Marriage in Europe


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Marriage in Europe

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Marriage in Europe

  1. 1. "Liviu Rebreanu" School,Mioveni town, Arges county, Romania (Romania) ISTITUTO COMPRENSIVO "MARIA GRAZIA CUTULI" (Italia) "Demetrion" B Primary School of Pafos (Cipro) School Apoldu de Jos (Romania)
  2. 2. Almitra then spoke again and said: What is Marriage, master? And he answered saying: You are born together and together you may forever. You'll be together when white wings of death dispersing your days. And together in the silent memory of God But there is room in your union, And you danzino the winds of heaven. Love one another, but not Create a prison of love: Rather there is a motion of the sea between the shores of your souls. Pile each other cups, but not drink a single cup. Give mutual support, but do not eat the same bread. Singing and dancing together and were merry, but each of you be alone, As the sun are the strings of the lute, although vibrino music equal. Give your heart, but is not a refuge to another, Since only the hand of Life can contain your hearts. And be united, but not too close; The columns of the temple stand apart, And the oak tree and the cypress grow not a shadow of the other. THE HISTORY OF MARRIAGE Marriage exists since antiquity in different forms, reflecting the customs and values of a society. The word "marriage" comes from Latin and matrimonium for root "mater-tris" means precisely that mother. In the past, marriage served to her husband to take possession of his wife, as if to enslave ... only with the Roman rule had a different concept of marriage and became a free agreement between two people. The only ancient civilization that allowed the equality between men and women after their marriage was Egyptian. In the past, elements worthy of consideration to join in marriage were belonging to the same religion, the same race, the same social class and of course the economic position of the contractors,
  3. 3. there was no space for love. Only with Christianity marriage took the value of a sacrament, and as such was sacred and unbreakable, with the sole purpose of procreation. Marriage over the centuries Antiquities . Ancient Egyptians among women and men enjoyed relative equality in marriage, was the only civilization to encourage and enable relations between consanguineous. The Egyptian bride wore a tunic of thin layer of fine linen, transparent, with hairstyles or wigs by various ornaments with golden cloths, paper clips, try gold flowers. .. In ancient Rome, marriage is seen as a kind of social advancement to switch from one to another caste, also valid for humans. Marriages are combined when the spouses are still children. The bride's dress is white , A symbol of her virginity, closed by a knot of Hercules that was to be dissolved only by the husband. . Another very important accessory was the "veil", which was lifted the day after the consummation of the marriage and was yellow saffron, to symbolize the fire of Vesta, the goddess who protected the home. Hair combed with six braids in honor of the virgin vestals, we laid a wreath made up of lilies, wheat, rosemary and myrtle (symbols of purity, fertility, male virility and long life). Ages and the Renaissance average . In the Middle Ages, from X-XI century, recognizing marriage in the high significance, the Church turns it into a religious ceremony, consolidating his authority on this institution, and announces the ceremonies civil.. Nevertheless, marriage is only for reasons of money and interest, a way to combine assets and land. The wedding dress does not follow precise rules: the bride wears the most beautiful that the family can afford. The use of trawl, or "tail", appears only in the sixteenth century and has remained one of the essential elements for the classic and most of the wedding dress today.. From the model of wedding dress that the bride brings can be seen at what social class they belong: the more the bottom is long and decorated the more symptom of wealth and social prestigeThe sleeves, usually very tight, are a real treasure because of sumptuous embroidery and precious stones set. . The first documented wedding dress is that of Princess Filippa, daughter of Henry IV of England, who in marriage to Erik of Denmark in 1406, put a robe and a white silk cloak trip vaio fur and ermine.
  4. 4. The ceremony of marriage The ceremony of marriage was similar to that of the engagement, but obviously more solemn: it was usually celebrated in the atrium of the church, the bride and groom dressed in red and the bride had to have long hair loose and covered by a veil (both spouses then were covered by a single veil). The wedding ring was exchanged, and slipped the ring finger, which is the finger with the vein that leads directly to the heart. " In marriages of nobles, especially of kings, the ring also led the writing, or the names of spouses, or some important things for one and another. At the time of the exchange of rings was the custom among those invited to take a jostling and sometimes even Schiaffonati, not to lose the memory of this event (in most cases there were no written documents). One victim was broken and divided between the two spouses, who drank from the cup and then lit a candle to the Blessed Virgin. At the end of the ceremony, after it left the church accompanied by the hand by the priest, the bride and groom, along with relatives, entered the cemetery and went to pray to their dead. On the way home for relatives and friends tiravano grain spouses, desire for fertility and abundance (likely custom of pagan derivation, remained in use in religious ceremonies even today). Then the feast began: songs, dances and rich eat for days and days. At sunset the first night, the priest bless the room and the bed where the two couples were married consummated the marriage, even though many times it happened that separated asleep. The people and the marriage For the people, however, marriage was always that sense of familiarity and intimacy that characterizes the union of love between two persons: solidarity within families was very strong, we shared with family members all the feelings, by hatred. In most cases arose not a real family because the newlyweds went to live with their parents (usually the husband, the wife if she had no brothers), to share with their family and, of course, the earth. There were very strict rules to be observed: the girls had to have more than 12 years and boys at least 14 relatives were not to be up to the seventh grade (even if this rule was a fairly elastic) and were to have received the main sacraments of the Church . From the X-XI century, recognizing marriage in the high significance, the Church turns it into a religious ceremony, consolidating his authority over this institution, and announces the civil ceremonies. Nevertheless, the marriage takes place only for reasons of money and interest, a way to combine assets and land. The wedding dress does not follow precise rules: the bride wears the most
  5. 5. beautiful that the family can afford. The use of trawl, or "tail" appears only in the sixteenth century and has remained one of the essential elements for the classic and most of the wedding dress today. The model of wedding dress that the bride brings can be seen to what social class they belong: as the trail is long and decorated the more symptom of wealth and social prestige. The sleeves, usually very tight, are a real treasure because of the sumptuous embroidery and precious stones set. The first bridal gown documented is that of Princess Filippa, daughter of Henry IV of England, who in marriage to Erik of Denmark in 1406, put a tunic and a mantle of white silk edged with fur of vaio and ermine. Renaissance is always the man to be dominant, women are always put aside, and weddings are becoming a more expedient to unite the land and wealth. Widespread homosexual encounters between wealthy men and writers, ol'abitudine of having a lover than to be faithful to his wife. A marriage historian Galeazzo II and lunch on weekdays at the court of Milan In 1368, during the marriage between the young and beautiful Milan Violante, daughter of Galeazzo Visconti II Lord of Milan, Lionello of England and Duke of Clarence, took place a princely banquet, which was unusual for the era profusion of food and richness of the gifts offered. According to the historical record of the event, the canteen were in fact not one but two. In the first sat her husband sat next to knights and nobles, among which there was also a very distinguished character, the poet Francesco Petrarca Messer. At table was chaired by Regina della Scala, sat women, which brought the dishes on the table at the first table, ie 50 for each scale. The flow rates were 18, each was also duplicated, as consisting of two dishes, one meat and one fish-based. Each individual flow was accompanied by a personal gift to each convitato. The first imbandigione, consisted of two golden guinea pigs that were sending fire from the mouth and a variety of fish called "golden porchetta." The second gold submitted hares with pike. The fourth was composed of quails and partridges, of course, golden, accompanied by roasted trout. The ninth imbandigione instead offered, jellies meat and fish. Then, gradually, ending with the latest flow rushes, cheese and fruit. Violante went in dowry to her husband lands and money. But, indeed, the prince enjoyed little English so well of God, because just three months after their lavish wedding, the hapless and fell ill within a few days he died. Veal stuffing (as of recipe) Remove veal and young scorticalo or peeled. Arrostilo and empilo with Paparo, hens, capons and other qualunche goodness. Mettici however much lard beaten in the abdomen. Remove the fat then it falls and when s'arrostisce set en Pevero abbrusticato with bread and
  6. 6. zaffarano. Bubble for a little if that Pevero and to eat. " This veal stuffed with other animals, was certainly a food for banquets that involved many people. Certainly today it is unlikely that a sutler could be proposed. Indeed, in what could be modern oven to cook an animal biggest of a porchetta pig? Grilled squid A fish squid, cava the inner ears for them and get them for sale. Cocere a few foul at the fire. Then illarda subtly and scholars, almost like a pheasant, and again roast enough. Eat with orange juice, citrangole, water rose and limoncello. Pastelade For the basic flour, eggs and water. For the filling: pears - bone marrow hole For the cream: eggs - sugar - milk - saffron - salt With the dough lining a pie dish imburrata previously. Peel pears, cut into slices and place in pie dish sprinkled making two layers of bone marrow hole. Pass the pan in the oven for a few minutes. In a bowl in hand, beat egg yolks with sugar, milk, saffron and salt, to obtain a cream. Remove the cake from the oven pears, pour over the mixture and complete the cooking. The cake should be served cold. Wedding Banquet rite of fertility and wealth Famous wedding banquets celebrated among the powerful of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, where the desire to demonstrate wealth joined increasingly anxious to dazzle and passion for luxury. Go back to these eras the many customs observed today prepares for the tables of marriage. In addition to the number of odd convitati ever, were indispensable Pomegranate, aphrodisiac food (desire fertility), or confetti and sweets (sweet hope future). Invitation to the wedding of Lorenzo the Magnificent Just twenty years Lorenzo de Medici brightened with his star Florence where he ruled with great firmness and width of views earning the epithet of Magnifico. In the same year were celebrated his marriage to Clarice Orsini, a young Roman aristocrats. The event was celebrated with many sumptuous celebrations. For the occasion were the many gifts offered by the Florentine and Tuscan cities. These events are narrated with a wealth of detail by Piero di Marco Parenti, one of which
