid, Ferula assafoetida, Hibiscus rosasinensis, Lonicera ciliosa, , Magnolia virginiana, Mardenia cundurango, Pisum sativum, Podophyllu peltatum, Punica granatum, Raphanus sativus, Rehmannia glutinosa, Semecarpus anacardium, Sesbania sesban, Stemona japonica, Thuja occidentalis, Taxus baccata and Verbena officinalis 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 93 Amaranthus retroflexus Artabotrys odoratissimus Berberis vulgaris Evodia rutaecarpa Ferula assafoetida
  94. 94. Scientific Name with Common Name of Antifertility Plants :- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 94 Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Amaranthus retroflexus red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed. Hibiscus rosasinensis China Rose, Chinese hibiscus, Gurhal. Artabotrys odoratissimus manoranjini. , Lonicera ciliosa Orange Honeysuckle. Barberis vulgaris, European barberry, Barberry. Magnolia virginiana sweet bay magnolia. Dieffenbachia seguine, houseplants, Mother-in-law, Heinrich Wilhelm Schott. , Mardenia cundurango Eagle vine, Mata-peroo. Evodia rutacapra Evodia fruit. Podophyllu peltatum Mayapple, hogapple, Indian apple, mayflower, umbrella plant, wild lemon. Fatsia horrid glossy-leaved paper plant. Punica granatum Pomegranate, Anar. Ferula assafoetida asant, food of the gods, giant Raphanus sativus radish, common radish, wild radish,
  95. 95. Continued:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 95 Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Rehmannia glutinosa Chinese Foxglove, Sheng Di huang. , Semecarpus anacardium Marking Nut, Oriental Cashew. Sesbania sesban Common sesban, Egyptian rattlepod, Egyptian riverhemp, Jayanti. , Stemona japonica Stemona root. Thuja occidentalis Arborvitaes, thujas. , Taxus baccata yew, English yew, or European yew. Verbena officinalis common vervain or common verbena, "mosquito plant" or "wild hyssop“.
  96. 96. Antipsoriasis activity :- Antipsoriasis activity Herbal plants a drug used to treat psoriasis. Psoriasis meaning "itching condition“ The different herbal remedies for psoriasis are, turmeric, shark cartilage extract, oregano oil, milk thistle{flower}. Various antimicrobial agents Azadirachta indica, Calendula officinalis, Cassia tora, Wrightia tinctoria have been used in the management of psoriasis . 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 96 Psoriasis vulgaris chronic relapsing/remitting immune-mediated skin disease. Back and arms of person with psoriasis oregano plant oregano oil milk thistle milk thistle seed oil Silybum marianum Calendula officinalis Cassia tora Wrightia tinctoria turmeric shark cartilage extract
  97. 97. Scientific Name with Common Name of Antipsoriasis Plants :- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 97 Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Calendula officinalis Pot marigold, ruddles, common marigold, garden marigold, English marigold, or Scottish marigold. Azadirachta indica Neem, Nimtree, and Indian Lilac. Cassia tora Foetid cassia, The Sickle Senna, Wild Senna, Charota,Chakvad,Chakavat. Wrightia tinctoria Sweet Indrajao, Pala indigo plant, Dyers’s oleander, Kapar, Dudhi.
  98. 98. Antidipressive activity:- Antidipressive activity:- Herbal plants a drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder. A number of nutritional and herbal supplements have shown promise as alternative treatments for depression. A large number of plants have potential functions to treat depression which are described as, Bacopa monniera, Panax quinquefolius, Piper methysticum, Rhodiola rosea, Valeriana officinalis and Hypericum perforatum . 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 98 Bacopa monniera Panax quinquefolius Piper methysticum Rhodiola rosea Valeriana officinalis Valeriana officinalis hypericum perforatum
  99. 99. Scientific Name with Common Name of Antidipressive Plants:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 99 Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Bacopa monniera Brahmi, Water Hyssop, Indian pennywort, Brahmi. Panax quinquefolius American ginseng, Canadian ginseng, five-fingers, occidental ginseng, sang, seng. Piper methysticum Kava, Kava Kava, Yangona. Rhodiola rosea Golden root, rose root, roseroot, Aaron's rod, arctic root, king's crown, lignum rhodium, orpin rose. Valeriana officinalis Valerian. Hypericum perforatum Tipton's weed, rosin rose, goatweed, chase-devil, or Klamath weed.
