B.6.3 and B.6.4 hormone


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B.6.3 and B.6.4 hormone

  1. 1. HormoneB.6.3 Describe the mode of action of oral contraceptives
  2. 2. MENSTRUAL CYCLEBeginning of the menstrual cycle o pituitary gland releases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) o FSH travels to the ovaries --> causes release of estrogen  prepares for release of an egg from the ovary  prepares for build-up of the uterine wall to accept the egg once it is fertilized
  3. 3. after two weeks the Luteinizing hormone (LH) o is released from the pituitary gland o travels to the ovaries o releases progesterone then causes the egg to be transported to the uterus o build up the uterine wall continuesIf the egg is fertilized o egg embeds in the uterine wall o hormone levels rises dramaticallyIf the egg is not fertilized o hormone levels fall o menstruation begins
  4. 4. PREGNANCYLH  Progesterone : Prevents ovulationFSH Estrogen : Prevents irregular flow during a menstrual cycle
  5. 5. AVOID PREGNANCY1. Oral contraceptive pill combines a synthetic progesterone and estrogen.2. To stop the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the pituitary.3. Inhibits ovulation4. Stops the development of the uterine lining which then prevents the attachment of the egg to the wall of the uterus5. Thickens the mucus around the cervix preventing sperm from entering the uterus (minipil; hard for sperm to enter uterus6. Female reproduction system is fooled by the synthetic progesterone and estrogen
  6. 6. QuestionOutline the mode of action of oral contraceptivesAnswer: The "pill" consists of estrogen and progesterone hormones (synthetic). The excess of these hormones (at a given dosage) will prevent ovulation, thus avoiding pregnancy. -Negative feedback control--The increased levels of estrogen inhibit the levels of LH hormone released by the pituitary gland. The drop in LH and FSH levels stops the development of the endometrium lining-without it the egg cannot implant and therefore no pregnancy will occur. 3 marks
  7. 7. B.6.4 Outline the use and abuse of steroids
  8. 8. USE Muscle growth Minimal side effect so can help people suffer in cancer to increase body weight Improve performance Increase body weight (woman > man, because woman has low concentration of testosterone in body) Prevent anemia (stimulate red blood cell production)Treat autoimmune disease (short-term reduction in white blood cell counts by either interfering in the way they are recycled or directly killing them) E.G: rheumatoid arthritis
  9. 9. ABUSE MAN WOMAN Impotence Build up of muscle like a man Baldness Facial hair Frequent urination Voice deepens Lower sperm count Abnormal menstrual cycle Develop breasts Risk to prostate cancer Smaller testes Develops violent temper Aggressive behaviorIncrease risk of diseases; liver tumors, high blood pressure and heart attacks, increase LDL, decrease HDL, jaundice, severe acne, mental state, skeletal growth, fluid retention and kidney tumor, http://sportsci.org/encyc/anabstereff/anabstereff.html http://ibhumanbiochemistry.wikispaces.com/C.6.4