  7. 7. invited them described the maternal uncle Filippo Strozzi, exile in Naples. "They came to the Palace of Via Larga one hundred and fifty calves between four thousand chickens and ducks, fish, game and many barrels of wine" nostrale and strangers "that Lorenzo generously distributed to the people prepared even before the real banquet which took place from Sunday to tuesday. These sumptuous celebrations are required by the importance of race Orsini as the bride Clarice making his entrance to the palace on horseback, accompanied by a parade of riders. The windows of the room by Lorenzo are decorated with olive branches, a symbol of peace. They are arranged in five banquets portico and loggia in the courtyard of the palace, the tables of ladies and knights - according to the rule of the time - are strictly separated. The table of the bride is in the mezzanine and are seating fifty young noblewomen, while older ones sitting inside the palace chaired by the bridegroom's mother, Lucrezia Tornabuoni; nell'androne are young people with Lorenzo and Giuliano and the other table elderly in the city. But other canteens of prepared foods are placed inside of the building is on the order throughout the city - even that of common people - can enjoy these festivities. All courses are preceded by ringing of the trumpet; people stop at the foot of the staircase and just a hint of established carver go hand upstairs and lodges in part so that the food at a stretch is posavano everywhere. Even the equipment of the table is accurate. Surrounding the David, the famous bronze statue by Donatello, high tables covered with tablecloths; the corners bacili huge brass with glasses, so too is nell'orto apparatus around the fountain. On the tables a large silver cup full of water for cooling glasses and drinks. Then you were the saliere of Arienti, forks and cutlery Nappi and morselletti almonds and con: confectioner pe 'Pinocchio. Each table was also welcomed by dance, music and small shows. The abundance and generosity of the festivities for the wedding of Lorenzo de 'Medici and Clarice Orsini enshrine in any way the political relationship between the city and the Lordship ruled that based on magnificence. Maria de 'Medici and the wedding ceremony without king Maria de 'Medici (1573-1642) After a childhood and un'adolescenza normal, but the first obscured by the death of his mother and then by the sudden and mysterious father, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco I, the "late" age of twenty-seven years Mary became the wife of King Henry of France IV. The marriage to the French king, an inveterate Dongiovanni who had obtained the annulment of her previous union with Margaret of Valois, was more an affair of state of heart. Maria described physically not bad, a little paffutella, but with bright eyes and a milky flesh, given the "big bank" (big bankers) in accordance with the definition coined by one of the lovers of the king, did not have a happy marriage even though gladdened by birth six children. In 1610, after the husband, Maria took the regency on behalf of the firstborn future Louis XIII, but those years are remembered as a period not exciting in the history of France. So already in 1617 Luigi (even sixteen) took full powers pushed his mother in a golden rule of imprisonment. Returning to the marriage between Mary and Henry, we should remember that the lunch was a
  8. 8. wedding of the most bizarre and theatrical history. How to tell the chronicles of the time, the pump magna ceremony was held on October 5 1600 at Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, but without the male protagonist who was in France to lie down on girls thalamus. The organization of the reception and banquet was given to John of the Master, the Grand butler. In the "Description dele happy marriage of Maria Cristianissima Majesty, the Buonarroti took note of all the details of the tables of food and packages of sugar, and dell'addobbo room. Especially the time did wonders devised by theater Buontalenti, and the statues of sugar modeled by Giambologna. "The Supreme apparatus" of the tables had an incredible amount of animals in several groups, and the queen was happy to see before you put a statue on a horse representing her husband. After the fruit from the ceiling calarono clouds swollen with Juno and Minerva, and their dileguarsi tables were changed with a view mirrors and crystals, which in turn is transformed into woods with paths, hedges and fountains, statues of nymphs and shepherdess decorated with flowers and fruit. The butler with the head chef had prepared a lavish and rich menu, prepared finally after a long and arduous gestation period, provided among other things these courses. 24 cold dishes: "Salads worked in the coalfields ... ... Strawberries Castles made of salami ... First served cold: Pheasant ... a lantern ... White magnet slices, green cake Milanese ... According served hot: ... Pasticcio triangles of meat to beat ... Stuffed Porchetta ... Tart calf ... Kitchen cupboard to give the cold: ... cake mouth of drafts ... Ciambellette ... Milk apples in basins ... Cheese and fruit: ... marzolino, Ravaggiuoli, Cialdoni, Peaches in wine, pears, grapes ... Artichokes, Celery ...". Modern Age . In the seventeenth century, the royal absolutism leads the king to decide that you must have un'amante.. Who is faithful to his wife is a stupid question. But during the century, the new emerging middle class begins to realize that this kind of ideas and morals is the daughter of corruption especially the rich. In this century, marked by deep lacerations religious festivals become more intimate.. We invest money and support for the dowry, and the most beautiful dress, almost always used, is also used after their marriage. . The eighteenth century saw the American and French Revolutions the first attempt of the masses and new classes to finally put aside the arrogance and values aristocrats. Love becomes important for marriage, and joined the fundamental human rights established by the two revolutions. In this century is wearing beautiful clothes by floral motifs, that in that period that was born the so-called "Empire" of French origin, cut under the breasts to highlight the less wide hips and abdomen decision, made with pastel hues. Eight hundred The period of romanticism interpret marriage as the natural destination of love, and while condemning all forms of union determined by others intent that would lead to suffering and grief.. All of the century struggles between exalt and glorify the loves and impossible to indicate a good way for the marriage of love. . Nell'Ottocento also created many traditions, like the long, white dress, the cake, the reception, gloves. The white color becomes the favorite, as a symbol of purity. Transparent, sometimes moistened, daring, the dress is worn without corsets or more.. In the civil ceremony, however, the aristocracy prefers black shiny sequins, or the color of pearls live rents and sequins. Contemporary age . The twentieth century was ravaged by two tragic world wars, which finally change, for better or
  9. 9. for worse, relations with others and how to live. The marriage becomes increasingly something that I love and not for duty or interest, even if marriages to increase its assets do not disappear altogether. . Twenty years in the wedding dress is shorter and stretches the veil; interpreter of the new feminine style is undoubtedly Coco Chanel. In the mid-Thirties, the famous marriage of Princess Marina of Greece with the Duke of Kent (1934) launches a new look. The bride wore a sheath dress in white and silver lame, with long sleeves members, and gear up ground , To head a diamond tiara with a veil of tulle over three meters long. . With World War II feels a duty to give up traditional marriageThe wedding dress is rents, or lends itself to family in the family. . After the war, in the Fifties, Cristian Dior requires women to a life thin, the tall and round, wide skirt, with sottogonna, corset member neckline and wide. . In 1956 Grace Kelly married Prince Rainier of Monaco: the habit guest, is packed with 25 meters of silk satin, 25 TAFFETAS, a hundred meters of tulle and three hundred meters of old lace. . Until the late sixties marriages remain formal ceremonies marked by tradition, then with the advent of feminism and the sexual revolution, the dress no longer has a precise style. Of course, the tradition of organic white is still deep But there are brides who prefer to bind with their lives in other colors or other styles of clothing.. Indeed, marriages are arranged special theme in medieval and Renaissance costume. The wedding ceremony in Greece The Greek wedding ceremony lasted three days: the first was called protéleia, or progama proaulìa emera Gamos or the second and the third telos epaule emera The rites before the wedding On the day before the wedding feast took place a precise ritual that included the first sacrifice for the protective deity of the wedding, This could be in honor of Hera, Artemis of Moire, of Grace Gamel, and of Aphrodite in Athens, even the Gods of the line. The most important moment of the ritual was still swimming purifier that were both wife that her husband, at home, with water from a river or sacred source. For this ritual there was a special pot called loutrophòros, which was ovoid in shape with the neck and two sharp bends on hips. The importance attached to the bathroom purifier is also evidenced by the fact that there was the custom of placing a loutrophòros on the grave of those who died without having married adult Finally to complete this ritual articulated the young wife devoted to a deity related to the sphere of Virginity, like Artemis or Hippolytus, her crown of hair, the retina, the games: the timpani, the ball, the dolls. The second day of the ceremony, called Gamos or telos was the most important day because it was doing the ekdosis namely the delivery of the bride, and began the cohabitation The were three main