  100. 100. Hepatoprotective activity:- Hepatoprotective activity Herbal plants a drug have the ability to prevent damage to the liver A large number of plants and formulations have been claimed to have hepatoprotective activity. Nearly 160 phytoconstituents from 101 plants have been claimed to possess liver protecting activity. They are mainly Coccinia grandis, Flacourtia indica, Silybum marianum, Annona squamosa, Solanum nigrum, Chamomile capitula, Wedelia calendulacea etc 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 100 coccinia grandis Flacourtia indica Silybum marianum Annona squamosa Solanum nigrum Chamomile capitula Wedelia calendulacea
  101. 101. Scientific Name with Common Name of Hepatoprotective Plants:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 101 Scientific Name Common Name Coccinia grandis gentleman's toes, ivy gourd, kunduru. Flacourtia indica Governor's Plum, Batoka Plum, flacourtia, Indian plum, Madagascar plum, Mauritius plum, Rhodesia plum, bilangada. Silybum marianum cardus marianus, milk thistle, blessed milk thistle, Marian Thistle, Mary Thistle, Saint Mary's Thistle, Mediterranean milk thistle, variegated thistle and Scotch thistle. Annona squamosa Sugar-apple. Solanum nigrum Kakamachi, Kakahva, Makoi, European black nightshade or locally just "black nightshade", duscle, garden nightshade, hound's berry, petty morel, wonder berry, small-fruited black nightshade or popolo. Chamomile capitula Manzanilla (Spanish),Maythen (Saxon), chamomile (also spelled camomile), German chamomile,Hungarian chamomile (kamilla), wild chamomile or scented mayweed. Wedelia calendulacea Chinese Wedelia, Pilabhangara, Bhanra.
  102. 102. Herbs for Dental care:- Herbs for Dental care Herbal plants a drug which maintain the healthy teeth. The plants having the dental care properties are Acacia catechu, Acacia arabica{babul}, Althea officinalis, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Azadirachta indica, Barleria prionitis, Cinnamomum camphora{camphor tree}, Cuminum cyminum, Eucalyptus globules, gardenia gummifera, Holarrhenia antidysenterica, Jasminum grandiflorum, Juglans regia, Pistacia lentiscus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Punica granatum, Salvadora persica, Salvia officinalis, Solanum xanthocarpum, Symplocos racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum, All these plants play an important role in suppressing the dental problems. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 102 Acacia catechu acacia arabica Althea officinalis Barleria prionitis Cinnamomum camphora
  103. 103. Scientific Name with Common Name of Dental care plants:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 103 Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Acacia catechu Cutch Tree, black catechu, black cutch, cashoo, catechu, wadalee gum, dant-dhavan. Cinnamomum camphora Camphor Tree, Camphorwood, Camphor laurel, Kapur. Acacia arabica Acacia, Babul, Wattle Bark, Indian Gum. Eucalyptus globules Tasmanian Blue Gum, Eurabbie, Blue Gum, Blue Eucalyptus. Althea officinalis Marsh Mallow, Common marshmallow. gardenia gummifera, Gummy gardenia, Cambi gum tree, Dekamali. Anacyclus pyrethrum pellitory, Spanish chamomile, or Mount Atlas daisy,Akarakarabha, Akarkara. Holarrhenia antidysenterica Indrajao, karva indrajau, kutaja. Azadirachta indica, Lilac, Margosa Tree, Neem, Neem Chal. , Jasminum grandiflorum Jati, Spanish jasmine, Royal jasmine, Catalonian jasmine, chambeli. Barleria prionitis Porcupine flower, Barleria, Vajradanti. Juglans regia Walnut. Cuminum cyminum Cumin. Pistacia lentiscus Mastic Tree.
  104. 104. Continued:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 104 Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Pterocarpus marsupium Bastard teak, Malabar kino tree, Indian Kino Tree, Gammalu, East Indian Kino, Kino, Bijasal, Bigasal. Punica granatum Pomegranate, Granate, Granada. Salvadora persica, Toothbrush Tree, Mustard tree, Salt brush, meswak, Peelu. Salvia officinalis common sage, garden sage. Solanum xanthocarpum Thai eggplant, Yellow-Berried Nightshade, Choti Katheri, Kantkari, Kateli. Symplocos racemosa Lodhra, Symplocos tree or Lodh tree. Syzygium aromaticum laung, clove tree and caryophyllum.
