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3.3 alloys

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3.3 alloys

  1. 1. 3.3 ALLOYS AND NONFERROUS METALS • • • • 3.3.1 Alloys 3.3.2 General properties 3.3.3 The common metals and alloys 3.3.4 Electroplating
  2. 2. Schematic of atoms in two different metals
  3. 3. When metal are mixed to form alloys there are 3 possibilities: • Completely soluble, i.e. atoms of one will fit exactly into the structure of the other without disturbing it. (e.g. copper and nickel) • Partially soluble, i.e. the atoms cannot form structures together but crystals of each will mix. (e.g. copper and zinc i.e. brass) • Insoluble, e.g. molten iron will float on molten lead, they will not mix
  4. 4. Completely Soluble
  5. 5. When metal are mixed to form alloys there are 3 possibilities: • Completely soluble, i.e. atoms of one will fit exactly into the structure of the other without disturbing it. (e.g. copper and nickel) • Partially soluble, i.e. the atoms cannot form structures together but crystals of each will mix. (e.g. copper and zinc i.e. brass) • Insoluble, e.g. molten iron will float on molten lead, they will not mix
  6. 6. Partially soluble
  7. 7. When metal are mixed to form alloys there are 3 possibilities: • Completely soluble, i.e. atoms of one will fit exactly into the structure of the other without disturbing it. (e.g. copper and nickel) • Partially soluble, i.e. the atoms cannot form structures together but crystals of each will mix. (e.g. copper and zinc i.e. brass) • Insoluble, e.g. molten iron will float on molten lead, they will not mix
  8. 8. Insoluble
  9. 9. 3.3 ALLOYS AND NONFERROUS METALS • • • • 3.3.1 Alloys 3.3.2 General properties 3.3.3 The common metals and alloys 3.3.4 Electroplating
  10. 10. Thermal Properties Density kg/m3 Copper Steel Aluminium Specific Heat J/kg/oC Thermal conductivity W/moC Coefficient of thermal expansion /oC×10-6 8900 7800 2700 390 480 880 300 84 200 17 11 24
  11. 11. Mechanical Properties
  12. 12. Effect of cold working of typical metal Tensile Strength Percentage elongation Percentage change in cross section area during cold working
  13. 13. 3.3 ALLOYS AND NONFERROUS METALS • • • • 3.3.1 Alloys 3.3.2 General properties 3.3.3 The common metals and alloys 3.3.4 Electroplating
  14. 14. Copperzinc-tin alloys
  15. 15. Range of non-ferrous alloys
  16. 16. Some of the main non-ferrous alloys used in construction • • • • Copper Zinc Aluminium Lead
  17. 17. The 3 grades of copper are • Deoxidised copper, used for copper tube, suitable for welding. • Fire refined tough pitch copper, had higher strength, thermal and electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosion. Used for roof coverings. These turn a pleasant green as surface corrosion occurs. This corrosion product may stain adjacent materials. • Electrolytic tough pitch high conductivity copper. Contains fewer impurities, has higher electrical conductivity, used for electrical conductors.
  18. 18. Lead and Copper Roofing
  19. 19. Some of the main non-ferrous alloys used in construction • • • • Copper Zinc Aluminium Lead
  20. 20. Galvanised (zinc plated) steel in fence and structure
  21. 21. Some of the main non-ferrous alloys used in construction • • • • Copper Zinc Aluminium Lead
  22. 22. Lead roof (note welded repair)
  23. 23. Note staining on bricks from lead roof
  24. 24. 3.3 ALLOYS AND NONFERROUS METALS • • • • 3.3.1 Alloys 3.3.2 General properties 3.3.3 The common metals and alloys 3.3.4 Electroplating
  25. 25. Electroplating

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