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James P. Purdy
Duquesne University
OVERVIEW
• scholars will discuss their OER insights, questions, and
initiatives for about 7 minutes each, particularly to
...
Mike Palmquist
Colorado State University
Two Directions in an Open World
Open Educational Resources
• The Writing Studio at
Colorado State University
• The Unizin ...
Related, But Distinct, Purposes
Open Edu
Resources
Open
Access
Writing Studio
URL: writing.colostate.edu
Visits: 25.1 mill...
Common Themes
Project Focus Start Resources Contributors
Writing Studio OER 1993 Writing Environment
LMS/CMS
15,000 page “...
Lessons Learned
1. Smart people working together can
create good resources at low or no
cost to users.
2. Committed leader...
Lessons Learned, continued
6. Don’t expect to “win” in a competitive business
environment. Publishers and software vendors...
David Blakesley
Clemson University
1. What does it cost authors and publishers to
create and publish OER?
2. What value does IP have as symbolic or
intellect...
Joe Moxley
WritingCommons.org
Since 2012:
• 4.7 million users
• 8 million page views
“Using First Person in an Academic Essay: When is it Okay?” by Jenn...
• hacking is pervasive,
destructive, and constant
• it’s difficult to obtain original
articles
• gift culture is difficult...
Sample Frequently Viewed Pages
Page Page views Author
“Consider Your Audience” 262,934 Joseph Moxley
“Using First Person i...
Jack Hennes
Michigan State University
Tragedy of the OER Commons?
• Garrett Hardin’s “Tragedy of the Commons?” can help
us understand how we can rethink managem...
Nick Carbone
Macmillan
• content matters, but…
• competition and competitive strengths
Sherry Jones
Rocky Mountain College of Art & Design
Using Blockchain Technology to
Maintain OERs and IPs
3 Points to Address
1. Promoting the publication of OER alone is not enough to ensure
recognition of IP.
2. OER + Blockcha...
rgMOOC: An OER Project
• OER Project: rgMOOC (2013), formally known as “Rhetoric and Composition: The
Persuasive Power of ...
rgMOOC OER
Artifact:
Mightybell
● Asynchronous weekly discussions with
alternate reality game (ARG) style
YouTube videos w...
rgMOOC OER
Artifact:
Twitter
● Synchronous weekly Q & As,
in the style of alternate reality
games (ARG) were held on
Twitt...
rgMOOC OER
Artifact:
Titanpad
● a synchronous 2 hours
collaborative essay writing
competition was held on Titanpad.
● 14–1...
rgMOOC OER
Artifact:
Pathbrite
● All rgMOOC video tutorials
were published as OERs on
Pathbrite.
● Pathbrite served as the...
3 Problems Encountered with rgMOOC OERs
1. OERs published within the college LOR system were hidden from
public view (not ...
Proposal: Use Blockchain to Maintain OER
IP (1 of 2)
• What is Blockchain? Blockchain is a distributed database and public...
Blockchain
Technology
in Banking
Illustrated
Image Source: http://www.forbes.com/sites/vivekravisankar/2015/11/01/blockcha...
Proposal: Use Blockchain to Maintain OER
IP (2 of 2)
• Blockchain in Education? On Feb. 22, 2016, Sony Global Education (a...
Implications of Blockchain for Higher
Education, Writers/Authors, and the
Teaching of Writing
• Higher Education: 1) Colle...
Further Readings on Blockchain and
Education
• Cavanagh, Sean. “Can K-12 Schools Take Advantage of Blockchain Tech?” Gover...
Charles Lowe
Grand Valley State University
• Isn’t writing studies—as a discipline of writing
theorists, teachers of writing, and most of all,
writers—perhaps most u...
RESPONDENT
John Willinsky
Stanford University
DISCUSSION
CCCC 2016 IP Caucus Panel - "Taking Action on Intellectual Property with Open Educational Resources" by James P. Purdy, Mi...
CCCC 2016 IP Caucus Panel - "Taking Action on Intellectual Property with Open Educational Resources" by James P. Purdy, Mi...
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CCCC 2016 IP Caucus Panel - "Taking Action on Intellectual Property with Open Educational Resources" by James P. Purdy, Mike Palmquist, David Blakesley, Joe Moxley, Jack Hennes, Nick Carbone, Sherry Jones, Charles Lowe, and John Willinsky (April 7, 2016)

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April 7, 2016 - I was 1 of 9 panelists on the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) 2016 IP Caucus Panel titled: "Taking Action on Intellectual Property with Open Educational Resources."