  105. 105. Medicinal plant parts exported from India, importing medicinal plants and their parts:- Exporting of herbals Importing of herbals Botanical names Parts used Botanical name Parts used Acorus calamus Rhizome Aloe vera Dried leaf Argemone mexicana Fruit Adhatoda vasica Bark and leaf Curcuma longa Rhizome Curcuma aromatica Rhizome Curcuma aromatica Wild turmeric Garcinia indica Fruit Cassia lanceolata Leaves Gloriosa superba Tuber and seed Glycyrrhiza glabra Root Juniperus communis Fruit Withania somnifera Vegetable rennet Myrica nagi Bark Piper longum Fruit Phyllanthus amarus Fruit Swertia chirata Whole plant Ocimum sanctum Leaf and essential oil Zingiber officinale Rhizome Vinca rosea Leaf, seed and stem 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 105
  106. 106. Major plant drugs for which no synthetic one is currently available :- Drug Plant Use Vinblastine Catharanthus roseus Anticancer Vinblastine Catharanthus roseus Anticancer Ajmalacine Catharanthus roseus Anticancer Rescinnamine Rauvolfia serpentina Tranquilizer Reserpine Rauvolfia serpentina Tranquilizer Quinine Cinchona sp. Antimalarial Pilocarpine Pilocarpus jaborandi Antiglucoma Cocaine Erythroxylum coca Topical anaesthetic Morphine Papaver somniferum Painkiller Codeine Papaver somniferum Anticough Atropine Atropa belladonna Spasmolytic, cold Atropine Atropa belladonna Spasmolytic, cold 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 106
  107. 107. Drug Plant Use Artemisinin Artemesia annua Antimalarial, Berberine Berberis leishmaniasis Pristimerin Celastrus paniculata Antimalarial Quassinoids Ailanthus Antiprotozoal Plumbagin Plumbago indica Antibacterial Gossypol Gossypium sp. Antispermatogenic Emetine Cephaelis ipecacuanha Amoebiasis Continued:- Glycyrrhizin Glycyrrhizia glabra Antiulcer Nimbidin Azadirachta indica Antiulcer Catechin Acacia catechu Antiulcer 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 107
  108. 108. CONTINUED:- Drug Plant Use Digitoxin, Digoxin Digitalis, Thevetia Cardio tonic Elipticine Ochrosia Anticancer Homoharringtonine Cephalotaxus Anticancer 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 108
  109. 109. Some of the important medicinal plants used for major modern drugs for cancer:- Plant name/family Drugs Treatment Cathranthus rosesus L. (Apocynaceae) Vinblastine and vincristine Hodgkins, Lymphosarcomas and children leukemia. Podophyllum emodi Wall. (Beriberidaceae) Podophyllotaxin, Testicular cancer, small cell lung cancer and lymphomas. Taxus brevifolius (Taxaceae) Paciltaxel, taxotere Ovarian cancer, lung cancer and malignant melanoma. Mappia foetida Miers. Comptothecin, lrenoteccan and topotecan Lung, ovarian and cervical cancer. Comptotheca acuminata Quinoline and comptothecin alkaloids used in Japan for the treatment of cervical cancer Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) Teniposide and etoposie Lung cancer 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 109
  110. 110. Plant derived ethno therapeutics and traditional modern medicine :- S.No. Drug Basic investigation 1. Codeine, morphine Opium the latex of Papaver somniferum used by ancient Sumarians. Egyptaians and Greeks for the treatment of headaches, arthritis and inducing sleep. 2 Atropine, hyoscyamine Atropa belladona, Hyascyamus niger etc., were important drugs in Babylonium folklore. 3 Ephedrine Crude drug (astringent yellow) derived from Ephedra sinica had been used by Chinese for respiratory ailments since 2700 BC. 4 Quinine Cinchona spp were used by Peruvian Indians for the treatment of fevers 5 Emetine Brazilian Indians and several others South American tribes used root and rhizomes of Cephaelis spp to induce vomiting and cure dysentery. 6 Colchicine Use of Colchicum in the treatment of gout has been known in Europe since 78 AD. 7 Digoxin Digitalis leaves were being used in heart therapy in Europe during the 18 century 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 110
