Streams, sockets and filters oh my!


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Given at Tek-X This is my "original" streams talk and there was entirely too much information for an hour talk

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  • Who am I, and why should you listen to me?Windows buildsCairo, PHP-Gtk, Win\\GuiUsing PHP since php 4 betaHow I got involved in PHP community and why you should tooHow I got interested in streams – the huge template debate – there were lots more but it was basically the argument that PHP is a templating language and the desire to have some really cool features using streams1 minute
  • Quick computer science lessonOriginally done with magic numbers in fortran, C and unix standardized the way it workedOn Unix and related systems based on the C programming language, a stream is a source or sink of data, usually individual bytes or characters. Streams are an abstraction used when reading or writing files, or communicating over network sockets. The standard streams are three streams made available to all programs.Who else uses them? Most languages descended from C have the “files as streams concept” and ways to extend the IO functionality beyond merely files, this allows them to be merged all togetherGreat way to standardize the way data is grabbed and usedQuestions on who has used streams in other languages
  • Little joke about why terminology can make a big difference whether you are reading a manual or simply asking for help, knowing what you’re asking about can make all the differenceTerminology comes in three parts – the top three are the components of the PHp streams API, a stream, a network stream (or just socket), and a filter These three are what the majority of the talk is aboutThe next three – transport, wrapper, and context, are things that PHP uses to make streams workThe final two are related to how PHP streams are defined and used in source codeOne thing that may get confusing is that sockets – sockets are “network streams” – a specific kind of streamAlthough separate in some languages, in PHP socket and streams are often all mixed up together even though they behave differently.
  • What is streamablebehavorior? We’ll get to that in a bitProtocol: set of rules which is used by computers to communicate with each other across a networkResource: A resource is a special variable, holding a reference to an external resourceTalk about resources in PHP and talk about general protocols, get a list from the audience of protocols they can name (yes http is a protocol)A socket is a special type of stream – pound this into their headsA socket is an endpoint of communication to which a name can be bound. A socket has a type and one associated process. Sockets were designed to implement the client-server model for interprocess communication where:
  • Inphp , a wrapper ties the stream to the transport – so your http wrapper ties your PHP data to the http transport and tells it how to behave when reading and writing dataYour context can not only give options to your wrappers/filters/transports but also
  • How the schemes for the streams filters work. The php stream is “magic” because it lets you tack on filters for things that don’t leave a file pointer lying around (include, file_get_contents)Basically this is a version of a URI – only not quite. Because we really can’t seem to make anything truly standard in PHP
  • Any good extension will use the underlying streams API to let you use any kind of streamfor example, cairo does thisstuff to work with PHP streams is spread across at least two portions of the manual, plus appendixes for the build in transports/filters/context options. It’s very poorly arranged so be sure to take the time to learn where to look in the manual – there should be three main places
  • PHP streams are a very very big topic, could spend days talking about themInstead we’re going to take a look at streams in several waysSo going for progressively more difficult stuffSo what’s the basic stream that everyone uses? It’s not even stdin or stdout – it’s the most basic of all file://Who has ever used fopen or include? Any of those calls are actually using the streams layer in PHP
  • All input and output comes into PHPIt gets pushed through a streams filterThen through the streams wrapper,Then through a stream transportDuring this point the stream context is available for all three – the filter wrapper and transport, to useStreams themselves are the “objects” coming inTransports are the “classes” defining how to deal with the streamWrappers are the “glue” that make them work
  • Streams are a huge underlying component of PHPStreams were introduced with PHP 4.3.0 as a way of generalizing file, network, data compression, and other operations which share a common set of functions and uses. In its simplest definition, a stream is a resource object which exhibits streamable behavior. That is, it can be read from or written to in a linear fashion, and may be able to fseek() to an arbitrary locations within the stream. Why is this better ?Lots and lots of data in small chunks lets you do large volumes without maxing out memory and cpu
  • Some notes – file_get_contents and it’s cousin stream_get_contents are your fastest most efficient way if you need the whole fileFile(blah) is going to be the best way to get the whole file split by linesBoth are going to stick the whole file into memory at some point.For very large files and to help with memory consumption, the use of fgets and fread will help
  • Error handling is a major pain with the file system code in PHP, and with streams codeThere is no way to deal with “expected errors” and the code is noisy with warnings. Your best bet is to have an error handler registered to deal with warnings when using file system stuffYou can also use some of the spl file classes – such as splfileobject – to do some of the filesystem functions in an object oriented wayFlock issues are numerousEverything has to be using php’s flock – you can use locking in python with php’s flock and expect it to workYes it works on windows – but it does NOT work on threaded servers (cgi yes, mod_php no)Some versions of linux have broken flock implementationsIs not going to work on network sharesRemember a wrapper/transport is going to define the PHP streams stuff it supports. Some don’t implement the functionality needed for things like mkdir or is_dir, some arent’ seekable