  10. 10. phases: the thòine gamikè namely a wedding banquet home of the bride, the pump that is the transfer of the bride to the bridegroom's house, the katachýsmata and other rituals of welcome in the new house. Of course preparations in the house of the bride swing from the first morning were indeed hung crowns of olive and laurel to the door and lit a torch of fragrant incense. It is likely, however, that all preparations were directed by the mother of the bride in person. Meanwhile a host of women, mostly relatives and friends, led by nymphéutria took care of dressing the bride for the wedding banquet. The wedding banquet The protagonist of this important moment of the ceremony is the father of the bride who supervises all stages of its preparation. It seems also that he always had to make a sacrifice just before, according to the sacred rite prescribed. During the banquet men and women were seated in front of tables or on sofas separated and the wife sat among the veiled women By sources familiar with the menu of the wedding that could include fish, veal, pork, guinea pigs, hare, rolls, cheese, cakes, eggs, etc.. Recurring element in the various menus mentioned by sources is the hare, which seems to be sacred to Aphrodite and exalted for its sexual and its fruitfulness. Of course he could not miss the wedding cake, the plakoûs gamikòs scented with a sweet sesame, which, according to tradition, encouraged fertility, as had many sprouts. Sesame, mixed with the wedding cake was in fact an essential element of the symbolic rite of marriage in Greek society. Once mixed the cake, and scented with olive oil mixed with sesame, when everything was ready for the ceremony, was cut and distributed by a pregnant woman, a good omen for the young couple According to the ceremonial should also wear a crown of myrtle, in honor of Aphrodite. During the banquet was probably the music in Athens and a child with both parents alive, he went around the room, crowned with thorns and fruit with oak in his hand a basket of bread by saying the ritual formula, "I fled evil, I found the best. " The words that accompanied the child seem to express the close relationship between civilized life and marriage. The bread offered as a product of nature which belongs only to man, in fact, is a sign and guarantee of civil life. Symbolizes also clearly the values associated to the condition and breeding of domestic married woman, as opposed to the cultural connotations of the crown of oak leaves, reminiscent of the proximity of wildlife. The banquet ended with the toast and wishes to marry, again by the father of the bride. At this point in the ceremony some scholars place the rite dell'anakalyptèria ie the moment when the bride takes off her veil and wedding gifts received by the husband .. Depending on the social condition of the wedding party could be more or less ostentatious, but it is likely that at some point they began to exceed the costs, whether in Plato's Laws (775th VI-b) feel the need to set a limit to the number of guests for each family and a roof for the costs. University (245th VI-c), however, speaks of the Inspectors of the women, who were gynaikonòmoi those invited to weddings and if necessary could also decide to send someone away. To make the invitations were the parents of the couple, who
  11. 11. could personally invite relatives and friends or, as is clear from some papyri, send your own invitations, in which, as in today's "investments" were shown the place, date and time of the feast. The wedding procession At night there was the pump, the solemn transfer of the bride from the family home to that of the bridegroom. It maybe the most ancient times had the form of a kidnapping and This custom is still preserved in Sparta. The procession moved on foot or on a wagon, where the bride was placed by the husband or the Paraninfo, the one that led to the bride and protected during this important time of transition. Now an important role was filled by the bridegroom's mother who first raised the torches lit and led the procession The moment had to be very suggestive, because the procession lit by torches, to the sound of flutes and singing and dancing cetro the wedding. In Beozia, then, the parade ended with a particular ritual: there was, in fact, the custom of burning the axles of the wagon to symbolize that the bride could not leave After the banquet, the bride (nymphe) must be carried out in its new home. The transfer of the young from its birthplace, the house of his father, as the husband was indeed the climax of the ritual of marriage and which was called to attend the entire community. High time, now in the evening, the bride is taken for the pulse from her husband (Fig. 1) and hoisted on the cart that will lead to new dwelling (fig. 2). Beside her on the chariot sat the husband and pàrochos , Species of companion pair selected among the peers (relatives or close friends) of the bridegroom. The type of transportation varied according to the budget of the family: it was the luxury model, a style of archaic calessino pulled by fine horses, the most common model of type "gardener" (wagon with seats side) pulled by mules or horse. Many depictions represent vascular wedding procession escorting the two to marry young girls and boys who carry gifts, dance and sing songs of good wishes, relatives, carrying torches or elements of the outfit. Flashlights and torches are essential for this part of the ritual takes place when it is dark outside: how much more light you could produce, the more opulent and rich was the marriage in the eyes of fellow citizens. The instruments were played mainly aulòs (reed instrument like the clarinet, often a double reed), the Syrinx (Pan flute), the kithàra (zither), the phòrminx (lira), the cymbals and tambourines. The songs blend in on this occasion is called "wedding" (hyménaioi) and were characterized by accents and some malicious' outlets.
  12. 12. The oldest description of a wedding procession is nell'Iliade of Homer (canto XVIII, 491-496): (...) We celebrated weddings and banquets: the shining light of torches carried by their wives rooms on the fortress town and everywhere rose wedding song; young dancers twirl and in their midst lire clarinet and spreading their sound, women, each standing at the door of the house, admired the show The parade passes by the most popular and the agora, the marketplace: the whole community to be witness the event, in which two families of the city establish a bond of solemn covenant. The girls of the parade "accompany the bride with torches, an hour late evening, to show to all" (Dione Crisostomo, Patrol. Grec. 61 pp. 104): and the houses women face on the way to see pass the noisy parade. The riot of music and dances of the parade was to create a strong contrast with the attitude of the main protagonists of the ceremony, which, as the pictures show the old, instead keeping composed and solemn pose. Especially the young wife, silent, with eyes low el'atteggiamento resigned, it seems to perform only passive movements that are required by the husband and nymphéutria (a sort of maid that accompany it during the day). On the threshold of the new homeless, she finds her father and mother of the bridegroom for her. But the feast at this point was not yet finished: for participants in the parade, in fact, it went on until late at night, even after the husband and wife had withdrawn in the nuptial chamber, indeed, it was customary that the companions of the bride began to beat insistently on the door which closes behind the couple began to spend the first night together. At the sound of shots was added to the sound of another song ritual, this time of solemn tone, the epithalamium which celebrated the beauty of the bride, invited the two young people to enjoy the pleasures of love and prayed to the gods protectors of marriage donate to the couple happiness, prosperity and the emergence of legitimate children. One of the most important elements in the symbolism of the wedding march is the fact that in all phases of the transfer, the bride, while the center of attention, and richly dressed agghindata to be admired, does not perform an independent movement ever. Socket for the wrist and dragged, hoisted on the weight of the wagon, driven by nymphéutria or raised by pàrochos, the girl is never active subject of the rite, but passive object of all that takes place around her. To understand this, we must remember that in the mentality of the ancient Greeks, the woman was not an autonomous entity, but rather an asset of which the male members of the family were entitled to have. The girl from her husband, for example, could not in any way to choose your companion in life was his father who had completely daughter was with him and decide whether and whom to give in marriage. From the time that was given in marriage, it passed from the protection of the father than the husband, who was required to demonstrate (or so you would not) complete obedience and subordination. In no way it could move away from his new home: firm and immovable as the firebox (hest) that it was, unapproachable by men outside the family, her movements were confined to the area circumscribed by home, which could leave only for times established rituals (some holidays and funerals). Go around the city was not something good for women: slaves and prostitutes, however, had not un'onorabilità be preserved and moved so without restrictions. As far as I know, only in Sparta the condition of the married woman was different and included greater freedom of action and movement: and, indeed, the behavior of women Spartan scandal awakened the rest of Greece.
  13. 13. Then it is not a coincidence that in the rite of marriage transfer from parental home to that of her husband she would always' moved 'or dragged as an inert object: in this way it was intended to symbolically emphasize that, although intended to move for change of house membership in this movement, the bride had no active part, but, rather, its function was to get moving and stay where her father and her husband had decided to install it. Here, for example, what happened in the ritual of Beozia, a region of Greece bordering Attica, after which the bride was carried to the house of her husband (Plutarch, Roman Questions, 29): "Burn the axle of the cart, thus showing that the wife is not able to go, since the means of locomotion has been destroyed." The woman was called to embody the stability of the family, the idea of permanence and isolation that keeps the house safe from external threats. The goddess that best represented this female was Hestia, whose name means "hearth": the symbolic center of the area closed and protected domestic, the hest was the point where the house had, so to speak, its roots. The threshold of the house was the boundary beyond which the good woman did not dare go. At the opposite pole was the god Hermès, the god of transitions, communication and commerce, which knows no barriers motion of boundaries or thresholds, which was instead the mobility of men and supervised exchanges between the inside and the outside of the house. The free entry and exit, the autonomy of the movement were, in the couple, the husband's prerogative, and only fathers and husbands, it was also in charge of regulating the relationship between the family and the outside world, to decide acquisitions or disposals of assets, to regulate the passage of guests, staff, slaves, wives ... This explains why in some ancient representations of the transfer of the bride is his god Hermès to open the way for the wedding procession The rituals in the new house The third time the ceremony took place in the house of the bridegroom: here the couple was received by the parents of the bridegroom, who first poured on the head of the bride figs, dates, walnuts and some coins and offered gifts of welcome, according to the rite of katachysmata. Then the bride ate a quince, as required by Solone to make it sweet on the first and last embrace thàlamos saliva in the nuptial chamber. This had been previously prepared, perhaps by the mother of the bridegroom, who probably had the same marital bed. Once the bride and groom in the wedding room, the door was bolted outside and a friend of the bridegroom was on watch, while the friends of the bride fighting with their hands on the door and sang the epithalamium In the house on the streets and the party continued throughout the night with songs and dances.
