SlideShare a Scribd company logo
By. Jadhav Avinash J 
Roll no - 2K13E11
Reference: 
Hewlett Packard 
Agilent Technology 
Wikipedia 
GwINSTEK
Content:- 
Overview 
Theory of Operation
What is a Spectrum Analyzer? 
A spectrum analyzer measures the magnitude of an 
input signal versus frequency within the full 
frequency range of the instrument 
Spectrum analyzers usually display raw, 
unprocessed signal information such as voltage, 
power, period, wave shape, sidebands, and 
frequency. They can provide you with a clear and 
precise window into the frequency spectrum.
Difference between Spectrum Analyzer & 
Oscilloscope:- 
An oscilloscope give amplitude v/s time display of a 
wave, 
whereas the spectrum analyzer gives amplitude v/s 
frequency display. 
The oscilloscope gives distribution of energy in wave 
with respect to time 
whereas the spectrum analyzer displays frequency 
components of a wave and their amplitudes.
Most Common Spectrum Analyzer 
Measurements are 
Modulation Distortion Noise 
Modulation is 
important for 
making sure your 
system is working 
properly and that 
the information is 
being transmitted 
correctly. 
Noise is often 
the signal you 
want to 
measure. 
Any active 
circuit or device 
will generate 
noise. 
In communications, 
measuring distortion 
is critical for both the 
receiver and 
transmitter. 
Excessive harmonic 
distortion at the 
output of a 
transmitter can 
interfere with other 
communication 
bands.
Different Types of Analyzers 
There are basically two ways to make frequency 
domain measurements (what we call spectrum 
analysis) 
1] Fourier Transform Analyzer 
2] Swept-Tuned Analyzer
Fourier Analyzer 
Parallel filters measured 
simultaneously 
CRT shows full 
spectral display 
A 
f f 1 f2
It takes a time-domain signal, digitizes it using digital 
sampling, and then performs the mathematics 
required to convert it to the frequency domain, and 
display the resulting spectrum. 
analyzer looks at the entire frequency range at the 
same time using parallel filters for measuring 
simultaneously. 
It is actually capturing the time domain information 
which contains all the frequency information in it. 
Phase as well as magnitude
Limitations 
frequency range, 
Sensitivity range, 
Dynamic range
A 
Swept Analyzer 
Filter 'sweeps' over range 
of interest 
CRT shows full 
spectral display 
f f 1 f2
The most common type of spectrum analyzer is the 
swept-tuned receiver. 
It is the most widely accepted, general-purpose tool 
for frequency-domain measurements. 
Widely used is superheterodyne. 
Very basically, these analyzers sweep across the 
frequency range of interest, displaying all the 
frequency components present. 
The swept receiver technique enables frequency 
domain measurements to be made over a large 
dynamic range and a wide frequency range
Theory of Operation
Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram
Major blocks in a spectrum analyzer 
are:- 
1] RF input attenuator, 
2] Mixer, 
3] IF (Intermediate Frequency) gain, 
4] IF filter, 
5] Detector, 
6] Video filter, 
7] Local oscillator, 
8] Sweep generator, and 
9] CRT display.
IF Filter 
The IF filter is a bandpass filter which is used as 
the window for detecting signals. It's bandwidth is 
also called the Resolution bandwidth (RBW) of the 
analyzer and can be changed via the front panel of 
the analyzer. 
If resolution bandwidth is narrowed, selectivity is 
improved. 
This will also often improve Signal to Noise Ratio. 
The optimum resolution bandwidth setting depends 
heavily on the characteristics of the signals of 
interest.
Detector 
The analyzer must convert the IF signal to a 
baseband or video signal so it can be viewed on the 
instrument's display. 
Many modern spectrum analyzers have digital 
displays which first digitize the video signal with an 
analog-to-digital converter (ADC). 
This allows for several different detector modes that 
dramatically effect how the signal is displayed.
Video Filter 
The video filter is a low-pass filter that is located 
after the envelope detector and before the ADC. 
This filter determines the bandwidth of the video 
amplifier, and is used to average or smooth the trace 
seen on the screen. 
The spectrum analyzer displays signal-plus-noise so 
that the closer a signal is to the noise level, the more 
the noise makes the signal more difficult to read. 
By changing the video bandwidth (VBW) setting, we 
can decrease the peak-to-peak variations of noise.
