Human reproductive system


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A basic information to lay people & school going children about Human fertilisation

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Human reproductive system

  1. 1. Human Reproductive System Dr. Avinash Bhondwe
  2. 2. Men & Women
  3. 3. Male Reproductive System <ul><li>The human male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that are a part of the human reproductive process. In the case of men, these sex organs are located outside a man 's body, around the pelvic region . </li></ul>
  4. 5. Male Reproductive System <ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Penis </li></ul><ul><li>Testicles( Scrotum) </li></ul><ul><li>Epididymis </li></ul>
  5. 6. Male Reproductive System <ul><li>Penis </li></ul><ul><li>The penis has a long shaft and enlarged tip called the glans penis. </li></ul><ul><li>The penis is the male copulatory organ . </li></ul><ul><li>When the male becomes sexually aroused , the penis becomes erect and ready for sexual intercourse . </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Male Reproductive System <ul><li>Erection is achieved because blood sinuses within the erectile tissue of the penis become filled with blood. The arteries of the penis are dilated while the veins are passively compressed so that blood flows into the erectile cartilage under pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>The male penis is made of two different tissues,and soft spongey tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Cartlidge is not in the penis </li></ul>
  7. 8. Testicles
  8. 9. Testicles <ul><li>The testes hang outside the abdominal cavity of the male within the scrotum . They begin their development in the abdominal cavity but descend into the scrotal sacs during the last 2 months of fetal development. This is required for the production of sperm because internal body temperatures are too high to produce viable sperm. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Epididymis <ul><li>The epididymis is a whitish mass of tightly coiled tubes cupped against the testicles. </li></ul><ul><li>It acts as a storage place for sperm before they enter the vasa deferentia , tubes that carry sperm form the testes to the urethra. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Female reproductive system
  11. 12. Female reproductive system
  12. 13. <ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>1 Vagina </li></ul><ul><li>2 Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>3 Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>4 Oviducts </li></ul><ul><li>5 Ovaries </li></ul>Female reproductive system
  13. 14. Female reproductive system <ul><li>Vagina ( Latin ,=&quot; sheath &quot;or &quot; scabbard &quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female </li></ul><ul><li>“ Vagina &quot; is often used to refer to the Vulva or female genitals generally; strictly speaking, the vagina is a specific internal structure and the vulva is the exterior genitalia only. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Female reproductive system <ul><li>The vagina is the place where semen from the male is deposited into the female's body at the climax of sexual intercourse , commonly known as ejaculation . Around the vagina, pubic hair protects the vagina from infection and is a sign of puberty </li></ul>
  15. 16. Female reproductive system <ul><li>Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>The cervix is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina . </li></ul><ul><li>It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately half its length is visible; the remainder lies above the vagina beyond view. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Female reproductive system <ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of humans . One end, the cervix , opens into the vagina ; the other is connected on both sides to the fallopian tubes . </li></ul>
  17. 18. UTERUS <ul><li>The uterus is a pear-shaped muscular organ. </li></ul><ul><li>Its major function is to accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometrium , and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo , develops into a fetus and gestates until childbirth . </li></ul>
  18. 19. OVIDUCTS <ul><li>Oviducts: Fallopian tube </li></ul><ul><li>The Fallopian tubes or oviducts are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus . </li></ul>
  19. 20. OVIDUCTS <ul><li>On maturity of an ovum , the follicle and the ovary 's wall rupture, allowing the ovum to escape and enter the Fallopian tube . </li></ul><ul><li>There it travels toward the uterus, pushed along by movements of cilia on the inner lining of the tubes. This trip takes hours or days. </li></ul><ul><li>If the ovum is fertilized while in the Fallopian tube , then it normally implants in the endometrium when it reaches the uterus, which signals the beginning of pregnancy </li></ul>
  20. 21. Ovaries <ul><li>The ovaries are the place inside the female body where ova or eggs are produced. </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which the ovum is released is called ovulation . The speed of ovulation is periodic and impacts directly to the length of a menstrual cycle . </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>After ovulation, the ovum is captured by the oviduct , after traveling down the oviduct to the uterus , occasionally being fertilized on its way by an incoming sperm , leading to pregnancy and the eventual birth of a new human being. </li></ul>
