Male reproductive physiology

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Male reproductive physiology

  1. 1. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />1<br />MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY <br />By<br />Dr.M.Anthony David MD<br />Professor of Physiology<br />
  2. 2. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />2<br />THE MALE UROGENITAL TRACT<br />
  3. 3. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />3<br />TESTIS: THE MALE GONAD<br />VAS DEFERENS<br />EPIDIDYMIS<br />SEMENIFEROUS<br />TUBULE<br />RETE TESTIS<br />EFFERENT<br />DUCTULES<br />
  4. 4. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />4<br />TESTIS: CROSS SECTION<br />SEMENIFEROUS<br />TUBULE<br />SERTOLI CELLS<br />SPERMATAZOON<br />
  5. 5. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />5<br />PRIMARY SEXUAL ORGANS<br />TESTES : ONE PAIR<br />DUCTULAR SYSTEM <br />GLANDS<br />PENIS<br />
  6. 6. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />6<br />TESTES: ONE PAIR<br />HAS SEMENIFEROUS TUBULES:<br />SERTOLI CELLS<br />SPERMATOGONIA<br />SPERM CELLS IN VARIOUS STAGES<br />INTERSTITIAL CELLS OF LEYDIG:<br />SECRETE TESTOSTERONE, THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE<br />
  7. 7. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />7<br />DUCTULAR SYSTEM<br />RETE TESTIS<br />EFFERENT DUCTULES<br />EPIDIDYMIS<br />VAS DEFERENS<br />FUNCTION: TRANSPORT OF MATURE SPERMATOZOA.<br />
  8. 8. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />8<br />GLANDS<br />SEMINAL VESICLES<br />PROSTATE GLAND:<br />BOTH SECRETING SEMEN<br />BULBO-URETHRAL GLANDS:<br />SECRETE A MUCOID SUBSTANCE<br />
  9. 9. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />9<br />PENIS<br />ERECTILE:<br />DUE TO SPONGIOUS TISSUES<br />DUAL STATES:<br />FLACCID<br />ERECT<br />DUAL FUNCTIONS:<br />EXPULSION OF URINE<br />EXPULSION OF SEMEN<br />
  10. 10. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />10<br />PENIS: DUAL STATES<br />
  11. 11. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />11<br />SPERMATOGENESIS: some definitions<br />The production of spermatozoa which occurs in the sertoli cells of the semeniferous tubules is called as spermatogenesis.<br />The conversion of the spermatids into spermatozoa is called as spermiogenesis.<br />The release of the spermatazoon into the lumen of the semeniferous tubule is called as spermiation.<br />The final maturation of the spermatazoon which occurs in the female genital tract is called as capacitation.<br />
  12. 12. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />12<br />SPERMATOGENESIS: SCHEMA<br />SPERMATOGONIA (DIPLOID)<br />MITOSIS<br />PRIMARY <br />SPERMATOCYTES<br />(DIPLOID)<br />
  13. 13. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />13<br />SPERMATOGENESIS Contd.<br />PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES<br />MEIOSIS I<br />SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTES<br />(HAPLOID)<br />MEIOSIS II<br />SPERMATIDS (HAPLOID)<br />SPERMIOGENESIS<br />SPERMATOZOA (HAPLOID)<br />
  14. 14. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />15<br />FROM SPERMATID TO SPERM: SPERMIOGENESIS…<br />
  16. 16. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />17<br />MALE REPRODUCTION: HORMONAL REGULATION<br />HYPOTHALAMUS<br />- ve feedback<br />GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE<br />ANTERIOR PITUITARY<br />- ve feedback<br />FSH<br />LH<br />TESTES<br />S<br />E<br />R<br />T<br />O<br />L<br />I<br />CELL<br />LEYDIG CELL<br />TESTOSTERONE<br />REP.TRACT<br />& OTHER ORGANS<br />SPERMATOGENESIS<br />INHIBIN<br />