  111. 111. New varieties of medicinal plants developed in India:- Crop Variety Characters (Institution where developed) Sarpagandha Rauvolfia serpentina RS-1 High seed germination (50%). Root yields 2.5t/ha in 18 months. Roots carry 1.45- 1.80% of total alkaloids; half of it yields reserpine + serpentine combined (JNKVV, Indore) Dioscorea floribunda FB(C)-1 Arka-Upkar A composite culture, produces fast growing vines relatively free from diseases and pest attack; produces 50t/ha of fresh tubers in 2 years containing 3.5% diosgenin (IIHR, Bangalore) Selection through hybridisation, producing 60t of fresh tubers containing 3.5-4.0% diosgenin (IIHR, Bangalore) Khasi-kateri Solanum viarum Glaxo IIHR 2n-11 Plants devoid of spines, produces high berry yield at high density planting containing 2.5-3.0% solasodine (Glaxo, India). Completely devoid of spines, produces high berry yield at high density planting containing 2.5-3% solasodine (IIHR, Bangalore) Henbane Hyocyamus niger IC-66, Aela Short duration (100 days), early rabi crop in plains. Yields 2.5t/ha of dry herb with minimum 0.05% total alkaloids (NBPGR, Delhi) A mutant characterised by yellow flower petals, produces 7.5t/ha dry herb or 23kg total alkaloids/ha (CIMAP) 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 111
  112. 112. Companies/Organizations involved in Procurement, Processing & Marketing of Medicinal herbs in Karnataka:- Sl.No Address of organization Crops interested 1. Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., Plot # 5B, Veerasandra Industrial Area 19 KM Hosour Road, Bangalore – 560 029 Ph: (080) 7832265, 7833092 Kalmegh, Punaranava, Coleus, Tulsi, Baibidang, Makoy, Ishwarmool, Madhunashini Jeevanti, Geloy (Amruthaballi) Clotagokhru, Chitramula, Chotogokhru. 2. Hillgreen Company # 107, 13th Corss, Vasanthnagar East Bangalore – 560 052 Ph: (080) 2250717, 2264237 Mobile: 9844034565 Coleus, Bacopa, Hippali 3. Sami Labs Ltd., # 19/1 & 19/2, I Main, II Phase Peenya Indil. Area, Bangalore – 58 Ph: (080) 8397973, 8397975, 8397978 Ashwagandha, Brahmi, Garcinia, Mucuna, Gloriosa, Guggal Coleus, Kalmegh, Asoka 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 112
  113. 113. Continued:- Sl.No. Address of organization Crops interested 4. Care Medimax # 55/1, 4th Main, 2nd Cross Nagappa Block, Srirampuram, Bangalore – 560 021, Ph: (080) 3425078 Geloy, Coleus, Adathoda, Madhunashini, Amla 5. Esselpee Impex (P) Ltd., # 2, H.M.R. Industrial Estate Poornapura Village, Gokula, Bangalore – 560 054 Ph : (080) 3451650 (O) ; 3415155 ® Hippali, Ashwagandha, Coleus, Acrous, Madhunashini 6. Himalaya Durg Tumkur Rd, Bangalore, Karnataka Mobile : 984408378 Amla 7. Community Action for Rural Development, # 657, Anjeneya Layout Davangere – 577004 & India Exports and Economy Foundation TF-4, RT Plaza 4, RT Nagar Main Road, Bangalore – 32; Solanum viarum, Jojoba 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 113
  114. 114. Companies/Organizations involved in the procurement, processing and marketing of aromatic and dye plants in Karnataka:- Sl.No. Organization/Companies Crops/Oils 1. Givauden Roure India, Ltd., 1108, Barton Centre, M.G. Road Bangalore – 560 001 Japanese Mint, Geranium, Rosemary and Patchouli 2. Benson and Company 167, 2nd Cross, Chamrjapet, Banglaore – 18 Davana, Patchouli, Geranium 3. Mas Enterprises, 93/17th Cross, 3rd Main Chamrajapet, Bangalore – 18 Eucalyptus citriodora 4. Chaitanya Agro Herbals, # 45/A, Temple Road, 2nd Cross, Opp. Mahajana Degree College, Jayalakshmi- puram, Mysore – 12 Patchouli, Rosemary, Geranium 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 114
  115. 115. Continued:- Sl.No. Organization/Companies Crops/Oils 5. Padmini Products 157, K. Kamaraj Road, Bangalore - 42 Patchouli, Rosemary, Geranium, Lavender, lemongrass. 6. Vigirom Chemical Pvt. Ltd., Puttanna Road, Basavanagudi, Bangalore – 4 Patchouli, Davana 7. Souparnika Agro Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore Bangalore Palmarosa, Lemongrass, Davana, Jasmine, Tuberose, Citronella 8. Veerabhadrappa & Co., Devanahalli Lemongrass 9. Nandan Agro Hyderbad Patchouli, Annatto 10. Riddi Biotech, Sidhartha Colony P.B.Road, Dharwad – 5 Patchouli 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 115
  116. 116. Continued:- Sl.No. Organization/Companies Crops/Oils 11. Seven Hill Herbotech, Bangalore Patchouli 12. S.M.Agro Industries Plot No. 42, Mulky Mangalore District Patchouli 13. Sami Labs Ltd., # 19/1 & 19/2, I Main, II Phase Peenya Indil. Area, Bangalore – 58; Ph: (080) 839773, 8397975, 8397978 Rosemary 14. M/s. Cadilla Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Kenkeri Farm, Gowribidanur Tq., Kolar Distirct Rosemary 15. Navajeevan Co., Bangalore Palmarosa, Citronella, Citriodwa 16. AVT Natural Products Ltd., Spice Enclave; Panampilly Nagar Cochin – 682036, Kerala Ph: (0484) 317903, 317905, 323761 Tagetus 17. Rishi Harbals Technologies No.31, Lalbaugh Main Road Bangalore Rosemary 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 116
