The Internet revolution has facilitated the concept of openness now more than ever. A number of current technologies support the paradigm of modern education in terms of creation, communication, and collaboration. Various open educational learning resources, tools, and pedagogical approaches are used in teaching and learning. Open educational resources (OERs) is one of examples that represent a global phenomenon in an innovation approach that promote unrestricted access as a possible solution for bridging the knowledge divide in higher education. OERs open up opportunities to create, share, and facilitate learning and ethical practice by creating, using, and managing by offering a wider array of educational resources among a greater diversity of global learners. Its trends and movements have become more prominent as not only a phenomenon but as a way of improving the quality of education. OERs alone are not sustainable on their own dimension. It has to combine concepts from different inter-disciplinary areas such as education for sustainable development and business perspectives. Therefore, this seminar focuses on the discussion of current trends, issues, and example of current global practices of OERs and MOOCs.
OER are a global phenomenon representing an innovative approach to promote unrestricted access as a possible for bridging the knowledge divide in HE. OER are perceived as a way to provide strategic opportunities, improve the quality of education, facilitate policy and strategic planning, and share knowledge and build up capacity.
Open Object– the idea of open object was quickly adopted by educators due to the digital materials that can be used and reused in a variety of pedagogical situations.
Open Content – has influenced the idea of open source and free software
Creative Commons – Aimed to increase in credibility and confidence, and provide a flexible set of licenses to the open content community
MIT OCW – the first university initiative to publish university course with free publish access for noncommercial use. This is an example of OER commitment at the Institutional level
OER – first adopted at UNESCO 2002’s forum
Technologies have enable openness in HEI than ever before. The concept of openness plays an important role in driving educational innovation & transforming, and is the fundamental values & critical attribute for HEI. It offers opportunities for sharing ideas, collaborating between institutions, educators, and learners locally and internationally
Result of Openness as approach that is relevant to the current education movement includes as follows. Accordingly, there is a clear need for global higher education institutions to consider a new educational paradigm, business model, and innovation in order to meet the challenges of social and economic changes in the longer term and to meet the needs of global market.
In order to support the right degree of openness that come alone with OER, the meaning of openness should be considered as follows.
OER are materials including learning content, software tools to develop, use, and distribute content, and implementation resources such as open licenses, which used to support education that may be freely accessed, reused, modified, and shared (UNSECO & COL, 2011)
This image is not intended to compare OERs with commercial products but was developed to illustrate the value in considering the different roles that exist in the production and use/re-use of OERs and to highlight the importance of considering end users
Open CourseWare Consortium Members White: Markers 1, 2, 3 Yellow: Institution of Higher Education Red: Organizational Member Green: Associate Consortia
MOOC is defined as “an online course with the option of free and open registration, a publicly-shared curriculum, and open-ended outcomes. MOOCs integrate social networking, accessible online resources and are facilitated by leading practitioners in the field of study.
This image provides the emerging landscape of educational delivery models look like, which has categorized the models not just in terms of modality - ranging from face-to-face to fully online—but also in terms of the method of course design. These two dimensions allow a richer understanding of the new landscape of educational delivery models. Within this landscape, the following primary models have emerged:
ad hoc online courses and programs, fully online programs, School-as-a-Service, educational partnerships, competency-based education, blended/hybrid courses and the flipped classroom, and MOOCs
The image provides the movement of Moocs. The potential of Moocs will be based on further development of techniques. The examples that attempt to tackle the four barriers of revenue, credentials, course-completion rates, and student authentication
There is number of implications are facing by HEI. For example, the effects of globalization & internationalization in HEI have affected individuals, but also influence the structures of HEI in terms of thinking, learning, teaching, and working. One of study has projected that students will be reached to 120 million worldwide by 2020. In addition, the implication for HEI includes the changing learners’ demographic and increasing demands for lifelong adults’ learners, increasing numbers of access to personal technology & social media, and the need for changes in cost affordability and economic model have triggered every HEI to make adjustments and to take serious consideration.
Globalization Skill demands & Human life Internationalization Change & reform Technology Innovation
Trends and issues in open educational resources and massive open online courses
Trends and Issues in Open Educational
Resources (OER) & Massive Open Online
Seminar Discussion in College of Education, Ege University
August 25th 2015
Presented by Ava (Shu-Hsiang) Chen, Ph.D.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 International License
Open Educational Resources
Image Source http://vle.du.ac.in/file.php/1/home_page/wordle1.jpg
History of OER
Reference: Wiley, D. (2006). The current state of open educational resources. Paper for Expert Meeting on Open
Educational Resources. Malmo: OECD-CERI. From http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/36224377.pdf
Concept Map of OER
OER = Content Infrastructure Platform for
Education Innovation (Wiley, 2009)
Image Source http://edtechdigest.wordpress.com/2012/09/13/trends-innovation-in-education/
Openness in Higher Education
Plays an important role in driving educational
innovation & transforming HEI
Is the fundamental value & critical attribute HEI
Offers opportunities for sharing ideas,
collaborating between institutions, educators,
and learners locally & internationally (Wiley, et
Result of Openness
Open Educational Resources (OER)
Open Access Publishing
Open Education (Cape Town Open Education
Reference: Weller, M. (2012). The openness-creativity cycle in education – A perspective. Retrieve from http://jime.open.ac.uk/article/2012-
Open / Openness in OER
to copy, to modify, to distribute, to
redistribute modified versions (Foote,
Convenient, effective, affordable,
sustainable, available (Walker, 2005).
Accessible, Appropriate, Accredited,
Affordable (Daniel, 2006).