  14. 14. On the third day, the epaule Emer (the morning of the wedding gifts received by the father of the bride carried by a procession of relatives and friends, which was led by a child with a white mantle and lit a torch in his hand. Then, not if we know in this day or after, the groom gave a banquet to the members of his fratre, and the wedding was a sacrifice and pray to the gods to assist and guide them into new life together. During the ceremony there were some items that generally mark the 'experience of marriage as a fundamental event of life of the individual and community: the frying pan to roast the barley, used during the banquet and the pump public spouses that accompanied the new home, the sieve, a child who took the side of women rites of integration in the new home, the pestle from the mortar, which was attacked in front of the bridal chamber. Every detail, in fact, would seem to imply a reference to Demeter, the goddess by the wonderful fruits and cereals which gives men the knowledge of agricultural technique, had inaugurated the new age, which consisted not only in the application of new techniques and in knowledge of new plants, but in a society which placed end to the archaic The clothing of the bride We do not know if there was a specific wedding dress prescribed by tradition: the sources, in fact, have different combinations of clothing and colors, which suggests a certain freedom. Esiodo, for example, when the Teogonia describes the habit of Pandora, which goes to Epimeteo married, she has white robe with a stop at the waist by a belt, a veil and a crown of gold, and in Euripides' Alceste ( vv. 922 ss.) made by, ready to say that death instead of the wedding and the white peple expect complaints and black robes. Both poets insist, therefore, particularly on white robes, but the tragediografo also elsewhere (see Eur, Hel. 1087s., 1186s.) Peple the white as opposed to blacks, symbols of mourning for the heroes who are preparing to face a premature death. Esiodo also speaks generally of esthès (eèsqh @ v) "dressed", while Euripides uses the term pèplos (eg plov @), which designated the simple tunic that women used in the Greek himation. Quite the opposite is the testimony of Aristophanes that Pluto (vv. 529 f.) refers to a wedding dress from an enriched himation finely embroidered colorful and maybe even purple. The color red also back in a witness late: the novelist Achille Tazio (Clit. II 11, 2), in fact, he describes the toilet of a bride as hinting at a whole red, with gold bands and a series of multicolored stones. Finally, another novelist, Caritone, as talk of a miles, a type of cloth of very fine wool, and bridal wreath. If instead we take a look at the jars, which often represent the preparation of the bride, we find that the girl is usually covered with a richly embroidered himation, which often makes them even veil, and has a crown of flowers, mostly golden and not, as is attested in literary sources. Clearly, to conclude, that the Greek bride could choose as the best liked her wedding dress, in fact wearing a simple white tunic, or coat a large variously colored embroidery and a golden crown and a woven of flowers, but in his dress marriage should not miss the veil, which had a specific ritual function and that after the wedding
  15. 15. was spent Era. It could be short and embroidered or could be formed from the same himation draped around the head. The bridal veil in ancient Greece The Greek women of any age, those rare times when leaving the house, have his head veiled. Besides protecting against dust, the veil protects the reputation of the wearer, it is, that is, a sign of confidence, virtues which every respectable woman can not have. Or that, at least, must publicly show that they have. The veil, therefore, is not the exclusive prerogative of the bride apparel, yet plays a role of some importance within the ritual of marriage. One of the moments of the rite, in fact, the name of anakalyptérion, the unveiling. Tells Ferecide of Syrian poet who lived in the fourth century. BC, which, at the beginning of time, the supreme god Zeus was united in marriage to Chthonia the deep earth. The wedding feast lasted three days, after which the god, in front of his bride, the veil lifted the thin fabric embroidered that he had donated, and spoke these words: "Greetings to you, come with me !. For this, the poet adds, 'the gods and men of the earth keep dell'anakalyptérion use. And in fact, the unveiling is part of the ritual spread throughout the greek, but is not confirmed by other sources that the groom pronounce precisely the same formula set out by Ferecide. The bride (nymphe) is veiled in the family home by nymphéutria, a woman dell'entourage family of origin, responsible to support the couple during the ceremony. The representations related to vascular wedding march the bride veiled show in various ways: now has her face completely hidden, now only the head, is often portrayed in the act of making the veil to cover only one half of the face. This diversity testifies that, depending on the region or historical period, some details of the ritual may vary. At this stage of the rite, the veil seems to have, as in other cultures, an apotropaic value, precisely because it is the moment when the bride is more exposed. O just before the wedding procession, or already in the house of her husband - we do not know with certainty - the site anakalyptérion. To reveal the young is, however, the groom, in front of witnesses. Dell 'anakalyptérion we have not, unfortunately, iconographic documents. The ancient literary sources suggest that its meaning is to accept and take possession together. In particular, the act of lifting the veil would signify the possession the body of the woman, through the ritual performance, and therefore public, what will happen a little later the intimacy of the thalamus. The marriage over the centuries and in ancient Rome In antiquity it was believed that marriage serves to subject his wife to control her husband, who considered it owns. The Roman law was the first order to introduce the idea that marriage was a free agreement between two people who decide to live together.
  16. 16. The situation changed radically with the advent of Christianity: the marriage was in fact given the value of the sacrament and its primary purpose was the procreation of children and the sanctity of the union between husband and wife also determined the indissolubility of the bond between spouses and the unacceptability of all forms of voluntary dissolution Religion Catholic, Orthodox and Hindu consider marriage as an indissoluble bond and grant the dissolution only in some exceptional cases. The Catholic Church, for example, granting the dissolution of a marriage only in specific cases and after the intervention of the court of the Sacred Rota. Around the middle of the 'lower classes in 700 females are married on average about 23 years, while males around 26. On the marriage age gap of social classes, affected several factors: the increased duration and the need for cadets, to create, through the exercise of professions, a certain income in order to be able to afford a marriage consistent with its social class and conducting a comfortable life. In middle-class families, access to marriage was strictly controlled, usually reserved for first-and at age late in an attempt to preserve the family heritage by banning the sale and directing Cadets to the ecclesiastical career. In southern civilization, this relationship was confirmed by the constant concern for continuity of the family and heritage. Dall'interdipendenza between the age of marriage and age of death will have different demographic behavior in different countries. For example, where the aging was less relevant, accessible to the marriage-age youth, the where you lived longer, marriages are celebrated in old age. The age of marriage for women was an important factor in determining the course of their fertility and therefore their reproductive capacity. Typically, the reproductive period is thirty years. This fertility throughout their entire reproductive period describes a dish that has a phase of rapid rise during puberty, and has its peak during the decade between 20 and 30 years, after which assumes no prior then slowly increasing rapidly until you reach the sterility. Women, therefore, married about 23 years, we can say that reducing the reproductive period averaged 15 years, even taking out that the birth of the child was around 38 years. Another important factor is the interval time between birth and one another. Ranged from 24 to 30 months and often depended on abortions, spontaneous or procured, and born dead. We must also bear in mind that breastfeeding normally lasted 18 months, delivering amenorrhea in most cases for about 6 months in women well-fed and 18 in those poorly fed. The feeding was, therefore, a genuine contraception. Finally the intervals between births stretch with the decline of fertility and virility. We note also that the rich had more children than the poor, certainly because the rich married women younger and more fertile, because the children were entrusted to balie and then mothers should not breastfeed, and finally because the mothers were better fed and housed. E 'certain that the high infant mortality among the poor was caused by poor nutrition and poor hygiene.
  17. 17. In fact, a higher portion of the children of the rich survive until adulthood because healthier. Some circumstances in the course of time have not changed, the story is repeated almost cyclically. The common thread? That wire is inside us, inside all those people who throughout history have loved and were able to assume its obligations overcoming the adversity of their era. The nuptials . In Rome the wedding were usually preceded by spousal solemn ceremony with which it fulfilled the promise of marriage. How reveals the same name, at least in the archaic age nuptials are made through the sponsor, a formal commitment by which the pater familias promised betrothed to his daughter in his wife. This ceremony was thus a solemn act, based on the patriarchal tradition and characterized by a precise legal apparatus that made him almost as challenging the marriage. The nuptials were held in the presence of aruspici and all friends of the two families who held the role of witnesses of the marriage. This was taken as forms of stipulatio, which is the pater of women is the boyfriend undertook to ensure the fulfillment of the wedding. Taken legal agreements, there was the usual - but it was not a necessary step - that the two engaged couples will exchange a chaste kiss, which does not offend the ancient traditions. In that case, the ceremony of the nuptials was defined Osculati intervener. . Followed, then, the exchange of gifts - usually furniture and clothing - that constituted the "pledge" of future wedding, after which the man gave the girl a ring, l 'anulus pronubus on which there are several testimonies. Quest' ring, in fact , Was not just a gift but was a symbolic function instead: it was a kind of "chain" symbolic through which the bridegroom linking itself to the bride, claimed full possession. Consequently, once stuck 's anulus on his finger, she actually showed its commitment to respect the pact of loyalty towards the boyfriend. It is no coincidence, in fact, that' anulus was stuck to the penultimate finger of the left hand, anularius just said, which is believed to start a vein that came straight to the heart. Initially, as well Pliny the Elder, l 'anulus was to be a simple circle of iron and only later realized it was gold. After having signed the wedding contract, which had established the nature and amount of dowry the bride and Having set the date of the wedding, the ceremony of the nuptials came to a close. Followed, then a banquet at which everyone present participated.
