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A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice


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This is the presentation completed for our first review as part of our final year thesis.We are students of electronics and communication engineering who are creating a noninvasive optical method to detect Jaundice in Newborns.This slideshow gives a brief theoretical overview and explains the components used in the tool.

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A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice

  1. 1. A Non Invasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice Project Team: Guide: Mrs.Shanthi Prince Students: Ajaay Ravi, Roll No:10403008, & Avantika Vardhan,Roll No:10403050 4 th Yr ECE ‘A’ Section,SRM University
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Jaundice is caused by high bilirubin levels </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments could quantify bilirubin levels in the skin in a non invasive way </li></ul><ul><li>The spectral reflectance of the skin gives information about the constituents that make up the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Bilirubin is a skin constituent that indicates jaundice </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Patient/Bilirubin Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Normal patient/Less than 1mg/dL </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundiced Adult/Greater than 2mg/dL </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundiced Newborn/Greater than 7mg/dL </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>This project aims to develop a neonatal jaundice screening tool </li></ul><ul><li>Make it non invasive by using only light as input and output </li></ul><ul><li>This is done by reflectance spectroscopy </li></ul><ul><li>I.e a light source is given to skin and amount of reflected and absorbed spectrum is calculated for different wavelengths of light </li></ul><ul><li>An analysis of this data gives us the nature of the skin,I.e. the different metabolites present </li></ul><ul><li>This will be a good indicator of bilirubin levels </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>A light source shines light on a mock tissue sample/blood sample </li></ul><ul><li>A spectrometer(built from first principles) receives light from the mock tissue </li></ul><ul><li>The data is analyzed and gives the corresponding reflectance values of light from the skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic principle is reflectance spectroscopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The range is 300 to 900 nm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three metabolites are analyzed: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin, Melanin and Bilirubin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law(when absorbance spectrum is found):total skin absorbance is equal to the sum of the absorbance of the individual metabolites </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>A computational simulation modeling skin characteristics will be done using MATLAB for normal and jaundice skin of newborn </li></ul><ul><li>Light incident on skin will be simulated using Monte Carlo statistical method </li></ul><ul><li>Then experimental analysis using blood samples and also for newborn babies </li></ul><ul><li>The computational data along with the experimental data will be compared </li></ul><ul><li>A statistical curve will be established </li></ul><ul><li>This curve will relate reflectance and bilirubin concentration </li></ul><ul><li>From this curve, the data points will indicate different jaundice levels </li></ul>
  6. 6. Biological Background <ul><li>Bilirubin -Breakdown of Whole Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Processed by Liver and excreted </li></ul><ul><li>High level of bilirubin-Jaundice </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to Hyperbilirubinemia </li></ul><ul><li>In newborns,liver underdeveloped </li></ul><ul><li>50% of newborns have jaundice </li></ul><ul><li>6% get hyperbilirubinemia </li></ul><ul><li>This may cause severe brain illness kernicterus ,severe retardation, blindness and physical abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>High Bilirubin attacks brain cells </li></ul><ul><li>This can’t be left untreated for newborns </li></ul>
  7. 7. Biological Background <ul><li>Unconjugated bilirubin (fat soluble) </li></ul><ul><li>Conjugated(water soluble) by liver </li></ul><ul><li>Unexcreted Conjugated accumulates </li></ul><ul><li>Flows out of bloodstream to surface </li></ul><ul><li>Skin,eyes,lining of mouth turn yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Current Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical examination and heel test </li></ul><ul><li>blood extraction & chemical test </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma , Infection risk </li></ul><ul><li>Physical examination error </li></ul><ul><li>3. Unavailable,costly for common man </li></ul>
  8. 8. Theory of Operation <ul><li>Spectral response of blood components </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis :Melanin only,high absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis :Bilirubin(Br) and Hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundice: Bilirubin diffuses to epidermis </li></ul>Formula :Total Br=Br in dermal+Br in epidermal Formula: Total Br=Dermal Br + Diffused Br in epidermis