  18. 18. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />18<br />TESTOSTERONE : THE MALE SEX HORMONE<br />
  19. 19. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />19<br />TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS<br />INITIATION & MAINTAINANCE OF SPERMATOGENESIS.<br /> GnRH FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS<br />INHIBITS LH SECRETION VIA ANTERIOR PITUITARY.<br />DIFFERENTIATION & MAINTAINANCE OF MALE SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS:Facial Hair & Body Habitus.<br />
  20. 20. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />20<br />TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS<br />5. INDUCES DIFFERENTIATION & MAINTAINS ACCESSORY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS.<br />6. STIMULATES PROTEIN ANABOLISM, BONE GROWTH & IT’S CESSATION.<br />7. ENHANCES LIBIDO & AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR BY MASCULINIZING THE BRAIN.<br />8. STIMULATES SECRETION OF ERYTHROPOIETIN FROM THE KIDNEYS<br />
  21. 21. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />22<br />SERTOLI CELL<br />
  23. 23. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />23<br />FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS<br />PROVIDE THE BLOOD TESTES BARRIER, WHICH IS ALSO CALLED AS SERTOLI CELL BARRIER.<br />NOURISH DEVELOPING SPERMS DURING SPERMATOGENESIS.<br />SECRETE ANDROGEN BINDING PROTEIN & LUMINAL FLUID.<br />SECRETE PARACRINE AGENTS STIMULATING SPERM PROLIFERATION & DIFFERENTIATION.<br />
  24. 24. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />24<br />FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS<br />5. SECRETE THE REGULATORY PROTEIN INHIBIN.<br />6. SECRETE PARACRINE AGENTS FACILITATING LEYDIG CELL FUNCTION.<br />7. PHAGOCYTOSIS OF DEFECTIVE SPERM.<br />8. SECRETE MULLERIAN INHIBITING SUBSTANCE(MIS) DURING INTRA UTERINE LIFE.<br />
  25. 25. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />25<br />MATURE SPERMATOZOON<br />
  26. 26. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />26<br />SEMEN ANALYSIS<br />IS A TEST FOR INFERTILITY.<br />SEMEN HAS:<br />SPERMS<br />SECRETIONS:<br />SEMINAL VESICLES<br />PROSTATE<br />COWPER’S GLANDS<br />BULBO-URETHRAL GLANDS<br />
  27. 27. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />27<br />SEMEN ANALYSIS<br />VOLUME: 2.5 to 3.5 ml PER EJACULATE.<br />SPERM COUNT: 100 Millions/ml.<br /><20% CAN BE ABNORMAL.<br />IF THE COUNT IS <20 Million/ml, IT INDICATES THAT HE IS STERILE.<br />SPEED OF SPERMS: 3mm/min.<br />REACH FALLOPIAN TUBE 30- 40 MINUTES AFTER COITUS.<br />
  28. 28. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />28<br />SEMEN: COMPOSITION<br />COLOR: WHITE, OPALESCENT<br />SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1.028<br />Ph : 7.35 – 7.50<br />OTHER CONSTITUENTS:<br />SEMINAL VESICLES: 60% VOLUME.<br />PROSTATE GLAND: 20% VOLUME<br />
  29. 29. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />29<br />SEMEN<br />IS LIQUID WHEN EJACULATED<br />COAGULATES BOTH:<br />IN VITRO &<br />IN THE VAGINA<br />UNDERGOES SECONDARY LIQUEFACTION AFTER 15 minutes.<br />
  30. 30. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />30<br />SPERMATOZOA<br />ARE FERTILE UPTO 24 to 48 hrs AFTER DEPOSITION.<br />ARE MOTILE, HOWEVER FOR 48 – 60 hrs.`<br />
