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Trends and issues in open educational resources and massive open online courses


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The Internet revolution has facilitated the concept of openness now more than ever. A number of current technologies support the paradigm of modern education in terms of creation, communication, and collaboration. Various open educational learning resources, tools, and pedagogical approaches are used in teaching and learning. Open educational resources (OERs) is one of examples that represent a global phenomenon in an innovation approach that promote unrestricted access as a possible solution for bridging the knowledge divide in higher education. OERs open up opportunities to create, share, and facilitate learning and ethical practice by creating, using, and managing by offering a wider array of educational resources among a greater diversity of global learners. Its trends and movements have become more prominent as not only a phenomenon but as a way of improving the quality of education. OERs alone are not sustainable on their own dimension. It has to combine concepts from different inter-disciplinary areas such as education for sustainable development and business perspectives. Therefore, this seminar focuses on the discussion of current trends, issues, and example of current global practices of OERs and MOOCs.

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Trends and issues in open educational resources and massive open online courses

  1. 1. Trends and Issues in Open Educational Resources (OER) & Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Seminar Discussion in College of Education, Ege University August 25th 2015 Presented by Ava (Shu-Hsiang) Chen, Ph.D. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
  2. 2. Open Educational Resources Image Source
  3. 3. History of OER 1994 Learning Object (Wayne Hodgins) 1998 Open Content (David Wiley) 2001 Creative Commons (Larry Lessing) 2001 MIT OpenCourseWare Initiative 2002 OER (UNESCO) Reference: Wiley, D. (2006). The current state of open educational resources. Paper for Expert Meeting on Open Educational Resources. Malmo: OECD-CERI. From Source:http://www.unesco. org/webworld/download/oe r/EN/oer_logo_EN_1_RGB .jpg Sourcehttp://www.oerasi
  4. 4. Concept Map of OER  OER = Content Infrastructure  Platform for Education Innovation (Wiley, 2009) Image Source
  5. 5. Openness in Higher Education  Plays an important role in driving educational innovation & transforming HEI  Is the fundamental value & critical attribute HEI  Offers opportunities for sharing ideas, collaborating between institutions, educators, and learners locally & internationally (Wiley, et al., 2009).
  6. 6. Result of Openness  Open Source  Open Educational Resources (OER)  Open Courses  Open Research  Open Data  Open APIs  Open Access Publishing  Open Education (Cape Town Open Education Declaration, 2008) Reference: Weller, M. (2012). The openness-creativity cycle in education – A perspective. Retrieve from
  7. 7. Open / Openness in OER 4 Freedoms to copy, to modify, to distribute, to redistribute modified versions (Foote, 2005). Convenient, effective, affordable, sustainable, available (Walker, 2005). 4As Accessible, Appropriate, Accredited, Affordable (Daniel, 2006). 5Rs Retain, Reuse, Redistribute, Revise, Remix (Wiley, et al., 2010, 2014).
  8. 8. Definitions of OER OER is teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license (such as Creative Commons) that permits their free use or re-purposing by others (Atkins, Brown, & Hammond, 2007, p. 4) Is the simple and powerful idea that the world’s knowledge is a public good and that technology in general and the World Wide Web in particular provide an extraordinary opportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse knowledge (D’Anton, 2012) Source:
  9. 9. Redefined of OER  OERs are any type of educational resources in either print or digital format that reside in the public domain and have released under an intellectual property license or open license such as Creative Commons that permits users with 5Rs openness framework: Retain, Reuse, Revise, Remix, Redistribute (Wiley, 2015) to support knowledge building, sharing, and learning to the worldwide community.
  10. 10. What consider to be OER?  Course materials, websites, textbooks, audio materials, podcast, video, multimedia applications, visual materials, archived discussions, simulations, or animations, maps, ancient or historical manuscripts, software, and any other tools or technique used to allow access to knowledge.
