DR. AVINASH BHONDWE
Hormones
 Hormones are chemicals released by cells that
  affect cells in other parts of the body
 The endocrine system ...
Hormones
 A number of glands that signal each other in
  sequence is usually referred to as an axis, for
  example, the h...
Effects of hormone
 stimulation or inhibition of growth
 mood swings
 induction or suppression of apoptosis
  (programm...
Effects of hormone

 A hormone may also regulate the production
  and release of other hormones. TSH, FSH
 Hormone signa...
HORMONE PRODUCING ORGANS
            1. HYPOTHALAMUS
            2. PITUTARY
            3. THYROID
            4. THYMUS
...
MALE ANATOMY
THE MALE UROGENITAL TRACT




 Popad Rep Physiol MRP   8
FEMALE ANATOMY
VI. Pineal Gland

   A. Hormones

       Melatonin & Arginine vasotocin

       inhibits GnRH from hypoth.


   B. Trigger...
Physiology of Reproduction


I. Male reproductive physiology


  A. Structures

      1. Testes

         a. Seminiferous ...
TESTIS: THE MALE GONAD
VAS DEFERENS

EPIDIDYMIS
                              SEMENIFEROUS
                               ...
b. Connective tissue
       leydig cells- testosterone

B. Spermatogenesis
 1.   Spermatogonia
      at puberty – divide (...
TESTES: ONE PAIR
  HAS SEMENIFEROUS TUBULES:
       SERTOLI CELLS
       SPERMATOGONIA
       SPERM CELLS IN VARIOUS S...
DUCTULAR SYSTEM
  RETE TESTIS
  EFFERENT DUCTULES
  EPIDIDYMIS
  VAS DEFERENS
  FUNCTION: TRANSPORT OF MATURE
    SPE...
GLANDS
  SEMINAL VESICLES
  PROSTATE GLAND:
       BOTH SECRETING SEMEN
  BULBO-URETHRAL GLANDS:
       SECRETE A MUC...
PENIS
  ERECTILE:
     DUE TO SPONGIOUS TISSUES
  DUAL STATES:
     FLACCID
     ERECT
  DUAL FUNCTIONS:
     EXPUL...
PENIS: DUAL STATES




Popad Rep Physiol MRP   19
SPERMATOGENESIS: some definitions
  The production of spermatozoa which occurs in
   the sertoli cells of the semeniferou...
FROM SPERMATID TO SPERM:
SPERMIOGENESIS…




Popad Rep Physiol MRP   21
MALE REPRODUCTION: HORMONAL REGULATION
                                  HYPOTHALAMUS




                                ...
TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS
1. INITIATION &
   MAINTAINANCE OF
   SPERMATOGENESIS.
2.  GnRH FROM THE
   HYPOTHALAMUS
3. INHI...
TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS
 5. INDUCES DIFFERENTIATION &
  MAINTAINS ACCESSORY REPRODUCTIVE
  ORGANS.
 6. STIMULATES PROTEIN...
Popad Rep Physiol MRP   25
PENILE ERECTION: REFLEX PATHWAYS
                                                  INPUT FROM
      THOUGHTS              ...
FUNCTION OF PENIS IN COITUS (SEXUAL
            INTERCOURSE)

 ERECTION
 EJACULATION




 Popad Rep Physiol MRP   27
ERECTION
  VASCULAR:
     SMALL ARTERIAL DILATATION
     VENOCONSTRICTION
  PARASYMPATHETIC FACILITATION (Point)
  SY...
EJACULATION
        SYMPATHETIC FACILITATION (“Shoot”)
        SKELETAL MUSCLES CONTRACT
        HAS TWO EVENTS:
      ...
MALE REPRODUCTIVE
               ABNORMALITIES
  CRYPTORCHIDISM (UNDESCENDED
   TESTES)
       THE DESCENT OF TESTES IS ...
CRYPTORCHIDISM




Popad Rep Physiol MRP    31
MALE HYPOGONADISM
  HYPERGONADOTROPIC:
    IN THIS CONDITION THE GONADOTROPINS ARE
     INCRESED IN CIRCULATION
    THE...
EUNUCHOIDISM
      DEFICIENCY OF LEYDIG CELLS FROM
         CHILDHOOD.
        TALL, NARROW SHOULDERS
        SMALL MUS...
PENILE ABNORMALITIES
  HYPOSPADIAS: URETHRAL ORIFICE VENTRAL
   TO THE SHAFT.
  EPISPADIAS: ORIFICE DORSAL TO THE SHAFT....
HYPOSPADIAS