  31. 31. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />31<br />PENILE ERECTION: REFLEX PATHWAYS<br />INPUT FROM <br />MECHANORECEPTORS<br />OF PENIS<br />THOUGHTS<br />EMOTIONS<br />SIGHT, SMELL<br />NEURONS TO PENIS<br />NEURONS RELEASE GASEOUS<br /> NEUROTRANSMITTER NITRIC OXIDE<br />INHIBITION ON SYMPATHETIC NEURONS DECREASED<br />PENIS<br />ARTERIAL DILATATION + VENOCOMPRESSION<br />= ERECTION<br />
  32. 32. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />32<br />FUNCTION OF PENIS IN COITUS (SEXUAL INTERCOURSE)<br />ERECTION<br />EJACULATION<br />
  33. 33. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />33<br />ERECTION<br />VASCULAR:<br />SMALL ARTERIAL DILATATION<br />VENOCONSTRICTION<br />PARASYMPATHETIC FACILITATION (Point)<br />SYMPATHETIC INHIBITION<br />SMOOTH MUSCLES RELAX<br />
  34. 34. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />34<br />EJACULATION<br />SYMPATHETIC FACILITATION (“Shoot”)<br />SKELETAL MUSCLES CONTRACT<br />HAS TWO EVENTS:<br />EMISSION: SMOOTH MUSCLES CONTRACT & SEMEN SENT INTO URETHRA<br />EXPULSION: RAPID CONTRACTION OF URETHRAL SMOOTH MUSCLES & SEMEN IS SENT OUT OF THE PENIS.<br />
  35. 35. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />35<br />MALE REPRODUCTIVE ABNORMALITIES<br />CRYPTORCHIDISM (UNDESCENDED TESTES)<br />THE DESCENT OF TESTES IS INCOMPLETE IN 10% OF NEONATES<br />SPONTANEOUS DESCENT OCCURS LATER<br />INCIDENCE: 2% AT INFANCY & 0.3% AFTER PUBERTY<br />COMPLICATIONS: INCREASED INCIDENCE OF TESTICULAR MALIGNANCIES & INFERTILITY.<br />
  36. 36. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />36<br />CRYPTORCHIDISM<br />
  37. 37. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />37<br />MALE HYPOGONADISM<br />HYPERGONADOTROPIC:<br />IN THIS CONDITION THE GONADOTROPINS ARE INCRESED IN CIRCULATION<br />THE LESION IS AT THE TESTES.<br />HYPOGONADOTROPIC:<br />A PITUITARY OR HYPOTHALAMIC DISORDER<br />KALLMAN’S SYNDROME.<br />
  38. 38. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />38<br />EUNUCHOIDISM<br />DEFICIENCY OF LEYDIG CELLS FROM CHILDHOOD.<br />TALL, NARROW SHOULDERS<br />SMALL MUSCLES<br />FEMININE HABITUS<br />SMALL GENITALIA<br />HIGH PITCHED VOICE<br />FEMALE PATTERN PUBIC HAIR<br />
  39. 39. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />39<br />PENILE ABNORMALITIES<br />HYPOSPADIAS: URETHRAL ORIFICE VENTRAL TO THE SHAFT.<br />EPISPADIAS: ORIFICE DORSAL TO THE SHAFT.<br />COMPLICATIONS: INFERTILITY<br />
  40. 40. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />40<br />HYPOSPADIAS<br />
  41. 41. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />41<br />KLINEFELTERS SYNDROME<br />ALSO CALLED SEMENIFEROUS TUBULE DYSGENESIS<br />MOST COMMON SEX CHROMOSOMAL DISORDER<br />EXTERNAL GENITALIA LIKE NORMAL MALES<br />TESTOSTERONE ENOUGH FOR SEC.SEXUAL FEATURES<br />SEMENIFEROUS TUBULES ARE ABNORMAL<br />INFERTILITY<br />INCIDENCE OF MENTAL RETARDATION MORE<br />
  42. 42. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />42<br />K<br />L<br />I<br />N<br />E<br />F<br />E<br />L<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />S<br />S<br />Y<br />N<br />D<br />R<br />O<br />M<br />E<br />
  43. 43. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />43<br />THANK YOU<br />
  44. 44. Popad Rep Physiol MRP<br />44<br />LET’S GO FOR A BREAK!<br />

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