A brief description of few 
components 
Local Oscillator:- 
The local oscillator is a Voltage Controlled Oscillator 
(VCO) which in effect tunes the analyzer. 
The sweep generator actually tunes the LO so that 
its frequency changes in proportion to the ramp 
voltage. 
This also deflects the CRT beam horizontally across 
the screen from left to right, creating the frequency 
domain in the x-axis
RF input attenuator:- 
The RF input attenuator is a step attenuator located 
between the input connector and the first mixer. 
It is also called the RF attenuator. 
This is used to adjust the level of the signal incident 
upon the first mixer. 
This is important in order to prevent mixer gain 
compression and distortion due to high-level and/or 
broadband signals.
IF gain 
The IF gain is located after the mixer but before the 
IF, or RBW, filter. 
This is used to adjust the vertical position of signals 
on the display without affecting the signal level at 
the input mixer. 
The IF gain will automatically be changed to 
compensate for input attenuator changes, so signals 
remain stationary on the CRT display, and the 
reference level is not changed.
Let's see how these blocks work 
together to make a spectrum 
analyzer. 
First of all, the signal to be analyzed is connected to 
the input of the spectrum analyzer. 
This input signal is then combined with the LO 
through the mixer, to convert (or translate) it to an 
intermediate frequency (IF). 
These signals are then sent to the IF filter.
The output of this filter is detected, indicating the 
presence of a signal component at the analyzer's 
tuned frequency. 
The sweep generator provides synchronization 
between the horizontal axis of the display 
(frequency) and tuning of the LO. 
The resulting display shows amplitude versus 
frequency of spectral components of each incoming 
signal.
24 
Front Panel Operation 
8563A 
SPECTRUM ANALYZER 9 kHz - 26.5 GHz 
RF Input Numeric 
keypad 
Control functions 
(RBW, sweep time, 
VBW) 
Primary functions 
(Frequency, Amplitude, 
Span) 
Softkeys
Primary Functions Keys:- 
The three primary hard keys on any spectrum 
analyzer are: 
frequency, amplitude, and span. 
Span is simply a way to tell the analyzer how big a 
window in frequency we want to view.
Other important control functions include setting 
the resolution bandwidth, sweeptime, input 
attenuator and video bandwidth. 
Modern analyzers have both hardkeys and softkeys 
(next to the CRT display). 
The softkeys allow you to access several different 
functions/features under one hardkey. 
For example, there will typically be a hardkey 
labeled "BW", which when pressed gives you the 
choice of changing either the RBW or the VBW 
depending upon which softkey you press.
Thank You

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spectrum analyzers ppt

  • 1. By. Jadhav Avinash J Roll no - 2K13E11
  • 2. Reference: Hewlett Packard Agilent Technology Wikipedia GwINSTEK
  • 4. What is a Spectrum Analyzer? A spectrum analyzer measures the magnitude of an input signal versus frequency within the full frequency range of the instrument Spectrum analyzers usually display raw, unprocessed signal information such as voltage, power, period, wave shape, sidebands, and frequency. They can provide you with a clear and precise window into the frequency spectrum.
  • 5. Difference between Spectrum Analyzer & Oscilloscope:- An oscilloscope give amplitude v/s time display of a wave, whereas the spectrum analyzer gives amplitude v/s frequency display. The oscilloscope gives distribution of energy in wave with respect to time whereas the spectrum analyzer displays frequency components of a wave and their amplitudes.
  • 6. Most Common Spectrum Analyzer Measurements are Modulation Distortion Noise Modulation is important for making sure your system is working properly and that the information is being transmitted correctly. Noise is often the signal you want to measure. Any active circuit or device will generate noise. In communications, measuring distortion is critical for both the receiver and transmitter. Excessive harmonic distortion at the output of a transmitter can interfere with other communication bands.