Popad Rep Physiol MRP   35
KLINEFELTERS SYNDROME
  ALSO CALLED                TESTOSTERONE
   SEMENIFEROUS                ENOUGH FOR
   TUBULE DYSG...
K
                        L
                        I        S
                        N        Y
                        ...
C. Hormonal control

   1. GnRH - hypothalamus

      every 2 hrs

   2. FSH & LH from Ant Pit

     FSH – targets sertoli...
Female Reproductive Physiology
A. Structure

   1. Ovaries

B. Oogenesis

   1. Oogonia

      under go Mitosis (as fetus)...
Timing events in the menstrual cycle.
    1. Onset of menstruation




     Day 1                                       Da...
Timing events in the menstrual cycle.
    2. LH surge

                                                               LH
 ...
Animated ovarian events




              Key events in the ovarian cycle

                                               ...
Animated ovarian events




              Key events in the ovarian cycle
                                               2...
Animated ovarian events




              Key events in the ovarian cycle
                                               2...
Animated ovarian events




              Key events in the ovarian cycle
                                               2...
What controls           Hypothalamus
follicular growth?

                                             GnRH(gonadotrophin
 ...
Polycystic ovaries
              The classical picture of PCO: a string of follicles, 2-8
              mm in diameter



...
4. The disturbed steroid feedback
re-inforces the abnormal LH/FSH
secretion

                                    1. Raised...
Other changes in the cycle




                      a) Outer muscle layer – the
                         myometrium

    ...
Uterine changes in the menstrual cycle.
Endometri
al depth
                                More secretion from
           ...
Terminal differentiation of
                            stromal cells –
                            “decidualisation”
    ...
Menstruation - WHY?


In preparation for pregnancy, the human uterine
stromal cells go through complex changes and the
str...
19 Nov. 2008   Fertilization.ppt   55
Coitus & Sperm Transfer
    2-3 phases
       Erection/engorgement: Parasympathetic reflex
       Plateau
       Orgas...
Fertilization
     Contact of sperm &
      secondary oocyte
      occurs in uterine tube
           Sperm penetration
 ...
Fertilization
      Sperm
       penetration
      Why so many?




19 Nov. 2008    Fertilization.ppt   58
Early Development
         Implantation
                6-7 days after
                 fertilization
                T...
Early Development
     Placenta
           Provides large area for exchange of O2, CO2, nutrients,
               metabo...
Labor & Delivery
         Dilation
                Cervix dilates to ~ 10 cm
                 diameter
                ...
Many people also see "sex change" as factually
inaccurate. Sex in humans is usually determined by
four factors:
1. Chromos...
SEX CHANGE
 Not all of these          Existing sex characteristics can
                               to some extent be ...
Human   adloscent physiology
Human   adloscent physiology
Human   adloscent physiology
Human   adloscent physiology
Human   adloscent physiology
Human   adloscent physiology
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Human adloscent physiology

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Adloscent Education lecture for School Children