  • A filter is a final piece of code which may perform operations on data as it is being read from or written to a stream. Any number of filters may be stacked onto a stream. Custom filters can be defined in a PHP script using stream_filter_register() or in an extension using the API Reference in Working with streams. To access the list of currently registered filters, use stream_get_filters(). Stream data is read from resources (both local and remote) in chunks, with any unconsumed data kept in internal buffers. When a new filter is prepended to a stream, data in the internal buffers, which has already been processed through other filters will not be reprocessed through the new filter at that time. This differs from the behavior of stream_filter_append(). Filters are nice for manipulating data on the fly – but remember you’ll be getting data in chunks, so your filter needs to be smart enough to handle that
  • Filters can be appended or prepended – and attached to READ or WRITENotice that stream_filter_prepend and append are smart – if you opened with the r flag, by default it’ll attach to read, if you opened with the w flag, it will attach to writeNote: Stream data is read from resources (both local and remote) in chunks, with any unconsumed data kept in internal buffers. When a new filter is prepended to a stream, data in the internal buffers, which has already been processed through other filters will not be reprocessed through the new filter at that time. This differs from the behavior of stream_filter_append(). Note: When a filter is added for read and write, two instances of the filter are created. stream_filter_prepend() must be called twice with STREAM_FILTER_READ and STREAM_FILTER_WRITE to get both filter resources.
  • Well it may look like manipulating data in a variable is preferable to the above. But the above is just a simple example. Once you add a filter to a stream it basically hides all the implementation details from the user. You will be unaware of the data being manipulated in a stream.And also the same filter can be used with any stream (files, urls, various protocols etc.) without any changes to the underlying code.Also multiple filters can be chained together, so that the output of one can be the input of another.The filters need an input state and an output state. And they need torespect the the fact that number of requested bytes does not necessarilymean reading the same amount of data on the other end. In fact the outputside does generally not know whether less, the same amount or more input isto be read. But this can be dealt with inside the filter. However thefilters should return the number input vs the number of output filtersalways independently. Regarding states we would be interested if reachingEOD on the input state meant reaching EOD on the output side prior to therequested amount, at the requested amount or not at all yet (more dataavailable).
  • Sockets are just like "worm holes" in science fiction. When things go into one end, they (should) come out of the other. According to the unix socketsfaqIn fact, if you are using Unix, sockets actually are filesAnyway – so if sockets are these worm holes and we can use them just like files with our fwrite, and fread and friends, we can have fun
  • By default sockets are going to assume tcp – since that’s a pretty standard way of doing things. Notice that we have to do things the old fashioned way just for this simple http request – sticking our headers together, making sure stuff gets closed. However if you can’t use allow_url_fopen this is a way around ita dirty dirty way but – there you have itremember allow_url_fopen only stops “drive-by” hacking
  • Some quick notes:blocking is like sleeping – it’s synchronous – nothing is going to happen until it’s doneYou can use stream_set_blocking to get around this – which means reads and writes will fail instead of blockingyou have to check the values from fread and fwrite and if they’re zero, try again (send the data again)you’ll need internal buffering and feof has no meaningthis is buggy as hell under windows – particularly with processes – works really quite well with sockets – mixed results with streams\\your mileage may varyYou can use stream_set_timeout – defaults to 60 seconds, after that sets “timed_out” in meta data and returns empty string/zerotimeouts are really only useful with one socketblocking is a PAIN to get working correctly but very useful when doing a lot of things at oncestream_select is also buggy on windows – especially with processes (the processes stuff with PHP on windows is …. icky)it does timeouts and blocking basically – tells you when what you want to do will NOT blockfeof does NOT MEAN CONNECTION CLOSEDit means either a read failed and the buffer is empty ORbuffer is empty and there is no data within the timeoutYou’re moving data across the black hole – do yourself a favor and do it in little chunks. Will make the world a better placeand while stream_get_meta_data has some awesome information don’t be poking at it, it’s for information purposes only
  • Avoid the old sockets extension unless you really really know what you’re doingMost of the things you used to need the sockets extension for you no longer dothose last two functions, stream socket server and stream socket client make doing a client/server relationship really easy with much less codeIt’s sometimes hard to find examples on the stream_socket stuff since most of the old stuff on the internet still uses the sockets extensionDon’t follow their lead, take the time to read the php documentation and use the new APIs