  11. 11. OER Attribute Map Tools: Open source software for development and delivery of resources Content Management Systems (CMS) Social Software: Wikis, H20, OSLO research Development Tools: Connexions Learning Management Systems: Moodle, Sakai Content: Materials published for learning or reference Learning Resources • Courseware: MIT OCW, Paris Tech, Japan OCW • Consortium Learning Objects: MERLOT, Connexions, ARIADNE Reference Collection: Internet archive, Google Scholar, Library of Congress, Wikis. MOOC Implementation Resources Licensing Tools: Creative Commons, GNU Free Documentation License Interoperability: IMS, SCORM, OKI Best Practices: CMU design principles (Margulies , 2005, as cited in OECD 2007, p.
  12. 12. OER Metaphor Image Source https://openeducationalresources.pbwor hs
  13. 13. OER World Map - Open CourseWare Consortium Members Image Source
  14. 14. Current Status of OER  Over 150 universities in China participate in China Open Resources  11 universities in France have formed the ParisTech OCT project  7 universities in Japan have formed the Japanese OCW  7 universities in U.S. with OER projects, and offer over 1400 courses (Wiley, 2006) Sourcehttps://www.fac
  15. 15. Benefits of OER  Freedom of access.  Freedom from proprietary systems and corporations.  Save time and effort for content development.  Co-creation empowers more collaboration and creativity.  Sharing development costs among institutions.  Contributes to the local and global community.  Accessibility of resources previously unavailable to specific groups of people.  Lowers costs to students. Reference: Zaid Ali Alsagoff (2013). Embracing OER & MOOCs to Transforming Education? & SteveYuen.Org
  16. 16. Challenges of OER  Quality varies.  Varying degrees of time commitment.  Teachers sometimes not rewarded by the system for their efforts.  May not meet accessibility requirements for persons with disabilities.  May need a high degree of customization (or localization).  Technical requirements vary and some require you to use a particular software.  Requires varying degrees of continual financial support.  Licensing and obtaining copyright clearance can be difficult.  Some institutions may be concerned about “giving itReference: Zaid Ali Alsagoff (2013). Embracing OER & MOOCs to Transforming Education? & SteveYuen.Org
  17. 17. Open License – Creative Commons  Share knowledge & creativity with the world (CC)  Use copyright to enforce sharing (Wiley, 2009) Image Source
  18. 18. Current Research Area Associated with OER Concept Relevant Managerial Pedagogical System Contextualization Ethical Policy & Strategy
  19. 19. MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) Image Source
  20. 20. Reference
  21. 21. Reference
  22. 22. Reference
  23. 23. Mooc World Map  Image source from
  24. 24. MOOCs Map
  25. 25. Current Issues of MOOCs  All of these MOOC platforms appear to justify their status by promoting curricula that are equivalent to campus-based courses, with a strong focus on content delivery (Online Newsletter, 2012).  Acceptance of open academic practice and difficulty in establishing an academic identity in an unpredictable virtual environment (Mackness, Waite, Roberts, & Lovegrove, 2013).  Most MOOC discourse reflects strategic, institutional, economical, social and technological concerns. A deep pedagogical debate is still missing (Guardia, Maina, Sangra, 2013).