  117. 117. ROSEMARY :- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 117 AROMATIC PLANTS COMMON NAME EXTRACTED COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS Rosmarinus officinalis L. Family- Lamiaceae Habitat- woody, perennial herb. Rosemaryoil, Rosemary Cultivation- Nilgiris in South India, around the Bangalore. Propagation- stem cuttings, seeds. • leaves and flowering tops on steam distillation yield essential oil. • Oils contain 1,8 cineole (20-50%), borneol (20%),camphor, linalool, pinene, camphene, ß-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, -phellandrene, -terpinene, limonene, - terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, thujone, copaene, terpinen-4-ol, caryophyllene, methyl chavicol, - terpineol, thymol, carvacrol etc. • The oil is valued for its use in culinary, medicine, perfumery and cosmetic industries. Rosemary Rosemary flower Rosemary fruits Rosemary seeds Rosemary stem cuttingsRosemary stem cuttings
  118. 118. Cosmetic Products of Rosemary:- 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 118 Plantlife, 100% Pure Essential Oil, Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis):- • Rosemary has a camphoraceous and herbaceous aroma. • It is known as a stimulant which can help improve hair growth, control dandruff and promote cell renewal. • It is good for oily or dry skin by fighting bacteria and regulating oil secretions. • Rosemary also improves circulation, reducing the appearance of broken capillaries and varicose veins. It enhances mental clarity, promoting alertness and concentration, strengthening the entire nervous system. • Produce by- US. LOREALS The Ever Strong Sulfate-Free Fortify System™- • EverStrong Sulfate-Free Hair & Scalp System is a hair fortifying and scalp caring system that injects strength into hair from the first wash. • Amino Acid Complex help weak, thinning hair look thicker while also caring for the scalp. • Natural aromatic properties of rosemary and mint energize and invigorate the senses. • INGRDIENTS- AQUA / WATER / EAU • CETEARYL ALCOHOL • BEHENTRIMONIUM CHLORIDE • ISOPROPYL MYRISTATE • CETYL ESTERS • PARFUM / FRAGRANCE • ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL • DIMETHICONE • PHENOXYETHANOL • POLYQUATERNIUM-37 • PARAFFINUM LIQUIDUM / MINERAL OIL / HUILE MINERALE • CITRIC ACID • ARGININE • AMODIMETHICONE • MENTHA PIPERITA (PEPPERMINT) LEAF EXTRACT • TOCOPHEROL • CHLORHEXIDINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE • LIMONENE • PPG-1 TRIDECETH-6 • LINALOOL • ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS OIL / ROSEMARY LEAF OIL • BUTYLPHENYL METHYLPROPIONAL • CITRONELLOL • 2-OLEAMIDO-1,3-OCTADECANEDIOL. • Produce by- L'Oréal Paris. Montréal, (Québec). Canada
  119. 119. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 119 Rose Marie Swift(RMS Beauty) creamy pots of ultra pure, organic colors of chicks, lips, lids- • it’s actually super good for your skin, so reapplying during the day adds hydration and glow to your face and will never look cakey or dry. • organic virgin coconut oil that has antibacterial properties to protect skin, jojoba oil that’s most like skin’s natural oil, and the organic argan oil and cocoa butter are unlikely to cause an outbreak. • Ingredients-Minerals that make the color, the best organic coconut oil, organic cocoa butter, organic shea butter, organic bees wax, organic jojoba oil, organic castor seed oil, organic argan oil, sunflower oil, propolis, non-GMO vitamin E, organic rosemary extract, Centella, organic vanilla. • Produce by- New York. Tired Legs Cremi-gel Sea Star & Thermal Springs- • Treat fatigue in the legs and varicose principles. • Product an effective remedy for relieving the aches(dull pain) and pains caused by fatigue, while activating blood circulation and causes a sensation of rapid improvement. • ingredients include: Asterina Gibosa, Aloe Vera, Mentol, Eucaliptol, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thermal springs. • Produce by- Valencia, Spain.