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Human adloscent physiology

  1. 1. DR. AVINASH BHONDWE
  2. 2. Hormones  Hormones are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body  The endocrine system is a system of glands that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones.  The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating metabolism, growth, development and puberty, and tissue function and also plays a part in determining mood.  The field of study that deals with disorders of endocrine glands is endocrinology, a branch of the wider field of internal medicine.
  3. 3. Hormones  A number of glands that signal each other in sequence is usually referred to as an axis, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.  Typical endocrine glands are the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.  Features of endocrine glands are, in general, their ductless nature, their vascularity, and usually the presence of intracellular vacuoles or granules storing their hormones.  In contrast, exocrine glands, such as salivary glands, sweat glands, and glands within the gastrointestinal tract, tend to be much less vascular and have ducts or a hollow lumen. Also controls metabolism in our body system
  4. 4. Effects of hormone  stimulation or inhibition of growth  mood swings  induction or suppression of apoptosis (programmed cell death)  activation or inhibition of the immune system  regulation of metabolism  preparation of the body for fighting, sex, fleeing, mating, and other activity  preparation of the body for a new phase of life, such as puberty, parenting, and menopause  control of the reproductive cycle
  5. 5. Effects of hormone  A hormone may also regulate the production and release of other hormones. TSH, FSH  Hormone signals control the internal environment of the body through homeostasis
  6. 6. HORMONE PRODUCING ORGANS 1. HYPOTHALAMUS 2. PITUTARY 3. THYROID 4. THYMUS 5. ADRENALS 6. PANCREAS 7. OVARIES 8. TESTES
  7. 7. MALE ANATOMY
  8. 8. THE MALE UROGENITAL TRACT Popad Rep Physiol MRP 8
  9. 9. FEMALE ANATOMY
  10. 10. VI. Pineal Gland A. Hormones Melatonin & Arginine vasotocin inhibits GnRH from hypoth. B. Trigger Photoperiod: increase secretion in dark C. Target Hypothalamus involved with sleep cycle affects the immune system
  11. 11. Physiology of Reproduction I. Male reproductive physiology A. Structures 1. Testes a. Seminiferous tubules Sertoli cells - spermatogenesis secretes inhibin
  12. 12. TESTIS: THE MALE GONAD VAS DEFERENS EPIDIDYMIS SEMENIFEROUS TUBULE RETE TESTIS EFFERENT DUCTULES Popad Rep Physiol MRP 13
  13. 13. b. Connective tissue leydig cells- testosterone B. Spermatogenesis 1. Spermatogonia at puberty – divide (mitosis) 2. Primary spermatocytes Meiosis I -> secondary spermatocytes Meiosis II -> spermatids 3. Sertoli cells blood-testes barrier
  14. 14. TESTES: ONE PAIR  HAS SEMENIFEROUS TUBULES:  SERTOLI CELLS  SPERMATOGONIA  SPERM CELLS IN VARIOUS STAGES  INTERSTITIAL CELLS OF LEYDIG:  SECRETE TESTOSTERONE, THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE Popad Rep Physiol MRP 15
  15. 15. DUCTULAR SYSTEM  RETE TESTIS  EFFERENT DUCTULES  EPIDIDYMIS  VAS DEFERENS  FUNCTION: TRANSPORT OF MATURE SPERMATOZOA. Popad Rep Physiol MRP 16
  16. 16. GLANDS  SEMINAL VESICLES  PROSTATE GLAND:  BOTH SECRETING SEMEN  BULBO-URETHRAL GLANDS:  SECRETE A MUCOID SUBSTANCE Popad Rep Physiol MRP 17
  17. 17. PENIS  ERECTILE:  DUE TO SPONGIOUS TISSUES  DUAL STATES:  FLACCID  ERECT  DUAL FUNCTIONS:  EXPULSION OF URINE  EXPULSION OF SEMEN Popad Rep Physiol MRP 18
  18. 18. PENIS: DUAL STATES Popad Rep Physiol MRP 19
  19. 19. SPERMATOGENESIS: some definitions  The production of spermatozoa which occurs in the sertoli cells of the semeniferous tubules is called as spermatogenesis.  The conversion of the spermatids into spermatozoa is called as spermiogenesis.  The release of the spermatazoon into the lumen of the semeniferous tubule is called as spermiation.  The final maturation of the spermatazoon which occurs in the female genital tract is called as capacitation. Popad Rep Physiol MRP 20
  20. 20. FROM SPERMATID TO SPERM: SPERMIOGENESIS… Popad Rep Physiol MRP 21
  21. 21. MALE REPRODUCTION: HORMONAL REGULATION HYPOTHALAMUS - ve feedback GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ANTERIOR PITUITARY - ve feedback FSH LH TESTES S E LEYDIG CELL R T O TESTOSTERONE L I REP.TRACT CELL SPERMATOGENESIS & OTHER ORGANS INHIBIN Popad Rep Physiol MRP 22