  26. 26. Issues of MOOC from Management Perspective Accreditation Administration Regulation Dropout Privacy Piracy Proficiency / Evaluation Intellectual Property Quality Assurance
  27. 27. Issues of MOOC from Pedagogical Perspective Core of Learning Design Demanding Innovative and Appropriate Approaches to Teaching & Learning Learning Across Distributed Platforms Social Construction of Knowledge Open Academic Practice & Building an Identity Embracing Uncertainty
  28. 28. cMOOCs & xMOOCs Comparison MOOCs Characteristics Major Platforms cMOOCs Focus on connection and build up the community. Based on connectivist design principles include: aggregation, remixing, re- purposing, and feeding forward. Relied on posted resource, learning management system, and social networking site. xMOOCs Focus on content, standardize assessment Nothing different than a traditional online course Coursera, edX, Udacity, Udemy, P2PU, Openedup
  29. 29. MOOCs Pedagogy • Connectivist Pedagogy • Social LearningcMOOC • Video lectures • Mastery Learning • Self-paced Learning xMOOC • Study, Review, Play, Do, Share, Assess, Reflect, DiscusspMOOC
  30. 30. xMOOCs Pedagogy xMOOCs Platform Pedagogy Coursera Video Lectures, Mastery Learning, Peer Assessment Interaction – Video frequently stops, answer simple questions Social learning happen in the form of discussion forums edX Video Lectures, quizzes, and assignment Focus on open source MOOC platform, not pedagogy Udacity Video lecture, self-study, quizzes, assignment Social learning happen in discussion forum and wiki Udemy Video lecture, self-paced study OpenupEd Openness to learners, digital openness, learner- centred approach, independent learning, media- supported interaction, recognition options.
  31. 31. pMOOC Pedagogy (Project- Based) • Read a short text, view a video presenting the rationale and the core ideasStudy • Examine and critique a worked exampleReview • Experiment with the tool / methodPlay • Perform a structured task, using the tool / method, and produce outputsDo • Publish these outputs to the web, and link to them from a shared spaceShare • Review your peer’s productionsAssess • Post an entry to your learning journalReflect • Participate in an online discussionDiscuss
  32. 32. Types of MOOCs Learners
  33. 33. Issues in current HEIs  Globalization & Internationalization  Students will be reached to 120 million worldwide by 2020  Changing learners demographics & increasing demands for lifelong adults learners  Increasing numbers of access to personal technology & social media  The need for changes in cost, affordability and economic model for HEI Reference Yuan, L., & Powell, S. (2012) Moocs and open education: Implications for higher education. Retrieve from
  34. 34. Current MOOCs in Turkey  OpenupEd - (Anadolu University)  Coursera - (KOC University)  edX -  Universiteplus - Major MOOCs Provider Turkish MOOC
  35. 35. Q & A
  36. 36. References  Atkins, D. E., Brown, J. S., & Hammond, A. L. (2007). Review of the open educational resources (OER) movement: Achievements, challenges, and new opportunities: The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.  Butcher, N. (2010). Open educational resources and higher education. Retrieved June 1, 2013, from educational-resources-and-higher-education  Butcher, N. (2011). A basic guide to open educational resources (OER) (A. Kanwar, & Uvalic´-Trumbic´, S. Ed.). Vancouver and Paris: COL and UNESCO.  Caswell, T., Henson, S., Jensen, M., & Wiley, D. (2008). Open educational resources: Enabling universal education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(1).  D'Antoni, S. (2009). Open Educational Resources: reviewing initiatives and issues. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 24(1), 3-10. doi: 10.1080/02680510802625443  Nasongkhla, J., Thammetar, T., Chen, S-H., & Photipussa, P. (2015, in press). Thailand OERs and MOOCs Country Report. Knou Press.  OECD. (2007). Giving knowledge for free: The emergence of open educational resources: OECD Publishing.  UNESCO. (2002). Forum on the impact of open courseware for higher education in developing countries. from  UNESCO. (2012a). 2012 Paris OER Declaration. from OER Declaration_01.pdf  Wiley, D. (2009). Impediments to learning object reuse and openness as a potential solution. Revista Brasileira de Informática na Educação, 17(3).  Wiley, D. (2010a). The open future: Openness as catalyst for an educational reformation. Educase Review, 15-20.  Wiley, D. (2010b). Openness as catalyst for an educational reformation. EDUCUASE, 45(4), 14-20.  Wiley, D. (2014a). The access compromise and the 5th R. from  Wiley, D. (2014b). Defining the open in open content. from  Wiley, D., Bliss, T. J., & McEwen, M. (2014). Open educational resources: A review of the literature. In J. M. Spector (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology. New York: Springer.
  37. 37. Thank you for Listening Questions ? Comments?