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Cyber Crime


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Cyber Crime

  1. 1. Avinash Rajput Criminology 2nd Semester Lok Nayak Jayprakesh Narayana National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science Ministry of Home Affairs
  2. 2.  Harmful acts committed from or against a computer or network  Illegal computer-mediated activities that can be conducted through global electronic networks  unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or target or both  Online or Internet-based illegal acts
  3. 3.  The first recorded cyber crime took place in the year 1820  In 1820, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced the loom  This device allowed the repetition of a series of steps in the weaving of special fabrics  This resulted in a fear amongst Jacquard's employees that their traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened
  4. 4.  The employees committed acts of sabotage to discourage Jacquard from further use of the new technology.This is the first recorded cyber crime!  The first spam email took place in 1978 when it was sent over the Arpanet  The first VIRUS was installed on an Apple computer in 1982
  6. 6.  Activity is commonly referred as unauthorized access to computer systems or network without the permission of the computer owner/user  Hackers write or use ready-made computer programs to attack the target computer  Computer hacking includes breaking into a computer with the intent to steal, damage, modify or monitor data or settings within the system
  7. 7.  Malicious software that attaches itself to other software  Circulate themselves to other files and to other computers on a network  Affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting it
  8. 8.  In such crime criminal makes insignificant changes in such a manner that such changes would go unnoticed  Criminals makes such program thatdeducts small amount like Rs. 2.50 per month from the account of all the customer of the bank and deposit the same in his account. In this case no account holder will approach the bank for such small amount but criminal gains huge amount
  9. 9.  Theft of software through the illegal copying of genuine programs or the counterfeiting and distribution of products intended to pass for the original  Copying and using computer programs violation of copyrights and trade secret laws  Retail revenue losses worldwide increasing due to this crime are in ever
  10. 10.  It refers to sending large numbers of mail to the victim, which may be an individual or a company by ultimately resulting into crashing.  E-mail "bombing" is characterized by abusers repeatedly sending an identical email message to a particular address
  11. 11.  Programs are created to do something only when a certain event (known as a trigger event) occurs  Secretly attaches another company‟s computer system program to a  Even some viruses may be termed logic bombs because they lie dormant all through the year and become active only on a particular date
  12. 12.  Any type of fraud scheme that uses one or more components of the internet such as chat rooms, e-mail, message boards, or Web sites - to present fraudulent solicitations to prospective victims, to conduct fraudulent transactions, or to transmit the proceeds of fraud to financial institutions or to other connected with the scheme
  13. 13.  It is the actual use of computers and Internet technology to cause intimidation and destruction  uses the Internet or network to destroy or damage computers for political reasons  Cyber terrorist could hack into a pharmaceutical company‟s computers, changing the formula of some essential medication and causing thousands to die
  14. 14.  Misuse and illegal selling of other people‟s passwords  Break a company‟s password and misuse the password or sale that password to another company or an individual
  15. 15.  Identity theft occurs when somebody steals a personal name and other personal information for fraudulent purposes  Identity theft is a form of identity crime where somebody uses a false identity to commit a crime  It involves stealing victims‟ personal information and credentials, often to make purchases
  16. 16.  You simply have to type cradit card number into www page of the vendor for online transaction  If electronic transaction are not secured the cradit card numbers can be stolen by the hackers who can misuse this card by impersonating the cradit card owner
  17. 17.  Silent in Nature  Global in character  Non existence of Physical Evidence  Creates high Impact  Gain Benefit
  18. 18.  Computer crime could be committed in privacy without reaching to scene of crime physically i.e. no eye witnesses. There is no signs of physical violence or struggle
  19. 19.  No national borders. By sitting comfortably far away from the country the entire economy of the country could be destroyed. As digital evidences are fragile in nature one has to respond quickly
  20. 20.  No physical evidence to indicate that crime has been committed. Only on a closer look the trained person could find out the evidences which are not in the traditional format but are in digital format
  21. 21.  Impact is severe and may be long term. It can damage the victim system permanently. Loss of good will
  22. 22.  A software developer who did not get enough money or good job would turn to criminal world for their survival. Therefore, the computer crimes have a potential to increase. Hence organized mafia may enter into this sector
  23. 23.  Computer as Target  Computer as Tool  Computer as incidental to Offence
  24. 24.  Crimes which compromise the confidentiality of a system, resulting in theft of services or the release of viruses  A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program written to alter the way a computer operates, without the permission or knowledge of the user  Example: Hacking/cracking, computer trespass