  22. 22. TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS 1. INITIATION & MAINTAINANCE OF SPERMATOGENESIS. 2.  GnRH FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS 3. INHIBITS LH SECRETION VIA ANTERIOR PITUITARY. 4. DIFFERENTIATION & MAINTAINANCE OF MALE SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS:Facial Hair & Body Habitus. Popad Rep Physiol MRP 23
  23. 23. TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS 5. INDUCES DIFFERENTIATION & MAINTAINS ACCESSORY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS. 6. STIMULATES PROTEIN ANABOLISM, BONE GROWTH & IT’S CESSATION. 7. ENHANCES LIBIDO & AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR BY MASCULINIZING THE BRAIN. 8. STIMULATES SECRETION OF ERYTHROPOIETIN FROM THE KIDNEYS Popad Rep Physiol MRP 24
  24. 24. Popad Rep Physiol MRP 25
  25. 25. PENILE ERECTION: REFLEX PATHWAYS INPUT FROM THOUGHTS MECHANORECEPTORS EMOTIONS OF PENIS SIGHT, SMELL NEURONS TO PENIS NEURONS RELEASE GASEOUS NEUROTRANSMITTER NITRIC OXIDE INHIBITION ON SYMPATHETIC NEURONS DECREASED PENIS ARTERIAL DILATATION + VENOCOMPRESSION = ERECTION Popad Rep Physiol MRP 26
  26. 26. FUNCTION OF PENIS IN COITUS (SEXUAL INTERCOURSE)  ERECTION  EJACULATION Popad Rep Physiol MRP 27
  27. 27. ERECTION  VASCULAR:  SMALL ARTERIAL DILATATION  VENOCONSTRICTION  PARASYMPATHETIC FACILITATION (Point)  SYMPATHETIC INHIBITION  SMOOTH MUSCLES RELAX Popad Rep Physiol MRP 28
  28. 28. EJACULATION  SYMPATHETIC FACILITATION (“Shoot”)  SKELETAL MUSCLES CONTRACT  HAS TWO EVENTS: 1. EMISSION: SMOOTH MUSCLES CONTRACT & SEMEN SENT INTO URETHRA 2. EXPULSION: RAPID CONTRACTION OF URETHRAL SMOOTH MUSCLES & SEMEN IS SENT OUT OF THE PENIS. Popad Rep Physiol MRP 29
  29. 29. MALE REPRODUCTIVE ABNORMALITIES  CRYPTORCHIDISM (UNDESCENDED TESTES)  THE DESCENT OF TESTES IS INCOMPLETE IN 10% OF NEONATES  SPONTANEOUS DESCENT OCCURS LATER  INCIDENCE: 2% AT INFANCY & 0.3% AFTER PUBERTY  COMPLICATIONS: INCREASED INCIDENCE OF TESTICULAR MALIGNANCIES & INFERTILITY. Popad Rep Physiol MRP 30
  30. 30. CRYPTORCHIDISM Popad Rep Physiol MRP 31
  31. 31. MALE HYPOGONADISM  HYPERGONADOTROPIC:  IN THIS CONDITION THE GONADOTROPINS ARE INCRESED IN CIRCULATION  THE LESION IS AT THE TESTES.  HYPOGONADOTROPIC:  A PITUITARY OR HYPOTHALAMIC DISORDER  KALLMAN’S SYNDROME. Popad Rep Physiol MRP 32
  32. 32. EUNUCHOIDISM  DEFICIENCY OF LEYDIG CELLS FROM CHILDHOOD.  TALL, NARROW SHOULDERS  SMALL MUSCLES  FEMININE HABITUS  SMALL GENITALIA  HIGH PITCHED VOICE  FEMALE PATTERN PUBIC HAIR Popad Rep Physiol MRP 33
  33. 33. PENILE ABNORMALITIES  HYPOSPADIAS: URETHRAL ORIFICE VENTRAL TO THE SHAFT.  EPISPADIAS: ORIFICE DORSAL TO THE SHAFT.  COMPLICATIONS: INFERTILITY Popad Rep Physiol MRP 34
  34. 34. HYPOSPADIAS Popad Rep Physiol MRP 35
  35. 35. KLINEFELTERS SYNDROME  ALSO CALLED  TESTOSTERONE SEMENIFEROUS ENOUGH FOR TUBULE DYSGENESIS SEC.SEXUAL  MOST COMMON SEX FEATURES CHROMOSOMAL  SEMENIFEROUS DISORDER TUBULES ARE  EXTERNAL ABNORMAL GENITALIA LIKE  INFERTILITY NORMAL MALES  INCIDENCE OF MENTAL RETARDATION MORE Popad Rep Physiol MRP 36
  36. 36. K L I S N Y E N F D E R L T O E M R E S Popad Rep Physiol MRP 37
  37. 37. C. Hormonal control 1. GnRH - hypothalamus every 2 hrs 2. FSH & LH from Ant Pit FSH – targets sertoli cells -> stimulate spermatogenesis LH – targets Leydig cells -> testosterone 3. Negative feedback Testosterone inhibits GnRH and LH Inhibin inhibits FSH
  38. 38. Female Reproductive Physiology A. Structure 1. Ovaries B. Oogenesis 1. Oogonia under go Mitosis (as fetus) 2. Primary oocytes result of Mitosis infant - all primary oocytes
  39. 39. Timing events in the menstrual cycle. 1. Onset of menstruation Day 1 Day 1 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Menstruation
  40. 40. Timing events in the menstrual cycle. 2. LH surge LH Days before Days after Day 1 Day 1 Follicular Luteal phase phase 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Menstruation OVULATION
  41. 41. Animated ovarian events Key events in the ovarian cycle LH 1. Follicular Day 1 growth 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Menstruation Oestradiol OVULATION
  42. 42. Animated ovarian events Key events in the ovarian cycle 2. Ovulation LH 1. Follicular Day 1 growth 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Menstruation Oestradiol OVULATION