  9. 9. Light Source Sample Photodetecto r I to V converter A to D converter Op-Amp H/w Hardware Design: Reflectance meter <ul><li>Light source: LED’s (Red,Blue,Green,Yellow) </li></ul><ul><li>Mock sample: </li></ul>Melanin Bilirubin + Hemoglobin <ul><li>Reflects light to photo-detector </li></ul><ul><li>Reflectance data for different wavelengths indicates Bilirubin conc. </li></ul>Coupling via Optic Fibre
  10. 10. Hardware Design: Read Fibers Input fiber <ul><li>LED’s are connected to the Input fiber via a connector </li></ul><ul><li>Output wavelength of LED is in range 380-780 </li></ul><ul><li>The Power Wattage of LED is measured with/without Fibre </li></ul><ul><li>The Read Fibers carry output to detector </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hardware Design <ul><li>·  LED’s in 410-490 nm range with peak 475 nm </li></ul><ul><li>·  These LED’s have: </li></ul><ul><li>1. High irradiance </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Low power requirements </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>4.  Emitted wavelengths within peak </li></ul><ul><li>absorption range of bilirubin </li></ul><ul><li>Long operational life spans </li></ul><ul><li>They suit the constraints of neonatal skin </li></ul><ul><li>    Corrections : </li></ul><ul><li>Stray light correction </li></ul><ul><li>Normalization(standard sources of light) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Spectroscopy <ul><li>Reflectance spectroscopy is performed </li></ul><ul><li>A simple spectrometer is constructed –the basic outline is shown </li></ul>
  13. 13. Spectroscopy <ul><li>A mock skin sample is obtained by filling cuvettes with melanin, hemoglobin and bilirubin and stacking them on top of each other ( in normal case) </li></ul><ul><li>  For jaundice case, the Melanin cuvette is also filled with bilirubin of defined volume, in addition to the bilirubin present in the hemoglobin cuvette </li></ul><ul><li>Total Bilirubin = Bilirubin in dermis +Bilirubin diffused into melanin </li></ul><ul><li>The bilirubin measurements must be performed with different concentrations of melanin, hemoglobin and bilirubin </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectly absorbing and reflecting materials are used for calibration </li></ul>
  14. 14. Spectral Analysis <ul><li>The reflectance meter produces output data </li></ul><ul><li>This ranges between 0 and 100% reflectance </li></ul><ul><li>This depends on incident light wavelength and bilirubin concentration of skin </li></ul><ul><li>This varies based on stray factors like fibre optic to skin alignment,ambient conditions,etc </li></ul><ul><li>Regression analysis could be done to fit the concentration vs. reflectance data </li></ul>
  15. 15. Monte Carlo Analysis <ul><li>The basic skin optics is simulated </li></ul><ul><li>A stochastic method is used to simulate light incident on the skin </li></ul><ul><li>The dermal and epidermal layers are constructed using optical coefficients </li></ul><ul><li>The data relating to reflected , absorbed and transmitted light is found </li></ul><ul><li>This can be altered to suit Indian/Asian skin tones </li></ul><ul><li>This method will then verify and enhance the efficiency of the hardware created </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bibliography: <ul><li>Skin Optics Summary, Oregon Medical Laser Center News. Jan 1998. Steven L. Jacques </li></ul><ul><li>Design of a Bilirubin Light Intensity Tester for Developing World Hospitals,Jennifer M.Dolan,2006 IEEE Biomedical Engineering Transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Non invasive System for Quantification of Bilirubin in Neonates,Joseph.Clark,,IEEE 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Phototherapy of the Newborn:A predictive model for the outcome,Nelson Osaku,Annual Conference for Engineering in Medicine and Biology,IEEE 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>In-Vitro determination of Bilirubin in Hemolysed Whole Blood Using First Derivative Analysis,Peter W. Cheung,,IEEE/EMBS,1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Prashant R.Bhadri et al,“ Development of an Integrated Hardware and Software Platform for the Rapid Detection of Cerebral Aneurysm”, IEEE Proceedings, 2005 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bibliography: <ul><li>Title: Use of a LED Array for Bilirubin Phototransformation, </li></ul><ul><li>Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Harel Rosen, et al </li></ul><ul><li>Transcutaneous bilirubinometry:The right job for the right tool,The American Journal of Pediatrics,December 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Monte Carlo Simulation of Light Incident on Skin Optics,IEEE transactions on biomedical Engineering,1989 </li></ul><ul><li>An Optical Fiber Probe Monitor for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia,IEEE Proceedings,2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia,The New England Journal Of Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental Analysis and Methods,A textbook for chemical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Google Patents </li></ul><ul><li>For more information,visit </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>