  • pipes are like sockets but only go one waystdin, stdout,stderr are all pipesproc_open and popen do pipesSTDIN/out/err are some really nifty magic in PHP, we’ll get to them later, but they’re easy ways to access and write to standard pipes from PHPproc_open is popen on steroidsyou can do mutiple pipes and suppress that ugly black box on windows and perform other black magicYou DO have to be careful if you are using this stuff, remember windows is going to act quite a bit differently in some cases – proc_open and popen are interesting on there at best
  • A context is a set of parameters and wrapper specific options which modify or enhance the behavior of a stream. There is really only one parameter that can be set for streams and that is the notification callbackso you can assign a callback to your stream that is called when things happen – check for the notify constant coming it – the possible values are available in the manual, then do something (logging maybe) depending on what is happening with the streamoptions are really the more useful of the twoBasically they’re arrays of settings that are then made available – if you need additional data inside a custom stream wrapper contexts are going to be the way to go
  • So now we’re going to take a look at all the shiny C level transport stuff available for the systemThis is stuff not only available and built in to PHP by default, but also stuff available with additional extensions. There are several extensions that provide additional built in transports, streams and filters – we’ll hit the coolest oneswarning: quite a lot of this stuff is going to be affected by allow_url_include and allow_url_fopenit’s probably better for security reasons that at least allow_url_include is turned off – but allow_url_fopen, you could really argue that either wayBottom line is when you have something so powerful you can replace a regular file include with a remote include from a url you need to be extra carefulSecurity should be your first name, not just your middle name, when dealing with streams and filters
  • These are the native built in streams for PHP – no extension necessaryNote that the file:// is considered the default and no prefix means “file” to PHPglob is an odd duck, new since PHP 5.3data is available since 5.2 and follows the RFC 2397http and ftp are pretty self-explanatory – both have context settings that make them really useful
  • It’s all in the contextall the http functionality is controlled by the context settings – if you go to there’s an appendix with all the context settings available for the http (and https) requestsmethod , header, user_agent,content, proxy , request_fulluri,max_redirects,protocol_version ,timeout ,ignore_errors are just a few available.This may seem VERY backward – but content goes in the context and then you do a file_get_contents, even when POSTing or putting data (which feels a bit odd but it’s the way the http stream is implemented)
  • You do need to note that there are two kinds of “transports” – those you can use with regular streams and those that are socketscontrary to popular believe the https/ftps/ssl and tls stuff is not really built into PHP by default –it’s part of the open ssl extension. However, the streams will register even when using openssl as a shared module, just make sure you’re loading it via .ini and not dl() – you could get some interesting behaviors.Ssh2 has the majority of it’s api – especially sftpapi, totally done with streams, which takes a bit of getting used to at first but it is a very powerful if not very verbose way of doing things. It does make it possible to drop in ssh2 stream paths where regular file actions used to be completely transparentlyThe compression stuff is often taken for granted as well since most PHP systems have zlib installed, and often bzip tooogg and exprect exist as well and are a little more esoteric, not many people use them so I don’t have examples for themPhar is a really really cool way to package up apps and have them “just run”
  • example of how to do instant payment notifications at paypal – a lot of the script is chopped out – for example building the headers and request data, but the basics of build your data, then open your fsockopen and do your fputs to send the dataWhy do we do the craziness with feof?Because the socket can hang forever! If a connection opened by fsockopen() wasn't closed by the server, feof() will hangHanging while feof is very very badYou have to be careful in general with feofReturns TRUE if the file pointer is at EOF or an error occurs (including socket timeout); otherwise returns FALSE
  • First we create the connection and auth – you can also use keyfiles with ssh2Then we’re going to use exec to clear out the old files first, notice the stream set blocking – we’re saying “wait until this sucks is done and you get something back”Then clean up after ourselves – there is an ssh2.exec:// stream, but it makes little sense here, we’re not going to use the output of the exec for anythingThen we do and is_dir on the remote and mkdir, and copy our files overNote the user of the actual resource in the url – that’s some really dirty magic under the covers in PHP to make that work
  • Some things to note about phars:they aren’t affected by allow_url_fopen (they can NEVER work on remote files)requires system-level disabling of the phar.readonly php.ini setting in order to create or modify phar archivesIf you’re usingphar without an exectuable stuff (just for zip or tar archives) that limitation is not in placePhars are really quite awesome. Note that phar is on by default for 5.3openssl can be used for signingzlib and bzip can be used for compression – but both of these are optional for phar
  • The string filters are… well slightly less then useful. The only really useful thing about them is you can use some clever php magic to transparently stick them on a fileReally limited in usefulness – what would make them more useful?However, if you’re writing a PHP extension and need to see how the filter stuff works under the hood grab /ext/standard/filters.c and you’ll see some great examples