My proposal (for this panel presentation) is to use blockchain technology (the technology that underlies and powers bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies) to protect and maintain intellectual property rights for open educational resources. Particularly for the writing discipline, blockchain technology will help protect the IP rights of writers, and thus, will encourage more writers to publish their writings as OERs. The use of blockchain technology to create a "public ledger" of OERs, such as academic essays and artifacts, will have many implications for the writing pedagogy as well.

This presentation is co-authored by the following panelists:

James P. Purdy (Duquesne University)
Mike Palmquist (Colorado State University)
David Blakesley (Clemson University)
Joe Moxley (WritingCommons.org)
Jack Hennes (Michigan State University)
Nick Carbone (Macmillan)
Sherry Jones (Rocky Mountain College of Art & Design)
Charles Lowe (Grand Valley State University)
John Willinsky (Stanford University)

Published in: Education
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CCCC 2016 IP Caucus Panel - "Taking Action on Intellectual Property with Open Educational Resources" by James P. Purdy, Mike Palmquist, David Blakesley, Joe Moxley, Jack Hennes, Nick Carbone, Sherry Jones, Charles Lowe, and John Willinsky (April 7, 2016)

  1. 1. James P. Purdy Duquesne University
  2. 2. OVERVIEW • scholars will discuss their OER insights, questions, and initiatives for about 7 minutes each, particularly to address: – what should writing teacher–scholars know about OER? – what are benefits of OER? – what are concerns regarding and challenges of writing, using, and circulating OER? – what can OER advocates and projects learn from textbook publishers and vice versa? • John Willinsky will respond • we will open up the discussion to the audience
  3. 3. Mike Palmquist Colorado State University
  4. 4. Two Directions in an Open World Open Educational Resources • The Writing Studio at Colorado State University • The Unizin Consortium Open Access Publishing • The WAC Clearinghouse • The Colorado State University Open Press
  5. 5. Related, But Distinct, Purposes Open Edu Resources Open Access Writing Studio URL: writing.colostate.edu Visits: 25.1 million (5 years) Contributors: 350+ Student Accounts: 175,000 Instructor Accounts: 2,140 WAC Clearinghouse URL: wac.colostate.edu Visits: 6.4 million (5 years) Downloads: 10+ million Collaborations: Parlor Press, NCTE, U Press of Colorado, WVU Press CSU Open Press URL: press.colostate.edu Goal: Extend the WAC Clearinghouse Publishing Collaborative Model Current Projects: University Extension, Academic Labor, Scholarship of Teaching & Learning Unizin URL: Unizin.org OER Goals: Access, integration, and analytics
  6. 6. Common Themes Project Focus Start Resources Contributors Writing Studio OER 1993 Writing Environment LMS/CMS 15,000 page “textbook” 350+ (Historical) WAC Clearinghouse OA 1997 Books, Journals, Proceedings, Materials 100+ (Current) CSU Open Press OA 2015 Disciplinary Initiatives TBD Unizin Consortium OER 2014 Content Relay, LMS & Related Tools, Analytics 11 Major Universities Community | Collaboration | Coordination
  7. 7. Lessons Learned 1. Smart people working together can create good resources at low or no cost to users. 2. Committed leadership is necessary. 3. Peer review is essential; crowd-sourcing of rating and ranking can be substituted for traditional, front-end review. 4. Metadata is critical to long-term usefulness. 5. OER must stay current. It requires significant, ongoing investment of time and expertise.
  8. 8. Lessons Learned, continued 6. Don’t expect to “win” in a competitive business environment. Publishers and software vendors have significant resources, very smart people, leading expertise, and leading technology. Even modest success in OER and open-access publishing requires committed scholars and some cost or technology advantages. 7. Open-access publishers can establish productive relationships with traditional presses.
  9. 9. David Blakesley Clemson University
  10. 10. 1. What does it cost authors and publishers to create and publish OER? 2. What value does IP have as symbolic or intellectual capital for authors and publishers committed to OER? 3. What are the ethical responsibilities of individuals in a community dependent on the IP and OER of authors and publishers?