  22. 25. Male Secondary Sex Characters <ul><li>Male </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of body hair , including underarm , abdominal , chest , and pubic hair . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of scalp hair androgenic alopecia can also occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater mass of thigh muscles in front of the femur, rather than behind it as is typical in mature females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of facial hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>waist </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Male Secondary Sex Characters <ul><ul><li>Enlargement of larynx and deepening of voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased stature ; adult males taller than adult females, on average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavier skull and bone structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased muscle mass and strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadening of shoulders and chest; shoulders wider than hips </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Male Secondary Sex Characters <ul><ul><li>Increased secretions of oil and sweat glands, often causing acne and body odor [3] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarsening or rigidity of skin texture, due to less subcutaneous fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A prominent Adam's apple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat deposits mainly around the abdomen and </li></ul>
  25. 28. Male Secondary Sex Characters <ul><ul><li>Higher waist to hip ratio than prepubescent or adult females or prepubescent males, on average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On average, larger hands and feet than prepubescent or adult females or prepubescent males[ citation needed ] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower digit ratio , on average </li></ul>
  26. 29. Female Secondary Sex Characters <ul><ul><li>Enlargement of breasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of body hair , most prominently underarm and pubic hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater development of thigh muscles in back (behind the femur ) than in front of it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginal and uterine growth </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. Female Secondary Sex Characters <ul><ul><li>Decreased stature; adult females shorter stature than adult males, on average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widening of hips [5] ; lower waist to hip ratio than adult males, on average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper arms approximately 1&quot; longer, on average, for a given height [6] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed distribution in weight and fat; more subcutaneous fat and fat deposits mainly around the buttocks , thighs and hips </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher digit ratio , on average </li></ul>
  28. 31. Men Vs Women <ul><li>Man and woman androgenic hairs . Women have usually lighter distribution of hair on the thighs, up the belly, and underarms. </li></ul><ul><li>Many women also have sparse facial hair and even hair on the breasts. </li></ul>
  29. 32. Men Vs Women <ul><li>On average, men are taller than women [1] ( See sexual dimorphism ). </li></ul><ul><li>On average, men have a larger waist in comparison to their hips (see waist-hip ratio ) than women. </li></ul><ul><li>On average, men have longer canine teeth than women. </li></ul><ul><li>On average, men have a greater capacity for cardiovascular endurance. This is due to the enlargement of the lungs of boys during puberty, characterized by a more prominent chest . </li></ul>
  30. 33. Men Vs Women <ul><li>On average, men are stronger than women. This is due to a greater capacity for muscular hypertrophy as a result of men's higher levels of testosterone. </li></ul><ul><li>On average, women have more endurance than men. </li></ul><ul><li>On average, men have more body hair than women. </li></ul><ul><li>Men’s skin is thicker (more collagen ), oilier (more sebum ) than women’s skin </li></ul>
  31. 34. Men Vs Women <ul><li>Women's skin is warmer on average than men's. </li></ul><ul><li>In men, the second digit (index finger) tends to be shorter than the fourth digit (ring finger), while in women the second digit tends to be longer than the fourth </li></ul><ul><li>On average, women tend to have skin that is 3-4% lighter than men. </li></ul><ul><li>One scientist (Rebato, 1999) hypothesized this is an adaptation required for increased production of Vitamin D during pregnancy. Vitamin D is necessary to help the body absorb calcium and deposit it in the bones of fast growing embryos. Lighter pigmentation allows more of the sun's UV radiation to penetrate the skin, and increases a woman's ability to produce vitamin D. </li></ul>
  32. 35. Men Vs Women <ul><li>Women have a larger hip section than men, probably an adaptation for giving birth to infants with large skulls. </li></ul><ul><li>Men have a more pronounced 'Adam's Apple' or thyroid cartilage due to larger vocal cords (and deeper voices). [4] </li></ul><ul><li>Studies examining the leg/trunk ratio between men and women have had conflicting results. In adolescents, there may be no significant gender difference </li></ul>
  33. 36. Men Vs Women <ul><li>Overall rates of mental illness are similar for men and women. There is no significant gender difference in rates of schizophrenia and bipolar depression . Women are more likely to suffer from unipolar depression , anxiety , eating disorders , and post-traumatic stress disorder . Men are more likely to suffer from alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder . </li></ul>
  34. 37. Men Vs Women <ul><li>Worldwide, more men than women are infected with HIV . The exception is sub-Saharan Africa , where more women than men are infected. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult males are more likely to be diagnosed with tuberculosis . </li></ul><ul><li>Before menopause , women are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular disease . However, after age 60, the risk for both men and women is the same. </li></ul>
  35. 38. THANK YOU