Human fertilization

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A basic information to lay people & school going children about Human fertilisation

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Human fertilization

  1. 1. Fertilization & Development 19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt
  2. 2. Coitus & Sperm Transfer <ul><li>2-3 phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erection/engorgement: Parasympathetic reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plateau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orgasm: Sympathetic reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate, contractility increase (pulse & BP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intense pleasure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculation by male </li></ul></ul></ul>19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt
  3. 3. Fertilization <ul><li>Contact of sperm & secondary oocyte occurs in uterine tube </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm penetration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oocyte completes meiosis II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear fusion </li></ul></ul>19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt
  4. 4. Fertilization <ul><li>Sperm penetration </li></ul><ul><li>Why so many? </li></ul>19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt
  5. 5. Fertilization <ul><li>Oocyte completes meiosis II </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear fusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1n + 1n  2n </li></ul></ul>19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt
  6. 6. Early Development <ul><li>Cleavage in uterine tube </li></ul>19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt
  7. 7. Early Development <ul><li>Implantation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6-7 days after fertilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trophoblast forms placenta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Inner cell mass” forms embryo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(pp. 1118-1119) </li></ul></ul>19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt
  8. 8. Early Development <ul><li>Implantation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trophoblast forms placenta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Inner cell mass” forms embryo </li></ul></ul>19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt
  9. 9. Early Development <ul><li>Placenta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides large area for exchange of O 2 , CO 2 , nutrients, metabolic wastes between fetal and maternal blood </li></ul></ul>19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt
  10. 10. Pregnancy <ul><li>Pregnancy lasts 39-40 weeks, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>280 days from last menstrual period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 trimesters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hormonal changes </li></ul>19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt
  11. 11. Labor & Delivery <ul><li>Dilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervix dilates to ~ 10 cm diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descent of fetus into birth canal (“Station”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Placental stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ afterbirth” </li></ul></ul>19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt

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