  • The convert filters are also not really usefulWhat does that star means? means there’s a whole bunch of convert options available but it’s all linked into one wildcard filterhowever, the open in the PHP source checks for these four itemsThese probably aren’t useful in most of your work, unless you’re doing some evil mail stuffThis is most useful for seeing how a filter handles a wildcard situation – you can register and deal with your own wildcard filters if you wantdechunk does exactly what it says and deals with chunked encodingThe consumed one is a bit of an odd duck – it eats the data and basically throws it away
  • There are some extensions with some filters, and oddly enough they tend to be much more usefulon the fly compression ( a filter is actually more useful then a stream in some caseson the fly encryption, on the fly iconv conversion!
  • Internet Domain sockets expect a port number in addition to a target address. In the case of fsockopen() this is specified in a second parameter and therefore does not impact the formatting of transport URL. With stream_socket_client() and related functions as with traditional URLs however, the port number is specified as a suffix of the transport URL delimited by a colon. unix:// provides access to a socket stream connection in the Unix domain. udg:// provides an alternate transport to a Unix domain socket using the user datagram protocol. Unix domain sockets, unlike Internet domain sockets, do not expect a port number. In the case of fsockopen() the portno parameter should be set to 0.
  • php://stdin, php://stdout and php://stderr allow direct access to the corresponding input or output stream of the PHP process. The stream references a duplicate file descriptor, so if you open php://stdin and later close it, you close only your copy of the descriptor--the actual stream referenced by STDIN is unaffected. Note that PHP exhibited buggy behavior in this regard until PHP 5.2.1. It is recommended that you simply use the constants STDIN, STDOUT and STDERR instead of manually opening streams using these wrappers.php://output allows you to write to the output buffer mechanism in the same way as print() and echo(). php://input allows you to read raw POST data. It is a less memory intensive alternative to $HTTP_RAW_POST_DATA and does not need any special php.ini directives. php://input is not available with enctype="multipart/form-data". php://stdin and php://input are read-only, whereas php://stdout, php://stderr and php://output are write-only. php://filter is a kind of meta-wrapper designed to permit the application of filters to a stream at the time of opening. This is useful with all-in-one file functions such as readfile(), file(), and file_get_contents() where there is otherwise no opportunity to apply a filter to the stream prior the contents being read. so you’re getting a filter and sticking it on a resource – read filter chain, write filter chain, Any filter lists which are not prefixed specifically by read= or write= will be applied to both the read and write chains (as appropriate). The php://memory wrapper stores the data in the memory. php://temp behaves similarly, but uses a temporary file for storing the data when a certain memory limit is reached (the default is 2 MB). The php://temp wrapper takes the following 'parameters' as parts of its 'path': /maxmemory:<number of bytes> (optional). This parameter allows changing the default value for the memory limit (when the data is moved to a temporary file). so you can actually manage the memory limit for when the data moves to a temp file
  • This is actually from Ciaran McNulty ‘s blog and it was such a perfect example of how PHP streams can make your life easierWhat if later you need to copy that file from ssh or it’s compressed with a different algorithm? That’s a lot of code tweaks. Where as in the second version simply changing the stream is enough to fix it
  • Custom streams and filters are very useful tools, they let you have all kinds of power over how your application actsThrough filter and stream chaining you can link several types of streams together for some very powerful actionsUserland filters are not constrained by allow_url_fopen, but if they try to use streams internally they will failObjects for userland streams may not work the way you expect, so you’ll need to test your stuff pretty carefullyFor better or worse, stream contexts are read only inside a stream wrapper. If you try to change them very bad things can happen
  • There should be interfaces for streamsYes I have a patchYes I am a bad bad girl for not getting that patch in yetThere are a small list of functions that you absolutely must implement in order to make a custom stream workCustom streams allow you to control the behavior of your data but there are some things you need to knowWhy it is a good idea to implement your own interfaces for streams – THERE ARE NO CHECKS ON wrapper_register. The only checks you’ll get is when the call actually takes place that you want to wrap (less than useful)
  • This is usually the heart of a custom stream wrapper. It’s important that you Return true or falseCheck options for STREAM_USE_PATH – if that’s set then you must put the actual path you used into opened_pathIf path is relative, search for the resource using the include_path is what it meansThe mode will be identical to the modes for fopen – so you’ll get a string you’ll need to check. Make sure you’re checking for bad modes! Path can generally be broken up pretty efficiently with url_parse since the general format of a PHP stream path is identical to a url ;)If you support contexts, $this->context will have the data that is being set/passed around inside your current stream context.The constructor of your class IS called every time before stream_open!
