Human trafficking


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Human trafficking

  1. 1. Avinash Rajput Criminology 2nd Semester Lok Nayak Jayprakesh Narayana National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science Ministry of Home Affairs
  2. 2. Introduction  Human trafficking is a group of crimes involving the exploitation of men, women and children for financial gains which is violation of fundamental human rights  Human trafficking is the 3rd largest international crime  Over one million people trafficked annually  Millions of men, women and children are victims of human trafficking  Human trafficking is a part of the larger problem of slavery
  3. 3. Cont…  human trafficking is when people are transported, by force or deception, to become enslaved  Traffickers use blackmail, abuse, and threats to force victims to comply with their wishes in the destination country  Usually caused by poverty/lack of economic opportunities, especially for women and children, and a demand for certain services in the destination country
  4. 4. Definition  Illegal transportation of people for forced labour, sex exploitation, forced marriages…  Human trafficking is the recruitment, and transportation of people for the purpose of exploitation  Trafficking of human beings is their trade or commercial dealing  Human trafficking is a process of people being recruited in their community and country of origin and transported to the destination where they are being exploited for purposes of forced labor, prostitution, domestic servitude, and other forms of exploitation
  5. 5. CAUSES OF TRAFFICKING  Unemployment  Poverty  Absence of a social safety  Political instability  Status of violence against women & children  The low risk, high-profit
  6. 6. What is the Demand of Human Trafficking  Demand for prostitution  Demand for cheap labor  Potential profits are very high
  7. 7. WHO ARE TRAFFICKED?  Women and children are the key target  People of low income  People with low level of education  Young girls running away from home  People who lack awareness of their legal rights  Women and children of varying ages
  8. 8. TRAFFICKED FOR WHAT?  A large percentage for  Forced labour e.g. in prostitution  The entertainment industry  Sweatshops  Illegal adoption of children  Organ transplants  Forced marriages  Mail-order brides  Domestic work construction  Drug trafficking  Begging  Other exploitative forms of work
  9. 9. Involvement of Persons  Throughout the entire human trafficking process there     are 4 people involved: The recruiter The trafficker The victim The human trafficking industry
  10. 10. The Victims  The majority of trafficking victims are between 18 and 24 years of age  An estimated 1.2 million children are trafficked each year  95% of victims experienced physical or sexual violence during trafficking (based on data from selected European countries)
  11. 11. Cont…  43% of victims are used for forced commercial sexual exploitation, of whom 98 per cent are women and girls  32% of victims are used for forced economic exploitation, of whom 56 per cent are women and girls  Many trafficking victims have at least middle-level education
  12. 12. How Are Victims Trafficked?  Force, fraud and coercion are methods used by traffickers to press victims into lives of servitude, & abuse  Force: Rape, beatings, confinement  Fraud: Includes false and deceptive offers of employment, marriage, better life  Coercion: Threats of serious harm to, or physical restraint of, any person; any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause victims to believe that failure to perform an act would result in restraint against them; or the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process
  13. 13. Traffickers Use Multiple Means to Control Their Victims  Beatings, burnings, rapes, and starvation  Isolation  Psychological abuses  Drug or alcohol dependency  Document withholding  Debt bondage  Threats of deportation  Threats against the victim’s family or friends in his/her home country
  14. 14. ABUSES  Trafficked women and children may experience the most      horrifying abuses: Rape Physical abuse, including beatings with weapons Threats and violence against them and their family Verbal abuse Imprisonment
  15. 15. Cont…  Little or no access to health care  Minimum food and of poor quality  Dirty and cramped living conditions  Forced abortions  Forced use of drugs and alcohol Trafficked women environment of fear and children are kept in an
  16. 16. Who Provides Victim Services?  NGO – Non Governmental Organizations  Faith-Based Organizations  Social Service Providers  Catholic Charities  Lutheran Family Services  Salvation Army  Covenant House  Domestic Violence Shelters
  17. 17. General Facts on Trafficking  Victims are typically exploited by someone from their own country.  Victims rarely self-identify when they are approached or rescued.  Physical security is the greatest perceived need of most victims.  Traffickers often allow victims to attend church, using this to control the victim.
  18. 18. Philosophy of a Trafficker  False promises & dreams  Cut off from friends/family- take your ID  Beat & rape into submission  Sell to strangers  Control every aspect of miserable life  You will work 18+ hours a day & give every dime to me  If you keep $ from me, I will teach you a lesson  If you call the police, I will kill you
  19. 19. Recruitment tactics used by traffickers  False promises of…  A good job  A better life  Love  Marriage  An opportunity to provide for their family  Educational opportunities
  20. 20. How Does it Sometimes Happen?  Poor families sell children  Children work to buy freedom  Poor, desperate women/men Promised jobs  Russian women Bought/sold for around $700  Bonded into a debt they have NO chance of repaying Traffickers seek mainly younger girls
  21. 21. Living and working conditions  Physically demanding work  Under constant watch or supervision  Threats of physical harm or deportation  Isolation from the public and other victims  High risk for work-related injuries  High risk for sexually-transmitted diseases  Physical and psychological abuse and/or trauma  Long hours and little or no compensation  Little or no medical attention  Malnourishment
  22. 22. Impact of Human Trafficking on the Society  Fuels organized crime  Deprives countries of human capital  Promotes social breakdown  Undermines public heal  Subverts government authority  Imposes enormous economic cost
  23. 23. Impact of Human Trafficking on Victims  Loss of support from family and community  Loss of proper education  Obstacles in physical development  Psychological Traumas
  24. 24. Some reasons why human trafficking is not noticed  Victims do not identify themselves due to fear and shame  Traffickers keep their victims secluded from the outside world  Traffickers force their victims to be happy and tell them what to say  Many people do not know about it and do not report it
  25. 25. Identifying Victims of Trafficking Key Questions for Victims of Trafficking:  How did you get here?  Where do you live, eat and sleep?  Do you owe someone money?  Is someone keeping your legal/travel documents?  Were you threatened if you tried to leave?  Has your family been threatened?  Were you ever physically abused?  Were you ever forced to stay in one place?  Who are you afraid of?