Retain, Reuse, Redistribute, Revise,
Remix (Wiley, et al., 2010, 2014).
Definitions of OER
OER is teaching, learning, and
research resources that reside in the
public domain or have been released
under an intellectual property license
(such as Creative Commons) that permits
their free use or re-purposing by others
(Atkins, Brown, & Hammond, 2007, p. 4)
Is the simple and powerful idea that
the world’s knowledge is a public
good and that technology in general
and the World Wide Web in
particular provide an extraordinary
opportunity for everyone to share,
use, and reuse knowledge
Redefined of OER
OERs are any type of educational resources in
either print or digital format that reside in the
public domain and have released under an
intellectual property license or open license
such as Creative Commons that permits users
with 5Rs openness framework: Retain,
Reuse, Revise, Remix, Redistribute (Wiley,
2015) to support knowledge building,
sharing, and learning to the worldwide
What consider to be OER?
Course materials, websites, textbooks, audio
materials, podcast, video, multimedia
applications, visual materials, archived
discussions, simulations, or animations, maps,
ancient or historical manuscripts, software,
and any other tools or technique used to allow
access to knowledge.
OER Attribute Map
Tools: Open source
delivery of resources
Wikis, H20, OSLO
published for learning
• Courseware: MIT OCW,
Paris Tech, Japan
Scholar, Library of
IMS, SCORM, OKI
(Margulies , 2005, as cited in OECD 2007, p.
OER World Map - Open
CourseWare Consortium Members
Image Source http://oerworldmap.oerknowledgecloud.org/
Current Status of OER
Over 150 universities in China
participate in China Open Resources
11 universities in France have
formed the ParisTech OCT project
7 universities in Japan have formed
the Japanese OCW
7 universities in U.S. with OER
projects, and offer over 1400 courses
Benefits of OER
Freedom of access.
Freedom from proprietary systems and
Save time and effort for content development.
Co-creation empowers more collaboration and
Sharing development costs among institutions.
Contributes to the local and global community.
Accessibility of resources previously unavailable
to specific groups of people.
Lowers costs to students.
Reference: Zaid Ali Alsagoff (2013). Embracing OER & MOOCs to Transforming Education? & SteveYuen.Org
Challenges of OER
Varying degrees of time commitment.
Teachers sometimes not rewarded by the system for
May not meet accessibility requirements for persons
May need a high degree of customization (or
Technical requirements vary and some require you
to use a particular software.
Requires varying degrees of continual financial
Licensing and obtaining copyright clearance can be
Some institutions may be concerned about “giving itReference: Zaid Ali Alsagoff (2013). Embracing OER & MOOCs to Transforming Education? & SteveYuen.Org
Open License – Creative
Share knowledge &
creativity with the
Use copyright to
Image Source http://wisesearch.weebly.com/uploads/1/1/3/6/11361394/1762233_orig.gif
Current Research Area Associated with
Concept Relevant Managerial
Pedagogical System Contextualization
Ethical Policy & Strategy
MOOC (Massive Open Online
Image Source http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/MOOC_poster_mathplourde.jpg
Current Issues of MOOCs
All of these MOOC platforms appear to justify their
status by promoting curricula that are equivalent to
campus-based courses, with a strong focus on
content delivery (Online Newsletter, 2012).
Acceptance of open academic practice and difficulty in
establishing an academic identity in an unpredictable
virtual environment (Mackness, Waite, Roberts, &
Most MOOC discourse reflects strategic, institutional,
economical, social and technological concerns. A
deep pedagogical debate is still missing (Guardia,
Maina, Sangra, 2013).
Issues of MOOC from Management
Accreditation Administration Regulation
Dropout Privacy Piracy
Issues of MOOC from Pedagogical
Core of Learning
Teaching & Learning
Practice & Building
cMOOCs & xMOOCs
MOOCs Characteristics Major Platforms
cMOOCs Focus on connection and build up
the community. Based on
connectivist design principles
include: aggregation, remixing, re-
purposing, and feeding forward.
Relied on posted
and social networking
xMOOCs Focus on content, standardize
Nothing different than a traditional
Coursera, edX, Udacity,
xMOOCs Platform Pedagogy
Coursera Video Lectures, Mastery Learning, Peer Assessment
Interaction – Video frequently stops, answer simple
Social learning happen in the form of discussion
edX Video Lectures, quizzes, and assignment
Focus on open source MOOC platform, not pedagogy
Udacity Video lecture, self-study, quizzes, assignment
Social learning happen in discussion forum and wiki
Udemy Video lecture, self-paced study
OpenupEd Openness to learners, digital openness, learner-
centred approach, independent learning, media-
supported interaction, recognition options.
pMOOC Pedagogy (Project-
• Read a short text, view a video presenting the rationale and
the core ideasStudy
• Examine and critique a worked exampleReview
• Experiment with the tool / methodPlay
• Perform a structured task, using the tool / method, and
• Publish these outputs to the web, and link to them from a
• Review your peer’s productionsAssess
• Post an entry to your learning journalReflect
• Participate in an online discussionDiscuss
Types of MOOCs Learners
Issues in current HEIs
Globalization & Internationalization
Students will be reached to 120 million
worldwide by 2020
Changing learners demographics & increasing
demands for lifelong adults learners
Increasing numbers of access to personal
technology & social media
The need for changes in cost, affordability and
economic model for HEI
Reference Yuan, L., & Powell, S. (2012) Moocs and open education: Implications for higher education. Retrieve from
Current MOOCs in Turkey
edX - https://www.edx.org/
Major MOOCs Provider Turkish MOOC
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Thank you for Listening
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