  18. 18. The wedding rite . Marriages in Rome were usually celebrated in summer. Extremely superstitious, the Romans had set a number of days and times of when it was absolutely forbidden to marry. Specifically it was forbidden to celebrate weddings on Sundays, when we had to deal with things divine temples in Calende and Idi during parental the holidays in February in honor of deceased relatives and especially in May, as Plutarch , Which also explains that the best time was, however, immediately after the Ides of June, the month dedicated to Juno, one of the most important protective deity of marriage. The day before the wedding the bride was the protagonist of a rite that marked the transition from childhood to adulthood, during which consecrated on home games as a toddler. The next morning, assisted by pronuba, an elderly matron and univira (having had only one husband was a sign of good omen), the young clothing according to the dictates of tradition and awaited the groom and his paternal relatives in the house that for The occasion was decorated festively from door frames and hung crowns of flowers, branches of evergreen plants like myrtle and el'alloro Colored dressings, were placed into the carpet while, especially at major patrician families, it was used to open the cabinets where they were kept imagines, the wax masks of the ancestors. A Roma si praticavano tre differenti forme di matrimonio. In Rome we practiced three different forms of marriage.. Marriage for confarreatio was the oldest and solemn, according to legend established by Romulus and that is considered sacred and inseparable nally practiced by nobles, was reserved for only the priestly class of Flamines, but soon fell into disuse. . Marriage for coemptio was based on some sort of "selling" of women by the pater the bridegroom who, in the presence of five witnesses, paid the symbolic figure of a Nummus.. L 'Usus, finally, was based sull'ininterrotta cohabitation of a man and a woman not married to one year. At the end of this period one could believe constituted the marriage. The wedding ceremony began with a greeting sacrifice made in the presence of aruspici and ten witnesses who were perhaps ten curie.. In the case of marriage for confarreatio presenziavano also the highest religious authority of pagan Rome, the Pontifex Maximus and Flamini of Jupiter, the Flamen Dialis. . Are still uncertain the deity to which they sacrificed (or Juno Jupiter Capitoline) and the type of animal was sacrificed, perhaps a sheep or an ox, the less likely a pig. In the case of confarreatio, the animal was sprinkled on the forehead by a pappina spelled, which is also covered knives; spelled was then thrown into the fire.. During the sacrifice a very important role was played by aruspici that explored the depths of the draw responses to the wedding ceremony, it went just in case the auspices were favorable. Also in marriage for confarreatio, at this point in the ceremony, the bride and groom eat together, sitting side by side to a two stools covered with sheepskin (PELLIS lanata), a focaccia always spelled the panis farreus. The consummation whole bread was, in fact, a symbol of conjugal life: the food eaten in common favored harmony and unity of suffering. After this ritual
  19. 19. the bride and groom were around dell'altare preceded by a inserviente carrying the cumerus the basket with vestments At sacrifice followed the signing of tabulae nuptiales containing the marriage contract, and the rite of dextrarum iunctio, during which the pronuba, join the right wing of the two spouses. The dextrarum iunctio was the culmination of the wedding rite: in that moment, in fact, between the two spouses was enshrined in the covenant marriage. i cui avanzi bruciacchiati erano poi distribuiti agli ospiti in segno di buon augurio. bruciacchiati whose surpluses were then distributed to guests as a sign of good omen. At the ceremony ended, there was the wedding feast, known nuptialis dinner, after dinner in the evening to check Venus was called deductive, transfer the bride's family home as marital. The bridegroom, perhaps in memory of the marriage for rats, pretended to kidnap his wife, reluctant and scared, ripping the arms of his mother, then formed the wedding procession, illuminated by torches and accompanied by flute players. The bride was accompanied by three children all assets and marriage, as this was considered a good omen: two held by the hand, while the third preceded bringing the plug dawn, a torch of hawthorn, a symbol of fertility, turned at the home of home of the bride The parade was composed by a young man of noble birth and freedom, called Camillus, which bore a vase covered inside with the tools of women's work and two serves in hand holding the time and Conocchia, tools of the art of spinning.. The husband, meanwhile, was distributed to the children nuts, a symbol of fertility. During the parade s'invocavano all the many protective deity of marriage: in addition to more like Jupiter and Juno, which was attributed to the institution of marriage, Venus, the protector of love, Diana protector of fetuses, Fides, personification of one of virtutes Fundamental requests to Roman matron, were, in fact, invoked even minor deities that were promoting the sexual union of spouses.. At prayers are alternated the invocations festive, as the ritual cry "Talaso, on the origin of which there are several hypotheses: Livio linked him to an incident of rape of the Sabine, while Festo gives an etymological explanation relating to the art of spinning. . Neither could miss the fescennini verses scathing and often obscene that, accompanied by the sound of the double tibia, probably played a role apotropaica, taking away the fascinus, the evil eye. Reached the threshold of the marital home bride adorned the lintel of the door with wool and bandages coated with the fat of pork, as Servius, and the husband replied that on the threshold wondered who he was, with the famous expression formulate "Ubi tu Gaius ego Gaia." After completing this ritual, two friends of the husband finally brought into lifting it from the earth is to avoid stumbling on the threshold of her new home, as this would be a bad omen, and, perhaps, to remember the rape of the Sabine. In the house her husband received an urn carrying water and a pure brand of fire (aqua et Accipite ignition), two elements that probably symbolize life and marriage, according to Varrone, were linked to procreation. After this ceremony, is fulfilled the prayers of the rite and s'invocavano Genio family of husband and various deities. Infine, mentre il corteo si scioglieva, la pronuba accompagnava la sposa nella camera nuziale, in cui si trovava il talamo che era ornato di porpora e coperto dalla toga forse come augurio di figli maschi o come segno del dominio maritale. Finally, while the parade is dissolved, the pronuba accompanied the bride in the bridal chamber, which was the thalamus, which was decorated with purple and covered by toga as perhaps wishes for sons or as a sign of marital domain. Here the husband to dissolve the virginal belt. The next day the bride, who dressed for the first time matronly clothes, sacrificed to Lari and Penati and received gifts from her husband. Followed, then a banquet (repotia) reserved for relatives of the bride and groom.
  20. 20. Clothing of the bride The day of the wedding, the groom wore the toga, simply replace if he had not already done during the engagement, the praetexta toga virilis with that, however, the bride's dress had very specific characteristics, both in the combing the habit.. Stopped, in fact, finally dressed as a girl, she wore the wedding dress already in the evening before the wedding and after collecting her hair in a red wire, so clothing bed. The next day, his hair was combed according to a special hairstyle, called crines sex. . It was to divide the hair into six braids composed around the front and held together by bandages, the vittae, that the woman wore for the first time on the day of their marriage and that constituted one of the distinguishing marks of his new. These cloths were woven in a precise ritual, based on an archaic technology that provided for the use of a vertical frame on which a large plot, for straight performance, prevail on the plot. Completed the bridal headdress of a kind pins dall'impugnatura short and long from the tip pointing like a spear tip, called hasta caelibaris, whose symbolic value is not entirely clear. The wedding dress was made of a simple white tunic, long until the foot, called the tunic or recta Regilla reminded that cutting stole matronlyAs for vittae, the seam of the tunic followed a ritual especially since this capacity was derived from a single piece of cloth and should not present any kind of edge and finishing.. This tunic was then applied in order to make it in life member, a belt of wool, the Cingulum, who consecrated to Juno, one of the protective deity of marriage, could not be dissolved by that spouse. The heads of Cingulum were held together by a double knot called, as hope of fertility, Nodus Herculeus: According to the mythological tradition, in fact, the hero was the father of seventy children. The bride wore, and then, a ball that saffron yellow color drappeggiava on the tunic and boots, the socca, the same color. The key wedding industry was, however, the flammeum, a veil that went down by the head of the bride to cover the top of the face and that, during the ceremony, was also raised and tended on the head of the bridegroom.. As is clear from the same name, was flammeum color of fire: red, in fact, on the one hand, symbolized modesty virginal bride's hand, was the color apotropaico for excellence. Flammeum was rests on a crown woven of marjoram and verbena then replaced in the imperial age, one of myrtle and orange blossom. The flammeum . N Roman marriage was the use of flammeum, a veil of orange or yellow or red, in any case of a color you call the fire or the fire. . The bride completed her dress and hairstyle hair with a veil that this symbol initiatory become a symbol of chastity and pudicizia.. This term is associated with the greek word flo @ ginov "flamboyant", derived from flo @ x "fire", and which is a calculated semantic. According to the testimony of Paul Festo the presence of flammeum in clothing traditional Roman wife owes its origin flaminio to Dialis, the wife of Flamen Dialis, priest of Jupiter.
  21. 21. The Flaminia used to wear a dress and a veil color flame with whom during the sacrifices it covered his head. The flammeum was considered a sign of good omen, since the Flaminia divorce was not licit. The value of this head of apparel for the bride Roman was such that the act of 'married' to the woman was told nubere, namely in the proper sense "velarsi take the veil." Small history of the wedding dress L 'bridal gown always symbolizes the white, purity. In 'Ancient Greek brides wore white tunics, veils wrapped in yellow and orange. In China, the color of the wedding is red, as it is for Indian brides. The red is a color that is said to bring about the birth, already two thousand years ago the bride was covered with a red veil. With the advent of Christianity, the veil became a symbol of submission to God and to her husband. The noble families is handed veils precious, almost like a family treasure. It must be said that sometimes the veil used to cover the face of the bride who was given in marriage for political reasons, and the bridegroom was not required to know the 'identity. The rice that was thrown on the head of the spouses already time in a rain pagan symbol of fertility. The flowers d 'orange symbolize purity and virginity, tradition has it that the groom will gifts to the bride a bouquet with a ribbon tied white. The exchange of rings is very important because it symbolized the loyalty oath and was all'anulare left that put the finger is connected with the path of the heart. In some regions of Italy 's ring is called "true" or' fidelity '. Tradition dictates that the groom has to keep up to marriage and then bring them on the pages for the blessing. In the Middle Ages in Europe, especially outfit had the aim of preserving the body from the cold, without any special attention elegance. However, compared to just a few little animals became traditional: the long camisa of Arab origin, the first slings (worn by men under the
  22. 22. skirt or cooked), the caps of several different forms. In the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance in stabilizing some forms typical for the men Farsetti, trousers tight mesh, the various coverings, for women a long dress, from the round neckline, a sleeveless sopraveste, variously decorated and several colors. The first white wedding dress that is documented is that of Princess Filippa of England in 1406. Renaissance fashion was very pompous: typical for men and the large slings his coat with the sleeves cut off to see the lining, and for women a wide skirt, bodice at the bust to cues, the embroidered shirt and a rich zimarra. In Italy, the strict provisions of the Counter-inspired costumes stricter and simpler:'600 is typical of the severe black dress enlivened only by gorgiera, a huge white collar folds. The eighteenth century was the culmination of elegance: paniers, redingote, culottes and waistcoats of silk or satin richly ornate. After the French Revolution, Josephine Bonaparte launched the line defined by the Empire with a high waist corset which goes down the skirt. Since then, the bridal gown became increasingly important, thanks to Queen Victoria that launched a style that takes its name, Victorian life with strict adherent bodice and wide skirt with train. Throughout the 800 and the first 900 years of the bride followed the fashion by night. Around the thirties of the twentieth century is said to dress like we mean today: white, long, with a veil and a bouquet of flowers.