  11. 11. Joe Moxley WritingCommons.org
  12. 12. Since 2012: • 4.7 million users • 8 million page views “Using First Person in an Academic Essay: When is it Okay?” by Jenna Pack: 168,676 hits “How to Write an Engaging Introduction” by Jennifer Yirinec: 142,238 hits Writing Commons Access In 2015: • 4.7 million users • 8 million page views
  13. 13. • hacking is pervasive, destructive, and constant • it’s difficult to obtain original articles • gift culture is difficult to sustain over time • it’s possible to create a peer- produced, highly accessed textbook
  14. 14. Sample Frequently Viewed Pages Page Page views Author “Consider Your Audience” 262,934 Joseph Moxley “Using First Person in an Academic Essay: When is it Okay?” 165,573 Jenna Pack “How to Write an Engaging Introduction” 7, 562 Jennifer Yirinec “Memos” 5,734 Lee Ann Hodges
  15. 15. Jack Hennes Michigan State University
  16. 16. Tragedy of the OER Commons? • Garrett Hardin’s “Tragedy of the Commons?” can help us understand how we can rethink management and sustainability of the digital commons resources • Writing Commons: a case study for thinking of OER sustainability and management—especially on a large scale involving a number of interested people • sustainability and crowd-sourced cooperative management can serve as metaphors to help facilitate new generations of teacher–scholars to both use OERs and take powerful stances on commons resources
  17. 17. Nick Carbone Macmillan
  18. 18. • content matters, but… • competition and competitive strengths
  19. 19. Sherry Jones Rocky Mountain College of Art & Design Using Blockchain Technology to Maintain OERs and IPs
  20. 20. 3 Points to Address 1. Promoting the publication of OER alone is not enough to ensure recognition of IP. 2. OER + Blockchain Technology will be a possible solution for maintaining IP for both universities and educators/students. 3. Students will become publishers of OERs (and co-owners with universities of the IP of OERs).
  21. 21. rgMOOC: An OER Project • OER Project: rgMOOC (2013), formally known as “Rhetoric and Composition: The Persuasive Power of Video Games as Paratexts,” is a globally open-access English Composition II MOOC; the project was funded by the Colorado Immersive and Game- Based Learning Initiative; Jones served as the principal investigator and UX designer of the rgMOOC open access learning environment. The course was co-taught by Jones and Caruso. • OER Artifacts: All instructors and students made artifacts were published as OERs. • OER Publication Method: Artifacts were published on web 2.0, social media, and LOR. • OER Project Design Logic: 1) Enable instructors to share their materials with the world; 2) enable college and instructors/students maintain co-ownership over creative commons IP of all artifacts; 3) enable students to add their rgMOOC artifacts to online portfolios.
  22. 22. rgMOOC OER Artifact: Mightybell ● Asynchronous weekly discussions with alternate reality game (ARG) style YouTube videos were published on the Mightybell. ● Using avatar names (to protect privacy), students watched and answered questions publicly on Mightybell. ● All Mightybell discussions were published as OERs.
  23. 23. rgMOOC OER Artifact: Twitter ● Synchronous weekly Q & As, in the style of alternate reality games (ARG) were held on Twitter. ● Instructors, students, and anyone on the web communicated via avatar handles (to protect privacy). ● All Twitter prompts and responses were open access.
  24. 24. rgMOOC OER Artifact: Titanpad ● a synchronous 2 hours collaborative essay writing competition was held on Titanpad. ● 14–16 students per group co- authored multiple Titanpad essays. ● Students collectively published their works as OERs with rgMOOC attribution.
  25. 25. rgMOOC OER Artifact: Pathbrite ● All rgMOOC video tutorials were published as OERs on Pathbrite. ● Pathbrite served as the library or the “secret vault” of rgMOOC.
  26. 26. 3 Problems Encountered with rgMOOC OERs 1. OERs published within the college LOR system were hidden from public view (not open access). 2. OERs published on the web lacked permanence (technologies can change how and where information is displayed). 3. Creative Commons IP was not always recognized; those who borrowed rgMOOC materials did not provide proper CC attribution. Recognizing CC IP helps build author’s ethos (compensation is not of primary concern).
