Presentation chapter 9

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Urinary tract Abbreviations Slideshow

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Presentation chapter 9

  1. 1. The Urinary System and Abbreviations By: Annabella Vidal-Ruiz
  2. 2. Abbreviations <ul><li>BNO- Bladder Neck Obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>ESWL- Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy </li></ul><ul><li>cath- Catherization </li></ul><ul><li>UA, U/A- Urinalysis </li></ul><ul><li>UTI- Urinary Tract Infection </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bladder Neck Obstruction <ul><li>A condition where the bladder neck does not open enough during voiding (urination) </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: Frequency, urgency, urge, incontinence, nocturia, decreased force of stream, hesitancy, and incomplete emptying </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: structural changes at the bladder neck (fibrous narrowing or hyperplasia), abnormal arrangement of muscles at the bladder neck opening, abnormalities of the striated urethral sphincter </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Procedures: low-flow urination, X-ray of the obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: Alpha blockers, Terazosin, Surgery (incision at bladder neck) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bladder Neck Obstruction <ul><li>An anatomical drawing of the bladder neck </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bladder Neck Obstruction <ul><li>An X-ray of a bladder with an obstruction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy <ul><li>Non-invasive treatment of kidney stones </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure that attempts to break up stones with an externally-applied, focused, high-intensity acoustic pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Uses direct shearing forces and cavitation bubbles, which fragment the stones in to smaller pieces until they can pass through the ureters or cystic duct </li></ul><ul><li>Works best with stones between 4 mm and 2 cm in diameter that are still located in the kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to capillary damage, renal failure, hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure takes about an hour </li></ul>
  7. 7. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy <ul><li>Passed fragments of a 1 cm stone that was smashed with Lithotripsy </li></ul>
  8. 8. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy <ul><li>A patient undergoing Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy </li></ul>
  9. 9. Catherization <ul><li>A procedure where a catheter (or plastic tube) is slid into the patients bladder via the urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Sex Differences: In males, the catheter is placed through the urinary tract in the Penis. In females, the catheter is placed through urethral meatus </li></ul><ul><li>Common sizes: 10 F to 28F (sized by French Catheter Scales) </li></ul><ul><li>Possible long term complications: Urinary tract infections, blood infections, bladder stones, hematuria, skin breakdown, and urethral injury </li></ul>
  10. 10. Catherization <ul><li>Catherization of a female </li></ul>
  11. 11. Urinalysis <ul><li>an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: Description, Specific Gravity, pH, Ketone Bodies, Proteins, Albustix Test, Nitrites, Urobilinogen, Bilirubin,Icotest, Glucose, Benedict’s Test, Hemoglobin, RBC, WBC, hCG </li></ul><ul><li>Can also include a microscopic examination </li></ul>
  12. 12. Urinary Tract Infection <ul><li>A bacterial infection that infects any part of the urinary tract </li></ul><ul><li>Most common type of UTI is acute cystitis </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: frequent feeling, need to urinate, pain during urination, and cloudy urine </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Factors: sexual activity, more prevalent in women, urinary catheters, genetics, etc. (diabetics, sickle-cell disease </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Procedures: Usually based on symptoms alone, Urinalysis, Urine microscopy, urine culture </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: Short course of antibiotics </li></ul>
  13. 13. Urinary Tract Infection <ul><li>Anatomical Picture of the Urinary System (Places where UTIs can occur) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Urinary Tract Infection <ul><li>A magnification of the bacteria that causes UTIs </li></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>BNO- Bladder Neck Obstruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1477631/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ESWL-Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extracorporeal_shock_wave_lithotripsy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cath- Catherization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinary_catheterization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UA, U/A- Urinalysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinalysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UTI- Urinary Tract Infection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/urinary-tract-infection/DS00286 </li></ul></ul>

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