  23. 23. The civil marriage Civil marriage is, by definition, the celebration automatically guarantee that all legal and administrative effects. It is how the marriage choice by those who do not want the religious celebration. The civil marriage requires a series of preliminary formalities that have the purpose of ascertaining the actual state of freedom from the constraints of previous marriages and awareness, both from those involved, you want to enter into marriage without any coercion or blackmail. The practice for the civil marriage requires both partners to travel at least two to three months before the oath at the Civil Status Office of the City of residence of one of the two to sign a formal request for "publications". We must bring with it the birth certificate, the certificate of residence, citizenship and free. If one of the two contractors is divorced, should be added to the list also the decree of divorce, but if you are widowed you must submit a copy of the death of a spouse. In the case of civil marriage between minors, a copy of the decree authentic eligibility for marriage issued by a court for minors, and for a foreigner need the capacity marriage certificate issued by the Consulate or Embassy responsible. If this certificate is not complete in its entirety, it is also the birth model in multilingual or translated from the consulate. Following that request, the responsible municipal prepare all materials received and then personally contact prospective spouses in order to fix the date of civil marriage. They are so exposed, for eight days, publications with the complete identity of prospective spouses and the place of celebration of civil marriage. Publication goal is to make known to all the intention of the engaged to marry so that anyone may have reason to oppose, where there are impediments to which they are aware or other serious reasons specified by law. After four days after the end of publications, the Journal of Marital Status, if you have not received any opposition on the couple, issuing the "clearance" to marriage, which declares that the celebration did not stop the civil effects. The two engaged at this point, can celebrate their civil marriage within 180 days of the expiry of the publication, on pain of revocation of validity of documents. The marriage in City Hall, is normally celebrated on time office of the municipality, from Monday to Saturday morning. Civil marriage is apparently less formal than religious, but still imposes certain rules of form and good taste that should be respected. Elegance, sobriety and simplicity should connote the conduct of civil marriage which does not allow any delay on the part of spouses, since the same day many marriages are celebrated. As for the religious ceremony, the bride enters the arm of her father, then the guests will accommodate according to tradition: parents, friends and relatives of the bridegroom to the right, left those of the bride.
  24. 24. I the rite of marriage is pretty short, by the fifteen minutes and the winds expected reading some articles of the Civil Code by the Institute's status. These, in detail, are: Article 143 mutual rights and obligations of married couples with marriage the husband and wife acquire the same rights and assume the same duties. Since marriage comes the obligation to mutual fidelity, moral and material assistance, cooperation in the family and cohabitation. Both spouses are required, each in relation to its substance and its capacity for professional work or home, contributing to the needs of the family. Article 144, address family life and the family residence Spouses agree among them the address of family life and set the residence of the family according to the needs of both those key and the family itself. Each spouse has the power to implement the agreed address. Article 147 Duties towards children Marriage requires both spouses must bring up and educate their children taking into account the ability and inclination of natural aspirations of children. These articles are read to the end of classical religious ceremony, with the only difference being that, to declaim, is the officiating priest. After receiving the declaration by the spouses of wanting to take as my husband and wife, is the exchange of rings, the signing of the registers and, in conclusion, a brief greeting speech from those who officiated the ceremony. E 'practice that the civil ceremony is held at the headquarters of one two municipalities in which they reside pledged spouses. Some municipalities offer, for the celebration of civil marriages, even charming environments, such as availability of historical buildings in the city. Where the wedding will be celebrated in a commune other than membership, send to the municipality of residence a written request, which explained the reasons for choosing to celebrate the marriage in another town. The office of the municipality will deliver a letter to spouses of delegation, due in town chosen for the celebration of marriage.
  25. 25. THE RELIGIOUS RITE The ceremony usually takes place during a mass wedding, not without its exciting moments, and evocative, among them, you can certainly indicate the basic steps: • Renewal of baptismal promises: the spouses respond to questions posed by their priest, questions that reflect those places during the sacraments of baptism, communion and confirmation; • Liturgy of marriage: the priest asks the solemn consent to the wedding, the bride and groom, then, read in turn (before him, then you), the new formula: "I like you I take my / or wife / o ..."; • Blessing and exchange of wedding rings, the priest blesses faiths wedding and the wedding if the exchange saying the traditional formula: "Receive this ring as a sign of my love and my loyalty ...." At this point, the groom, donned for the first all'anulare left the faith of the bride, and then it's up to you repeat the same gesture; • Blessing of the spouses and applause: the priest intones a prayer for the new family just formed and, according to a habit imported from the United States and consolidatasi now also in our country, generally invites those present to devote applause as a sign of joy and joy for the union occurred, which has the hidden meaning of good wishes and prosperity for the new pair united and consecrated forever in the name of the Lord; • The Sacred Literature: Other very significant moment of nuptial celebration is dedicated to the Sacred liturgical readings, to be agreed in advance with the celebrant selection of songs from the Bible and the Gospel. Among the most striking, above all remember the beautiful prayer dedicated by St. Francis of Assisi to love for life and nature that is born and that lovingly surrounds us, making all living beings equally worthy of love and respect, in because they are essential in achieving the perfect balance of the natural "the Song of Songs," beautiful song that spouses can read a few entries to make it even more impressive, or even the First Epistle of St. John the Apostle, entitled emblematic "God is love"; lovely and the choice that falls its reading of similar composition of the Gospel according to Matthew, entitled: "What God has joined together let no man (dares) to separate ..". The exit from the Church: After the wedding ceremony, the newlyweds nouveau, accompanied by their witnesses, they withdraw with the priest to sign the register. Meanwhile guests can move towards the exit to reach, in an orderly and above all fair, the church where the couple will wait or can expect the bride and groom and train the wedding procession in output and in the latter case, of course, l 'Order will follow the same entry in the church, but this time, the mother of him, accompanied by her father.
  26. 26. First to greet the newlyweds, it sometimes occurs that the priest gives them a booklet with the date and place of celebration and many blank pages that the new pair will fill indicating, perhaps, the names of the children who come and, remembering that the new family that the main purpose of religious, it remains primarily that of "procreation". Then, without taking into account the chosen invited to the exit, neomarito presents the bride his right arm and, together, start slowly toward the exit. On the churchyard of the Church, at the time of the spouses, relatives and friends will classic and auspicious launch of rice, later, follow the group photo in neo-classical style. Finally, the bride and groom greet guests who bring their eager to porger thanking the usual congratulations, and those who do not participate personally in the wedding reception. The moment certainly more captivating than the wedding ceremony is the exchange of promises of marriage. Here are the words that enshrine the union of the two spouses nouveau "Andrew and Maria." Dear Andrew and Mary, have come together in the Father's house because your love to receive his seal and its consecration in front of the minister of the Church and in front of the community. You are already consecrated by baptism now Christ blesses you and strengthens you with the wedding sacrament, because you love one another with love faithful and inexhaustible responsibility and duties of marriage. So I ask you to express in front of the Church of your intentions. Andrew and Mary, you have come to contract matrimony with full freedom, without coercion, fully aware of the significance of your decision? Yes. You are willing, the new way of marriage, to love and honor each other for life? Yes. You are willing to accept responsibly with the children who love God will give and bring under the law of Christ and his Church? Yes.
  27. 27. CONSENT Therefore, if your intention is to join in marriage, datevi his right hand and express before God and his Church your consent. I, Andrew, take you, Mary, as my wife and I promise you are always faithful, in joy and in sorrow, in health and disease, and to love and honor all the days of my life. I, Maria, I take you, Andrew, as my husband and I promise you are always faithful, in joy and in sorrow, in health and disease, and to love and honor all the days of my life. O Lord, sanctifies the love of these spouses: leading the ring as a symbol of loyalty to continually call them mutual love. For Christ our Lord. Amen. Mary, get this ring, a sign of my love and my fidelity, in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Andrea, get this ring, a sign of my love and my fidelity, in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. With the celebration of the sacrament of marriage, spouses Christians part of the alliance spousal Christ with the Church and receive the grace to live and manifest in their relationship as a couple and family life. This is a celebration
  28. 28. which implements a saving event. That is why the Church has turned to the Sacrament of Marriage constant attention and caring. The marital union is a universal value of humanity, is the foundation of the family, original cell of society, and connects intimately to the mystery of life itself. Stems from the will of God the Creator and his receives blessing and holiness. Jesus Christ for its part has high Marriage in the sacrament; has a real symbol that contains and expresses its union with the Church, The new alliance. The Lord crucified and risen, Having entered the Church believers in the body Baptism with them also sanctifies as a couple; communicate to spouses the Holy Spirit to enable them to love one another with love donation that is a reflection of his sacrifice Easter and the Trinitarian communion. Rite in adaptation of the peculiarity Marriage is the Christian been put out by offering a choice more extensive texts and giving directions because the inclusion in the Eucharistic celebration face shine in the fullness of its meaning Easter size of the "great mystery" The couple and the family, by virtue of the sacrament, they become living image of the mystery of Church and part of his fertility. Through the testimony of a self-giving love, faithful, indissoluble and fruitful, receive and transmit a unique and irreplaceable gift of salvation that comes from Christ. The nature of the Church's celebration Marriage is the obvious especially in some moments of the ritual. In Rites of entry is the Church gathering in the Lord hosting the wedding: the greeting of him who chairs the introduction and help from the outset to prevent the celebration to take a private nature. Marriage is not about only spouses, relatives and friends, but requires the participation of the whole Church. The memory of baptism, placed immediately after the greeting, highlight the theological basis of the consensus element the sacrament. Under the baptismal priesthood spouses participating in the mystery of Easter and work an ecclesial act properly. The consent of the spouses is the answer in a word of love, as coming from God before them. THE LAWS ON MARRIAGE - THE ITALIAN COSTITUTION – Article 29 of the Constitution: the Republic recognizes the rights of the family as a natural society founded on marriage. The marriage is legal moral ordered on equality of spouses with the limits set by law to guarantee family unity. CIVIL CODE Art.143. Reciprocal rights and duties of spouses. With the marriage the husband and wife acquire
  29. 29. the same rights and assume the same duties. Since marriage comes the obligation to mutual fidelity, moral and material assistance, cooperation in the family and cohabitation. Both spouses are required, each in relation to its substance and its capacity for professional work or home, contributing to the needs of the family. Art.143bis. Surname of his wife. His wife adds to their surname and that of the husband keeps during the widow, until it passes a new marriage. Art.144. Address of family life and residence of the family. The couple agree between them the address of family life and set the residence of the family according to the needs of both those key and the family itself. Each spouse has the power to implement the agreed address. Art.147. Duties towards their children. Marriage requires both spouses must bring up and educate their children taking into account the ability and inclination of natural aspirations of children. Art.148. Competition in the charges. Spouses must fulfill the obligations laid down in previous in proportion to the respective substances and according to their ability to work or professional home. When parents do not have sufficient means, the other ascending legitimate or natural, in order of proximity, are required to provide parents with the necessary means so that they can fulfill their obligations towards children. In case of default the president of the court, upon application of anyone who has an interest, after the breach and assumed information, order by decree that a share of income in proportion to, is paid directly to the other spouse or who bears the cost of maintenance, education and education of offspring. The decree, notified to the parties concerned and third debtor, is entitled executive, but the parties and the third debtor can appeal within a period of twenty days of notification. The opposition is governed by the rules on the opposition to the decree of injunction, as applicable. The parties and the third debtor can always ask, with the shapes of the ordinary, modification and revocation of the measure.