  26. 26. Victims of Trafficking and Their Needs  Immediate assistance  Mental health assistance  Income assistance  Legal status
  27. 27. Why victims remain silent
  28. 28. Methods of Control
  29. 29. Local Human Trafficking Response Teams
  30. 30. What can you do to help prevent human trafficking?  Call your local police department  Report suspected trafficking crimes  Get help by calling the national 24/7 toll-free Human Trafficking Resource Center at 1-888-373-7888  For sexually exploited minors call the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children’s (NCMEC) hotline at 1800-THE-LOST  Contact the Department of Justice’s Human Trafficking Office at 1-888-428-7581
  31. 31. Some Reasons on Child Trafficking in India  Economic deprivation (e.g., poverty)  Lack of employment opportunities  Low social status (more common for girls)  Low levels of education and general awareness  Socio-cultural norms  Political uprisings (child soldiers)  Traditional religious and cultural practices
  32. 32. Child Trafficking Indicators  Evidence of sexual, physical, mental or emotional abuse  Engagement in work unsuitable for children  Identification by employer or someone else  No access to family members or friends  Not in school or significant gaps in schooling  Work long hours
  33. 33. Cont…  Living in workplace or with employer  Have tattoos or other marks indicating ownership by their exploiter –―branding‖  Owing large sum of money  Appear unusually fearful for family members
  34. 34. General Challenges to Identification  Hidden nature of the crime  Lack of understanding and awareness about human trafficking  Perception that victims are criminals  Trafficking victims rarely self-identify  If arrested, trafficking victims may not disclose their situation out of fear/trauma  Some are mistakenly identified as adults
  35. 35. Who are the Victims?  Homeless and/or runaway youth  As many as 2.8 million children live on the streets  Youth with history of abuse  Youth with low self esteem, depression  Youth with one parent in jail  Age is the greatest vulnerability factor
  36. 36. Indicators  Observations:  Characteristics:  Branding  Memory difficulty  Wounds, bruises  Lying  Drug addiction  Depression  Hostility  Anxiety  Language of ―the life‖  Hostility  Unfamiliarity with surroundings  Suicidal ideation  Unable to provide name of school  Affect dysregulation*  False or no identification  Somatization*  Prepaid credit card or cell phone  Disassociation*  Scripted/inconsistent story  Aggression*  No eye contact  Character pathology*
  37. 37. Return, Recovery, and Reintegration Fundamentals
  38. 38. Step 1: Victim identification  Objective: To identify migrants who have been exploited as victims of trafficking so that appropriate response measures can be taken—both legal and social  Example: Removal of victims of trafficking from confinement or detention to specialized safe houses or shelters. A VICTIM CENTERED APPROACH
  39. 39. Step 2: Shelter and recovery  Objective: To provide safe accommodation and comprehensive medical and social support for individuals identified as victims of trafficking  Shelters should provide:  Food  Accommodation  Basic medical care,  Access to comprehensive medical and psychosocial care or other social services  If appropriate, access to STD/STI testing and treatment (not forced testing)
  40. 40. Cont…  Referral system for physical or psychological care beyond the shelter’s capabilities  Appropriate security measures (during stay and transfer)  Information about the case and the victim gathered in a confidential and non-threatening manner
  41. 41. Step 3: Return  Objective: To ensure safe and secure voluntary travel of the trafficking victim from the shelter or safe-house to appropriate place of residence  Facilitated voluntary return – not forced deportation  Documentation / establishing identity  Security arrangements and escorts  Transport arrangements  Transit and reception arrangements  Travel documentation / visa arrangements  Safe and dignified
  42. 42. Step 4: Reintegration  Objective: To facilitate the successful social integration of the victim into her/his family (where appropriate) and society  Examples:  Family tracing and assessment  Psychosocial assistance  Social welfare assistance  Vocational training  Peer-to-peer support  Non-formal education  Legal assistance
  43. 43. Cont… Reintegration ≠ Return  Preventing re-trafficking  Reintegration begins prior to return  Developing links with service providers in the home country / community
  44. 44. Successful Return, Recovery and Reintegration is based on:  Complete Case Reports  Plans that are based on individuals themselves—self determination  Protection of Victims at destination areas  Family Tracing  Family Assessment  Decision making on return – to family or alternative options
  45. 45. Cont…  Processing Travel Documents  Turn-over and reception process  Reintegration support  Monitoring and follow-up on reintegration  A human rights centered approach
  46. 46. Challenges with Reintegration  Initial factors still present  re-victimization  Few opportunities for self-sustainable living  Few options for support after reintegration  Very few agencies provide interventions to both the children and families  No activities to increase income-generating capacity of families  Systematic challenges with reintegration interventions:
  47. 47. Cont…  Lack of follow up support after reintegration  No market is available for the skills after training  Profit made too small to live on due to lack of market networks  Lack of easy access to health services although health issue is critical