  25. 25.  Crimes migrated from the physical world into cyberspace such as child pornography, fraud, illegal online sales  This category include such crimes were either computers or their contents bare used in furtherance of crime or those offences which are committed by manipulating contents of computer systems  Example: sending e-mails, credit card frauds telecommunication frauds, identity theft
  26. 26.  Computer used to facilitate or execute a crime such as the storing of child pornography or illicit drug records  This category includes conventional crimes, and with the advent of computer the criminal have started using the technology as an aid for its perpetuation  Example: Aid for drug trafficking, money laundering, child pornography etc
  27. 27.  “Hackers” is a term that is currently used to identify individuals who break into computers  Hackers can be any age, creed or nationality  Hackers have gained a negative image due to their exploits in the past few years  Hackers may commit their criminal activity for excitement, the challenge or monetary reasons
  28. 28.  Hackers tend to be young males who have extremely high intelligence and curiosity  There has been an increase in the number of females that have acquired the skills to break into computer systems
  29. 29.  The process is based on their experience acquired through attempting to break into, and subsequently breaking into computer systems  What this provides law enforcement is a Modus Operandi (MO) with patterns that prosecutors and police can use to build their case  Law enforcement officials should establish databases on the MO of cyber criminals in their sectors
  30. 30.  Cyber criminals will typically need to use a computer network that is difficult if not impossible to identify  This is done to make it difficult for law enforcement to identify the perpetrator of the cyber crime  Cyber criminals will “hack” into a victim computer or will use cyber café‟s to commit their illegal activity
  31. 31.  Hackers will initially conduct intelligence gathering during the first phase of their illegal activity  They want to learn network range, extranet connections, etc  Hackers next conduct network discovery to identify the number and operating systems of the target victim‟s computer network
  32. 32.  Hackers will also conduct host enumeration in order to identify vulnerabilities that exist of the system  The computer‟s vulnerabilities will then be exploited by the criminal  Cyber criminals will also install password crackers on the network. These “crackers” will allow them to “break” the passwords of the authorized users
  33. 33.  Once the network has been compromised, cyber criminals will usually install “sniffers” that allow them to capture user id/passwords and other sensitive information  Hackers may use stegonagraphy in order to hide important data from law enforcement personnel  Stegonagraphy is very automated software easy to use with
  34. 34.  Computer forensic is evidence produced by a computer which is supported,conclusive (convincing), and sufficient to be accepted by the court  Computer forensics is the discipline of acquiring, preserving, identifying and examining digital media
  35. 35.  It involves retrieving computer data in order to meet standards for admissibility as evidence in legal proceedings  Computer forensic data recovery is the basis for seizure of evidence in all computer-based investigations
  36. 36.  Imagine the following  You didn‟t information recognize critical evidence or  You could not locate vital data  You could not use any documents or records  You accidentally destroyed evidence  You now needed to resolve an allegation or an issue
  37. 37.  Removable Media: Floppy Disk; Zip Disk  Hard Drive: IDE; SCSI  CDROM  Magnetic Tape  Electronic Organizers
  38. 38.  Reliability of evidence  Adherence to accepted protocols and practices  Use of proven / accepted software  Ability to testify as to methods and results of analysis  Trained and examiners certified computer forensics  Proper training is crucial for testimonial purposes
  39. 39.  Separating pertinent evidence from non-pertinent  There then must be an evaluation of the evidence for criticality and usability in judicial environment  There must always be a documentation of actions taken by the examiner
  40. 40.  Governments have passed a variety of laws to address the increase of computer crimes  The first computer crime statutes were passed in 1986  Local and regional areas have also passed laws to address cyber crime at their level  Local and regional laws generally mirror the national laws
  41. 41.  One nation created a Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) to formulate policy on computer crime  CCIPS is responsible for issuing country-wide guidelines on the search and seizure of digital data  Each individual Attorney General‟s Office has a specially trained prosecutor that is responsible for the prosecution of crimes where a computer is utilized
  42. 42.  The Computer Misuse Act (1990)  The Data Protection Act (1998)  Information Technology Act, 2000
  43. 43.  Use the latest version of anti-virus  Use the latest version of the operating system  Don‟t open e-mail attachments unless you know the source  Confirm the site you are doing business with  Create passwords containing atleast 8 digits
  44. 44.  Use different passwords for different websites  Send credit card information only to secure sites  Use a security program that gives you control over "Cookies" that send information back to websites
  45. 45.  Use antivirus software‟s  insert firewalls  uninstall unnecessary software  maintain backup  check security settings  Stay anonymous - choose a genderless screen name  Never give your full name or address to strangers
  46. 46.  Learn „inetiquette' - follow it and expect it from others  Don't respond to harassing or negative messages (flames)  Get out of uncomfortable or hostile situations quickly  Save offending messages  Learn more about Internet privacy
  47. 47.  Spam Blocker  Anti-Virus Software  Firewall Protection  Caution in providing personal information  Secure shoping  Avoidence of Scam
  48. 48.  Avast Free Antivirus  AVG Free Antivirus  Avira AntiVir Personal  Kaspersky Antivirus  Mcafee Antivirus  Symantec Norton Antivirus  Quick Heal Antivirus