  27. 27. Proposal: Use Blockchain to Maintain OER IP (1 of 2) • What is Blockchain? Blockchain is a distributed database and public ledger technology that powers Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. • What does Blockchain do? It saves information in a “block” that is added to the end of a chain of records; it maintains permanence of the original information recorded and shared with a community by referencing previous records (all records are permanent and traceable). • Why is Blockchain revolutionary? It supports the “decentralization” of information, meaning that there is no need to store information in a central database, while maintaining records of all information with attribution to the originating creator/author. Eliminating chances of fraud and manipulation.
  28. 28. Blockchain Technology in Banking Illustrated Image Source: http://www.forbes.com/sites/vivekravisankar/2015/11/01/blockchain-the- decentralization-of-cs-education/#56b123936576
  29. 29. Proposal: Use Blockchain to Maintain OER IP (2 of 2) • Blockchain in Education? On Feb. 22, 2016, Sony Global Education (a division of Sony) announced that it is using blockchain to house educational data for association with a “universal education ID.” • Blockchain Supports IP? Melanie Swan, founder of Institute for Blockchain Studies and affiliate scholar of IEET, predicts that “blockchain could replace or supplement all existing IP management systems” (Swan, 2015, VII, Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy). • Blockchain for OERs? Since blockchain will help maintain OER permanence and traceability, it eliminate the need to save OERs on centralized databases, such as LOR.
  30. 30. Implications of Blockchain for Higher Education, Writers/Authors, and the Teaching of Writing • Higher Education: 1) Colleges can leverage blockchain technology to document all educational records, and to ensure that all student-made-artifacts will carry both the colleges’ and students’ information (co-ownership of IP) in a blockchain; 2) plagiarism checking will be made obsolete by blockchain. • Writers/Authors: 1) Can claim authorship over a piece of writing no matter how many copies of that same writing exist; 2) self-publishing is supported with no fear of IP loss. • Teaching of Writing: Encourage students to collaborate and publish writings, in a community of writers, for real audiences as OERs (supporting the mission of WAC and WID), while upholding both college and students’ co-ownership of IP.
  31. 31. Further Readings on Blockchain and Education • Cavanagh, Sean. “Can K-12 Schools Take Advantage of Blockchain Tech?” Government Technology. 17 March 2016. • Levin, Doug. “10 Things to Know about the Future of Blockchain in Education.” EdTech Strategies. 10 March 2016. • McGonigal, Jane. “How to Think and Learn Like a Futurist.” SXSW 2016. Keynote Presentation. 9 March 2016. • Melendez, Steven. “MIT’s New Blockchain Project Enigma Wants to Let You Share Your Data On Your Terms.” Fast Company. 23 December 2015. • Mok, Kimberly. “How One School is Using Bitcoin Blockchain to Authenticate Degrees.” The New Stack. December 2015. • Ravisankar, Vivek. “Blockchain and the Decentralization of CS Education. Forbes. 1 November 2015. • “Sony Global Education Develops Technology Using Blockchain for Open Sharing of Academic Proficiency and Progress Records.” Sony Global Education. 22 February 2016. • Swan, Melanie. Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy. 1st Ed. O’Reilly Media, Inc. CA: 2015. • Watters, Audrey. “Blockchain for Education: A Research Project.” Hack Education. 25 February 2016.
  32. 32. Charles Lowe Grand Valley State University
  33. 33. • Isn’t writing studies—as a discipline of writing theorists, teachers of writing, and most of all, writers—perhaps most uniquely suited to create our own textbooks out of all of academia? • What is the impact on the development of theory of the teaching of writing by continuing to outsource textbooks?
  34. 34. RESPONDENT
  35. 35. John Willinsky Stanford University
  36. 36. DISCUSSION

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