  120. 120. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 120 Rosaceous Cleansing – Neal’s Yard Remedies Wild Rose Beauty Balm- • it is a multi tasker and can also be used as moisturiser and mask. • I have used it on my cuticles and elbows and was impressed with how well it moisturized. Ingredients- Rosa canina (Wild rose) seed oil*, Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) seed oil*, Cera alba (Beeswax)*, Butyrospermum parkii (Shea butter)*, Cannabis sativa (Hemp) seed oil*, Borago officinalis (Starflower) seed oil*, Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium) flower oil*, Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) leaf oil*, Boswellia carterii (Frankincense) oil, Cymbopogon martini (Palmarosa) herb oil*, Pogostemon cablin (Patchouli) leaf oil*, Ascorbyl palmitate, Tocopherol, Citral, Citronellol, Farnesol, Geraniol, Limonene, Linalool. • Produce by- ENGLAND. AZAFRAN ROSEMARY HAIR HALO HAIR OIL- • It is used in the hair and provide strength and longevity of the hair and scalp. • Produce by- kharagpur, Orissa. Oriflame Pure Nature Organic Tea Tree & Rosemary Purifying Corrective Stick Review:- • Smart stick with pure organic tea tree and rosemary oil hides and helps dry out imperfections. First tone down redness with green shade. Then conceal with beige shade. • Produce by- SWEDEN.
  121. 121. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 121 WELEDA ROSEMARY HAIR OIL- • A revitalizing & deep-conditioning hair oil treatment • Contains organic rosemary oil to offer fragrant, evergreen hydration • Blended with burdock root extract to soothe dry scalp • Repairs split ends while delivering shine • Unveils suppler, sleeker, more manageable & healthier looking hair’ • Produce by- North America. oriflame pure nature tea tree & rosemary oil purifying face cream- • Light, non-greasy day and night moisturizer with Tea Tree and Rosemary essential oils. • Softens and helps to re-balance oily skin, fighting blemishes. Leaves skin looking healthy, hydrated and purified. • Produce by- Sweden.
  122. 122. CONCLUSION:- • A golden triangle consisting of Ayurveda, modern medicine and science will converge to form a real discovery engine that can result in newer, safer, cheaper and effective therapies. Nature is the best combinatorial chemist and till now natural products compounds discovered from medicinal plants (and their analogues thereof) have provided numerous clinically useful drugs. • In spite of the various challenges encountered in the medicinal plant based drug discovery, natural products isolated from plants will still remain an essential component in the search for new medicines. Proper utilization of these resources and tools in bioprospecting will certainly help in discovering novel lead molecules from plants by employing modern drug discovery techniques and the coordinated efforts of various disciplines. • Researches on pharmacognosy, chemistry, pharmacology and clinical therapeutics have been carried out on ayurvedic medicinal plants and many of the major pharmaceutical corporations have renewed their strategies in favour of natural products drug discovery. • Researches on pharmacognosy, chemistry, pharmacology and clinical therapeutics have been carried out on ayurvedic medicinal plants and many of the major pharmaceutical corporations have renewed their strategies in favour of natural products drug discovery. 29/5/2014 PBT-510 Biosafety,IPR and Bioetics {2+0} 122

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