  43. 43. Animated ovarian events Key events in the ovarian cycle 2. Ovulation LH 1. Follicular 3. Luteal Day 1 growth function 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Menstruation Progesterone Oestradiol (and oestradiol) OVULATION
  44. 44. Animated ovarian events Key events in the ovarian cycle 2. Ovulation LH 1. Follicular 3. Luteal Day 1 growth function 4. Luteal regression 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Menstruation Progesterone Oestradiol (and oestradiol) OVULATION
  45. 45. What controls Hypothalamus follicular growth? GnRH(gonadotrophin Pituitary releasing hormone) LH (“gonadotrophins” FSH ) Steroid feedback Ovaries + Oestradiol (E2) + Reproductive tract Other targets
  46. 46. Polycystic ovaries The classical picture of PCO: a string of follicles, 2-8 mm in diameter Section of ovary showing multiple follicles Ultrasound of ovary showing multiple in PCO follicles
  47. 47. 4. The disturbed steroid feedback re-inforces the abnormal LH/FSH secretion 1. Raised LH, lowered FSH 3. The high LH induces high androgen secretion from the theca 2. ….. leads to disturbed follic growth HIRSUTISM ANOVULATION Disturbed cycles
  48. 48. Other changes in the cycle a) Outer muscle layer – the myometrium b) Inner glandular mucosa – the endometrium
  49. 49. Uterine changes in the menstrual cycle. Endometri al depth More secretion from the glands – hence Oestradiol the term “secretory causes an phase” increase in thickness (the “proliferative phase”) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Menstruation OVULATION
  50. 50. Terminal differentiation of stromal cells – “decidualisation” Characteristic “spiral arteries” 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Optimal time for Menstruation implantation
  51. 51. Menstruation - WHY? In preparation for pregnancy, the human uterine stromal cells go through complex changes and the stromal cells terminal differentiate - “Decidualization”. If implantation and pregnancy do not occur, this tissue is lost - and the uterus prepares itself again for another possible pregnancy.
  52. 52. 19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt 55
  53. 53. Coitus & Sperm Transfer  2-3 phases  Erection/engorgement: Parasympathetic reflex  Plateau  Orgasm: Sympathetic reflex  Heart rate, contractility increase (pulse & BP)  Intense pleasure  Ejaculation by male 19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt 56
  54. 54. Fertilization  Contact of sperm & secondary oocyte occurs in uterine tube  Sperm penetration  Oocyte completes meiosis II  Nuclear fusion 19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt 57
  55. 55. Fertilization  Sperm penetration  Why so many? 19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt 58
  56. 56. Early Development  Implantation  6-7 days after fertilization  Trophoblast forms placenta  “Inner cell mass” forms embryo  (pp. 1118-1119) 19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt 59
  57. 57. Early Development  Placenta  Provides large area for exchange of O2, CO2, nutrients, metabolic wastes between fetal and maternal blood 19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt 60
  58. 58. Labor & Delivery  Dilation  Cervix dilates to ~ 10 cm diameter  Effacement  Descent of fetus into birth canal (“Station”)  Expulsion  Placental stage  “afterbirth” 19 Nov. 2008 Fertilization.ppt 61
  59. 59. Many people also see "sex change" as factually inaccurate. Sex in humans is usually determined by four factors: 1. Chromosomes 2. Gonads (Ovaries and/or testicles) 3. Hormone status 4. Primary sex characteristics, 5. secondary sex characteristics
  60. 60. SEX CHANGE  Not all of these  Existing sex characteristics can to some extent be changed; factors can be  existing ones mostly through changed, however: surgery,  Chromosomes cannot  non-existing ones can be induced be changed. to grow through hormones.  Gonads can be  Changing a male genital anatomy removed, but not into a good or even excellent female appearing and functioning replaced one is complicated, but entirely  Hormone status is possible; easily changed  Changing a female genital  Existing sex anatomy into an even reasonably male appearing one however is characteristics can to extremely complicated and not some extent be successful very often; function is changed always limited.

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