Day01

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Networking Class 3

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Day01

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. OSI Model• OSI means Open System Interconnect model.• Developed by the International Organization for Standardization in 1974.• It consists of seven layers.• Each layer has a different but specific processing function. 2
  3. 3. OSI Model Layers Layer - 7 Application Application Layer - 6 Presentation Presentation Layer - 5 Session Session Layer - 4 Transport Transport Layer - 3 Network Network Layer - 2 Data Link Data Link Layer - 1 Physical Physical 3
  4. 4. Application Layer Application Layer is Application Application responsible for providing Networking Services to user. Presentation Presentation It also known as Desktop Layer. Identification of Services is Session Session done using Port Numbers. Transport Transport Ports are nothing but Socket i.e. Entry and Exit Point to the Layer Network Network Data Link Total No. Ports 0 – 65535 Data Link Reserved Ports 0 – 1023 Physical Physical Open Ports 1024 – 65535 4
  5. 5. Examples of Networking Services Service Port No. HTTP 80 FTP 21 SMTP 25 TELNET 23 TFTP 69 5
  6. 6. How data flows from Application Layer Application Application Data 80 21 25 53 67 69 Presentation Presentation Session Session Transport Transport Network Network Data Link Data Link Physical Physical 6
  7. 7. Presentation Layer Presentation Layer is Application Application responsible for converting data into standard format. Presentation Presentation Presentation Presentation Examples : ASCII, EBCDIC, JPEG, Session Session MPEG, BMP, MIDI, WAV, MP3 Transport Transport Following tasks are perform at Network Presentation layer : Network Data Link Data Link Encoding – Decoding Encryption – Decryption Physical Physical Compression – Decompression 7
  8. 8. How data flows from Presentation Layer Application Application Data Presentation Presentation Data Session Session Transport Transport Network Network Data Link Data Link Physical Physical 8
  9. 9. Session Layer Session Layer is responsible Application Application establishing, maintaining and terminating session. Presentation Presentation Session ID also works at Session Layer. Session Session Transport Examples : Transport Network Network RPC  Remote Procedure Call SQL  Structured Query language Data Link Data Link NFS  Network File System Physical Physical 9
  10. 10. How data flows from Session Layer Application Application Data Presentation Presentation Data Session Session Data Transport Transport Network Network Data Link Data Link Physical Physical 10
  11. 11. Transport Layer Transport Layer is Application Application responsible for end-to-end connectivity. It is also known as Presentation Presentation heart of OSI Layers. Following task are performed at Transport Session Session Layer : - Transport Transport Transport • Identifying Service Network Network • Multiplexing & De-multiplexing • Segmentation Data Link Data Link • Sequencing & Reassembling Physical Physical • Flow Control • Error Correction 11
  12. 12. Identifying Service TCP UDP • Transmission Control • User Datagram Protocol Protocol • Connection Oriented • Connection Less • Acknowledgement • No Acknowledgement • Reliable • Unreliable • Slower • Faster • Port No. 6 • Port No. 17 • e.g. HTTP, FTP, SMTP • e.g. DNS, DHCP, TFTP 12
  13. 13. Multiplexing & De-multiplexing Application Application Presentation Presentation Session Session 80 21 25 53 67 69 Transport Transport TCP - 6 UDP - 17 Network Network Data Link Data Link Physical Physical 13
  14. 14. How data flows from Transport Layer Application Application Data Presentation Presentation Data Session Session Data Transport TH Segment Data Transport Network Network Data Link Data Link Physical Physical 14
  15. 15. Network Layer Network Layer is Application Application responsible for providing best path to data to reach destination. Presentation Presentation Logical Addressing sits on this layer. Device working on Network Session Session Layer is Router. Transport Transport It is divided into two parts • Routed Protocols Network Network e.g. IP, IPX, Apple Talk. Data Link Data Link • Routing Protocols Physical e.g. RIP, IGRP, OSPF, EIGRP Physical 15
  16. 16. How data flows from Network Layer Application Application Data Presentation Presentation Data Session Session Data e.g. Router Transport Transport Segment Network Network Packet NH Segment Data Link Data Link Physical Physical 16
  17. 17. Datalink Layer Datalink Layer is Application Application divided into two Sub Layers : Presentation Presentation • LLC – Logical Link Control Session It talks about Wan protocols e.g. Session PPP, HDLC, Frame-relay Transport Transport • MAC – Media Access Control Network Network It talks about Physical Address. It is 48 bit Addressing Data Link Data Link Data Data i.e. 12 digit Hexadecimal No. It is also responsible for Error Physical Physical Detection Device working on Data Link Layer is Switch, Bridge, NIC. 17
  18. 18. How data flows from Data Link Layer Application Application Data Presentation Presentation Data Session Session Data Transport Transport Segmente.g. Switch Network Network Packet Data Link Data Link DH Frame DT Packet Physical Physical 18
  19. 19. Physical Layer Physical Layer is Application Application responsible for electrical, mechanical or procedural checks. Presentation Presentation Data will be converted in Binary that is 0’s & 1’s. Data will be in the Session Session form of electrical pulses if it is Coaxial or Twisted Pair cable and in Transport Transport the form of Light if it is Fiber Optic Cable. Network Network Devices working at Physical Layer Data Link Data Link are Hubs, Repeaters, Cables, Modems etc. Physical Physical Physical 19
  20. 20. How data flows from Physical Layer Application Application Data Presentation Presentation Data Session Session Data Transport Transport Segment Network Network Packete.g. Hub Data Link Data Link Frame Physical Physical Bits 20
  21. 21. Data Encapsulation & De-capsulation A B Application Data Data Application Application Application Presentation Presentation Data Data Presentation Presentation Session Session Data Data Session Session Transport TH Segment TH Transport Transport Data Segment TH Data Transport Network Network NH Segment Packet NH Segment Packet Network Network NH Data Link Data Link DHFrameDT Packet DTFrameDH Packet Packet DH Data LinkDT Data Link Physical Physical Bits Bits Physical Physical 21
  22. 22. Comparing OSI with TCP/IP Layers OSI Layers TCP/IP Layers Application Application Presentation Presentation Application Application Session Session Transport Transport Transport Transport Network Network Internet Internet Data Link Data Link Network Network Access Access Physical Physical 22
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