  • 7. Different Types of Analyzers There are basically two ways to make frequency domain measurements (what we call spectrum analysis) 1] Fourier Transform Analyzer 2] Swept-Tuned Analyzer
  • 8. Fourier Analyzer Parallel filters measured simultaneously CRT shows full spectral display A f f 1 f2
  • 9. It takes a time-domain signal, digitizes it using digital sampling, and then performs the mathematics required to convert it to the frequency domain, and display the resulting spectrum. analyzer looks at the entire frequency range at the same time using parallel filters for measuring simultaneously. It is actually capturing the time domain information which contains all the frequency information in it. Phase as well as magnitude
  • 10. Limitations frequency range, Sensitivity range, Dynamic range
  • 11. A Swept Analyzer Filter 'sweeps' over range of interest CRT shows full spectral display f f 1 f2
  • 12. The most common type of spectrum analyzer is the swept-tuned receiver. It is the most widely accepted, general-purpose tool for frequency-domain measurements. Widely used is superheterodyne. Very basically, these analyzers sweep across the frequency range of interest, displaying all the frequency components present. The swept receiver technique enables frequency domain measurements to be made over a large dynamic range and a wide frequency range
  • 15. Major blocks in a spectrum analyzer are:- 1] RF input attenuator, 2] Mixer, 3] IF (Intermediate Frequency) gain, 4] IF filter, 5] Detector, 6] Video filter, 7] Local oscillator, 8] Sweep generator, and 9] CRT display.
  • 16. IF Filter The IF filter is a bandpass filter which is used as the window for detecting signals. It's bandwidth is also called the Resolution bandwidth (RBW) of the analyzer and can be changed via the front panel of the analyzer. If resolution bandwidth is narrowed, selectivity is improved. This will also often improve Signal to Noise Ratio. The optimum resolution bandwidth setting depends heavily on the characteristics of the signals of interest.
  • 17. Detector The analyzer must convert the IF signal to a baseband or video signal so it can be viewed on the instrument's display. Many modern spectrum analyzers have digital displays which first digitize the video signal with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This allows for several different detector modes that dramatically effect how the signal is displayed.
  • 18. Video Filter The video filter is a low-pass filter that is located after the envelope detector and before the ADC. This filter determines the bandwidth of the video amplifier, and is used to average or smooth the trace seen on the screen. The spectrum analyzer displays signal-plus-noise so that the closer a signal is to the noise level, the more the noise makes the signal more difficult to read. By changing the video bandwidth (VBW) setting, we can decrease the peak-to-peak variations of noise.
  • 19. A brief description of few components Local Oscillator:- The local oscillator is a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) which in effect tunes the analyzer. The sweep generator actually tunes the LO so that its frequency changes in proportion to the ramp voltage. This also deflects the CRT beam horizontally across the screen from left to right, creating the frequency domain in the x-axis
  • 20. RF input attenuator:- The RF input attenuator is a step attenuator located between the input connector and the first mixer. It is also called the RF attenuator. This is used to adjust the level of the signal incident upon the first mixer. This is important in order to prevent mixer gain compression and distortion due to high-level and/or broadband signals.
  • 21. IF gain The IF gain is located after the mixer but before the IF, or RBW, filter. This is used to adjust the vertical position of signals on the display without affecting the signal level at the input mixer. The IF gain will automatically be changed to compensate for input attenuator changes, so signals remain stationary on the CRT display, and the reference level is not changed.
  • 22. Let's see how these blocks work together to make a spectrum analyzer. First of all, the signal to be analyzed is connected to the input of the spectrum analyzer. This input signal is then combined with the LO through the mixer, to convert (or translate) it to an intermediate frequency (IF). These signals are then sent to the IF filter.
  • 23. The output of this filter is detected, indicating the presence of a signal component at the analyzer's tuned frequency. The sweep generator provides synchronization between the horizontal axis of the display (frequency) and tuning of the LO. The resulting display shows amplitude versus frequency of spectral components of each incoming signal.
  • 24. 24 Front Panel Operation 8563A SPECTRUM ANALYZER 9 kHz - 26.5 GHz RF Input Numeric keypad Control functions (RBW, sweep time, VBW) Primary functions (Frequency, Amplitude, Span) Softkeys
  • 25. Primary Functions Keys:- The three primary hard keys on any spectrum analyzer are: frequency, amplitude, and span. Span is simply a way to tell the analyzer how big a window in frequency we want to view.
  • 26. Other important control functions include setting the resolution bandwidth, sweeptime, input attenuator and video bandwidth. Modern analyzers have both hardkeys and softkeys (next to the CRT display). The softkeys allow you to access several different functions/features under one hardkey. For example, there will typically be a hardkey labeled "BW", which when pressed gives you the choice of changing either the RBW or the VBW depending upon which softkey you press.