  30. 30. The wedding dress THE HABIT FOR THE BRIDE The tradition dell'abito white wife goes back to the nineteenth and represents purity and virginity. Roman brides were wrapped instead of yellow and orange veils. The Chinese women dressed in red. Red is still the color of the brides wedding in India. Lombard brides wore only a black tunic. The wives of Byzantine richer classes wore vestments of red silk embroidered with gold and precious stones. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance wedding dresses were very colorful, so as to be worn even after, during the holidays. The most common color used in any way, it was red, because it was believed that bringing about the birth. Today, in addition to the color white will prefer the beige. Bridal gown The bridal gown has always been one of the most important elements of the ceremony. Fascinating is its history in different cultures in different countries. In ancient Greece the bride wore white tunics. At that time the white symbolized the joy and purity and virginity. Roman brides were wrapped by hand veils yellow and orange, while the Chinese dressed in red. The color red is still the color of the brides wedding in India. Lombard brides wore only a black tunic, while the Byzantine maidens, who come from wealthier families, were wearing wedding dresses of red silk adorned with precious stones and gold embroidery. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance it was used to select colored wedding dresses to be worn even after, during the holidays. The color used was red anyway, because it was believed that bringing about the birth. The tradition dell'abito white wife goes back to the nineteenth. When, in 1854, the Church recognized the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of Mary, that the Virgin was born without original sin, young brides began to wear white for honor and invoke the protection of the Madonna. And the veil became a symbol of submission to God and to her husband. Today, however, are welcome wedding dresses from pastel shades or pink and gold shades,
  31. 31. depending on your personality, color of skin and hair. In some models, the colors of clothing are clearly opposed to trim and strip color. Tissues dell'abito wedding, with its own characteristics, mainly determine the success of a model and suggest several ideas in the creation dell'abito. With their consistency more or less thick, in fact, able to shape the silhouette of the bride. Tulle, organza and chiffon suit just perfect lines, a slender body .. Raso, mikado, cady, duchesse silk and velvet suit for wives more meat. In any case, the fabric should be chosen depending on the period, the model chosen but also by time and place of marriage. For a ceremony held in the cathedral and in the morning, you should wear a dress of some importance, with sumptuous fabrics also, in heavy satin, duchesse or mikado. For an afternoon ritual that takes place in the city, clothes are recommended by the flowing lines and light fabrics such as crepe de Chine, the georgette, the cady satin or lightweight. For a mass in the church in the countryside, in the afternoon is the perfect romantic and vaporous dress in voile, chiffon and faille. And for the marriage in City Hall, the ideal is a short dress or a pants suit also, in shades of white, cream of, dell'avorio, dell'écru or pastel. Many models of wedding dresses where to turn its attention: - Bustier: Corsetto fence that gathers on your back with closed string, with a wide skirt, style 700. - Empire: High Life, small sleeves and skirts or flared slightly curled. Ideal for pregnant women or for brides who want a simple style. - A balloon: Skirt 50s style, broad, wrinkled and swollen, back from or repaid by a narrow strip on the bottom. - Redingote: Dress with waist narrow and higher than normal, a cloth skirt that tightens at the top of the bust, and then expand on my stomach and hips. - Glide: Model made with soft fabrics and softens following the contours of the body. - A siren: very sexy model that emphasizes the hips to widen and then finish with a small trawl. - A slip: Large shoulder neckline and thin, lightweight fabric. It should be completed with a stole or a light jacket. - Tubino: Model which follows the contours of the body, with straight skirt that falls without
  32. 32. squeezing, tailleur style. - Peple: Similar to the tunic of the women of ancient Greece, is a straight dress, enhanced by drapes that make it particularly elegant. - Ottocento: Bustier adhere size with adjustable gonna inflate with tulle underskirt with large volants - Tabs: I live sober and elegant, with a skirt that ends just above the ankle. A check of person helps to understand what is valued and what is hidden in the bridal gown. For this reason, it always go to a studio with a highly skilled staff capable of giving the right advice. There are single-studio, where you can find a wide range of models of a certain signature, and workshops that offer multi-client to their wedding dresses of different signatures. The first appointment in the workshop need to decide on which model orientation. Then it takes at least two other tests to accommodate all of the bridal gown. Once withdrawn, the bridal gown should be removed from the protective plastic, hung on a padded hanger and covered by a cotton cloth until the day of the wedding. After marriage, however, it should be washed thoroughly by a professional laundry and placed in a large box, preferably by wrapping it with white tissue paper that preserves the color white. The Wedding Veil In ancient times, the veil symbolized the innocence of the bride who was protected from the influence of evil spirits. Today, many women continue to opt for the veil seen the touch of romance that gives each bride. The lengths are basically three. The veil is shorter than that comes in abundance to cover their backs and ends at the elbow. That the longer reaches the ground, and the median arrives to cover the entire back. Short or long that it is better to choose a model that does not hinder the gait of the protagonist.
  33. 33. Even the shapes are different. The veil may be a wheel, and round, but may also terminate at the tip, creating a more modern effect. Tradition has it that the veil is thin and impalpable, sober, in the smooth tulle veil should apply sull'acconciatura. You can opt for a simple pettinino be included in your hair or you may prefer a tiara, far more demanding, which must be harmonized with the hairdo. The types of diadems are four diadems crown, a wreath, a rose, a drop. Up for the day of the wedding, the bridal veil and full of charm envelops the woman that goes to the altar. Distant in time, its origins, was a symbol full of meaning throughout history, but especially today maintains its aesthetic and decorative function. . The bridal veil in ancient The first Veil Wedding dates back to Roman times when the young men who climbed the altar used to wear the Flammeum, a light veil covering their face during the wedding ceremony. The first veil of history was made with a thin gauze, preferably red, but orange or yellow to symbolize the colors of fire. The Flammeum garment was considered a good omen and the importance of this accessory in the wedding ceremony was such that for the woman instead of the word 'marriage' is the verb usasse 'nubere', whose meaning is' take the veil, velarsi '. In the Middle Ages the bridal veil was made of many layers of linen on top, fixed to the head through the gold wire and beads. The veil was used to protect the bride from evil eye and bad luck, and hide it in the eyes of her husband until the wedding ceremony had not ended. In the past, and throughout the course of history in which marriages were combined, the purpose of the bridal veil was functional rather than decorative: the real purpose of the veil was to hide the bride from the perspective of the husband until completion the ceremony, so that the bridegroom should fail to take, sending in the wedding and interests related to them. Renaissance also adapted the veil is a mentality that provided luxury and magnificence for the wedding ceremony, the veil became a long trail that enveloped and protected the bride, was still colored and made of precious fabrics. During the first head made bridal gown white, and it also coordinates the veil. This change occurred because of the principles imposed by the Catholic Church and the recognition of white as the color of innocence, purity, virginity. The bridal veil in the nine hundred It was in the twentieth century that one can speak of a real wedding fashion in clothing, a number of trends that are taking hold and changing decade after decade. This also applies to the bridal veil, now inseparable from accessory dress, whose presence, fattezza depend first and length of historical
  34. 34. and economic factors, and then by fashion trends, including the personal taste. Twenty Years in the veil is a long trail, often made of a single layer, but enriched with precious embroidery, satin-finished edges or with a fine plissettatura. In the Thirties, the wedding veil will shrink and adapt to the hair, become gradually more complex and the presence of diadems and pearls entwined on the head. Rather than to cover the face, the veil has achieved its role as an accessory which often form a single with the diadem, and from which the hair. In the fifties, after the war, fashion bride is geared towards a return to Romanticism: tornano wide skirts and long veils back to the foot, to envelop and surround the sweetness of white wife. Sixty Years in the bridal gown purchase value of that uniqueness that have today: dress worn only once in life, for your wedding ceremony. Lines back to the simplicity and the veil is appropriate for the style decoration on the head of the bride, falls into shapes and natural. The seventies were the years of returning to the color: ivory and cream make their entrance, as well as new materials that come from fashion to every day. The habit becomes more comfortable and follows the style of the bride, as the veil becomes a personal choice of the woman who will wear on him. The Eighties were the years of a mermaid dress and a lot of work styles and the same is true also for the hair, rising up and look like a masterpiece of sculpture. The veil is done by then, to make room for the bride to the face and daring hairstyles. Free marriages, the wives of the Eighties choose where to hide when you kiss or show to the guests. Types of bridal veil There are different types of bridal veil, distinguished by the length of the veil. Here the six main types of bridal veil. • Short or velina Velo It is the bridal veil shorter, comes up behind and covers his face. Ideal for anyone wearing a short dress or a bride of small size. Dona looked rid or very elegant and austere, as dell'abito which is coordinated and age of the bride. • Velo behind Ideal necklines on dresses from the large and generous, it is the bridal veil of imagination: visible, hospitality and charm, but very practical and does not prevent movement.
  35. 35. • Velo at the elbow As a shawl wraps gagged bride without a veil in multilayer. Combined with dresses with necklines, suitable for brides not so high because he gives them elegance conceal the silhouette. • Velo Classic or Waltz The name refers all'elegante dance is smooth and that the functionality of the veil: it covers the bride and wraps from head to toe, making her legendary figure, not prevent it but to dance with ease, as the veil ends at floor height. Scenic effect guaranteed, even for the dancers to waltz not professionals. • Chapel Veil Rests on the floor and form the trail. Sometimes it is reinforced by other internal sottoveli who donate the right volume. Very elegant and imposing, recommended on clothes simple and smooth. • Cathedral Veil Impressive as its name, this is very long veil. Should not exceed three meters, but in any case requires the presence of maids and paggetti. It is majestic, scenic, ideal for a spectacular ceremony. How to choose your wedding veil Obviously the wedding veil will be chosen according to personal taste and, as mentioned above, the height of the bride and coordinated with the dress. However, there are a few tips, a half of tradition, popular belief and superstition, which is worth knowing before you decide what the veil covering the head of the bride, because you never know. Preferably the veil should be used, that is donated or lent to marry a woman to her neighbor who had a happy marriage. The news so I will be protected bride and her wedding will be lucky like that of the woman from whom he inherited the veil. If you opt for this choice, remember to bring with you the veil before the choice of dress, so as to find the right combination of color. If the bride goes with civil rite is older or married for the second time, it is advisable that wearing a hat instead of a veil. The straw hat is white in summer and velvet in the winter in any case a large aquifer and the presence of a veil to cover her face donate elegance and sobriety. In the selection of the veil that is the rule to the contrary, the veil must be of a material different from that of the dress. If, for example, is dressed in lace, the veil is tulle with satin finish or beads.
  36. 36. Curiosity about the wedding veil in the world In Japanese tradition, the bridal veil is used symbolically to hide the jealousy of the bride, his ego and its selfishness, qualities that can not be displayed in the presence of the future husband and his relatives. Symbolically, the veil hides the negative qualities and makes the bride to enter into new life as a wife, kind and obedient. In Japanese tradition in the past there was also the belief that the hair of women were dirty and that is why going covered. In Africa, the wives do not wear a veil, a headdress, but combined the dress, whose shape closely resembles that of a turban. The colors of headgear are matched to those dell'abito wedding and are usually bright and cheerful colors. The traditional Chinese dress is red, or shades on for the couple away from the future evil spirits. The women wear an elaborate headdress (a kind of crown) from which in antiquity descended on the face, to cover the face, a red veil. Function of the veil was to conceal the face of the bride in the eyes of guests and the husband: the man was seen for the first time the face of his wife after her husband became the first night of marriage. In Indian brides are traditionally dressed in red, and is not expected that wear a veil, although often the Saree (traditional dress) covers the head. Accessories for the privileged in India are flowers and jewels that adorn the dress and the bride from head to foot. THE HABIT FOR SPOSO The groom dresses cost from 600-800000 to 2,000,000 or more, depending on your choice. The fluctuation of the price is depending on the fabric quality and brand, of course. The dress sold for more Pignatelli costs around 2,000,000 is in wool and silk, single- jacket with a shawl collar, embroidered waistcoat, ascot tie and
  37. 37. shirt diplomacy. The Board. For him there is an advantage: the suit he can wear for the rest of life, for ceremonies or times that require an elegant dress. The things that bring good Tradition dictates that the bride brings with it the day of marriage 6 things: - One thing taken: to indicate the 'affection of loved ones who remain close to this transition from old to new. - What a gift: to remind the good people care. - Something blue: the blue color in ancient times was the color that symbolized purity and was the color of the 'dress of the bride. - An old thing: that symbolizes the life that is left behind and the importance of the past that must not be forgotten in the transition to the new. - A new thing: that symbolizes the new life about to start, shows all the new achievements and innovations that will bring with it. Le Fedi The custom of bringing the faith all'anulare claim dates back to the ancient Egyptians. They believed it to have identified a vein that, starting dall'anulare left, reach the heart along this vein that ran thought the feelings. "Tying" the ring would then secure his loyalty. To crown and seal the 'union of the spouses already the ancient Romans exchanged rings of iron, for the ancient Jewish law faiths had even more importance, in fact believed that only the exchange of these rings was enough to make the marriage legal. In the Middle Ages, when it had not yet fully foot the exchange of rings, the "faith" was a great bill and equal preciousness, often the groom, the bride ringed with three rings. In some regions of Italy is also called "true", a term the Veneto-Slavic, that means fidelity, it is usual to affect the date of marriage and the name of the Bride in to him and the name of the Bridegroom in the her. Tradition dictates that the spouse to pay them and keep them until the time of the exchange, but are often the witnesses to give. Pagetti will then take them on the altar for a blessing. The wedding rings are worn over the "Frenchman", the classic or the flat.
  38. 38. Those who prefer something less traditional may opt for a model to more cross-circles, or you can choose the real with a small diamond, or even a set of diamonds. The Fedi The custom of bringing faith all'anulare dates back to the left of the ancient Egyptians. They believed he had in fact identified a vein that, starting dall'anulare left, reach the heart along this vein that they thought the sentiments. "Tying" the ring would then ensure their loyalty. To crown and seal 's union between the spouses already Ancient Romans exchanged iron rings, the ancient Jewish law faiths had even more importance is believed that only the exchange of these rings was sufficient to make the marriage legal. In the Middle Ages, when it had not yet fully foot the exchange of rings, the "faith" was of great bill and equal value, the groom often ringed the bride with three rings. And his form from the past, a symbol of eternal love and lasting, is the cyclicality of life as a couple that is renewed daily becoming stronger over time. The exchange of beliefs is the most solemn and moving ceremony. With that gesture and the promise of reciprocal loyalty that the pair of lovers becomes a real family. Faiths wedding, silver or gold have their value, sacred and liturgical. In some regions of Italy is also called "true", a term Venetian-Slav, which means fidelity within it is usual to affect the date of marriage and the name of the Bride in to him, and the name of the spouse in that her. The custom to affect the names of spouses and the date of the wedding in the real dates from the eighteenth century. With their exchange, in the middle of the ceremony is religious, whether civil, the couple is pressing for a pact of love and loyalty in the public domain. So the wedding faiths have a profound symbolic meaning, because they enclose a promise of love, but also an aesthetic value, they are worn for life. As a mutual gift between spouses, and select well together, although etiquette suggests that both the husband to buy them. The classic bridal faiths are in white gold, yellow or red. You can choose among different models: Tradition dictates that the spouse to pay them and keep until the exchange, but often are witnesses to give. It will then take on a pagetti for the blessing. Faiths are the most worn "Francesino", the classical or flat. Those who prefer something less traditional may opt for a more trying to cross, or it can choose the real with a small diamond, or even with a set of diamonds
  39. 39. Bridal bouquet The bouquet is according to tradition, the last tribute of the bridegroom to the bride and terminating the cycle of engagement. The custom has it that her husband will do deliver the morning at home of the bride although in reality it is the bride to choose as must harmonize with her dress. In some countries even the mother-in-law to give. At the end of the reception will be launched at random from all unmarried girls who manage to marry should be grabbed by the year. The custom of the bride decorate with flowers is very old and comes from the Arab world. Here the woman who had to marry was decorated, the day of the wedding, with flowers of orange, white and delicate, a symbol of fertility. The custom started as hope for the bride to have numerous offspring. As for the various forms of bridal bouquet, much will depend on the physical and dall'abito the ceremony. There are some basic rules that you should follow. A bridal bouquet round and compact, composed of small flowers, and it mainly to a short and informal dress. This type of wedding bouquet is the one that best fits all the stature and female figures. A bridal bouquet open and voluminous is the ideal model for a dress that does not exceed the ankle and requires a bride lean and high enough, since this type of accessory should be given some 'below the level of life. The bridal bouquet called "cascade", with flower cluster, is reserved for a dress with train. A bridal bouquet of this kind draws attention to the bottom, creating a slimming effect. E 'and then indicated to a raagzza high and robust. Not recommended instead to a woman of small stature because, though voluminous, it might even obscure some details of her dress. The bridal bouquet beam, made up by long-stemmed flowers, is indicated for the suit. A bridal bouquet of this type should be supported to the arm and led with ease by a slender girl possibly still have security in the poise and elegance.