  • You’ll generally want to be keeping track of the current position of your stream pointer in your class. Generally you do this with a position class property. For fread, you’ll want to update that with the number of bytes that are actually read, not necessarily the number requested by fread.warning! if you return an empty string PHP is going to treat it as “false” AND returning false does not necessarily indicate eof, so be careful when you implement this.However you MUST make it return false or ‘’ at some point, or it’ll infinite loop and NEVER call eof for file_get_contents for fread/fgest
  • If you don’t’ have enough room for all the data that you’re sent, write as much as possibleIf the return value is greater the length of data, E_WARNING will be emitted and the return value will truncated to its length.
  • Feof is kind of a magical thing. It’ll end up being called all over the place when you least expect it!.Notice that the constructor is NOT called before a eofThis is called with feof, file_get_contents, fread. Anything that might need to know if we’re all done with data. So this should probably be the second thing you implement in your stream wrapperJust like stream_open you need to return true or false and can access any context information, but it has no parameters passed.
  • You need to put up your cleanup stuff here, because if you put it in a PHP destructor you can get some really really odd behaviorNote this method doesn’t give you anything (no params) and you shouldn’t return anything (well you can but it won’t do you any good)this is a bit broken though! if you don’t implement stream_close it doesn’t throw a warning unlike the other methods. It’s generally safest to always implement stream_close
  • file_get_contents is going to call this! and just about everything else under the sun – you really need to have it implemented.Notice there are slightly different semantics between the two – url_stat is going to give you a path and optionally flags to deal withSTREAM_URL_STAT_LINK For resources with the ability to link to other resource (such as an HTTP Location: forward, or a filesystemsymlink). This flag specified that only information about the link itself should be returned, not the resource pointed to by the link. This flag is set in response to calls to lstat(), is_link(), or filetype().STREAM_URL_STAT_QUIET If this flag is set, your wrapper should not raise any errors. If this flag is not set, you are responsible for reporting errors using the trigger_error() function during stating of the path.
  • Generally you need to implement both if your stream is going to have any kind of seekable behaviorflushing again – you generally only need to implement this if you’re doing some buffering or caching in your custom stream layer
  • If your wrapper does not support any directory functionality – do NOT define these in your class
  • Implementing these is REALLY going to depend on what you’re doing and how you’re implementing it and what you want to do with your streamLocking This method is called in response to flock(), when file_put_contents() (when flags contains LOCK_EX), stream_set_blocking() and when closing the stream (LOCK_UN). - Portable advisory file locking
  • so for custom filters you’re going to extend this php_filter_classThis class predates any internal PHP classes, so it predates the naming conventions (and of course we NEVER EVER want to break BC)I really want a nice abstract class for this… So you extend the class and then use stream_register_filter to register itRemember you can “wildcard” your user stream to do multiple filters in one
  • This method is called during instantiation of the filter class object. If your filter allocates or initializes any other resources (such as a buffer), this is the place to do it. Your implementation of this method should return FALSE on failure, or TRUE on success. When your filter is first instantiated, and yourfilter->onCreate() is called, a number of properties will be available as shown in the table below.
  • A string containing the name the filter was instantiated with. Filters may be registered under multiple names or under wildcards. Use this property to determine which name was usedThe contents of the params parameter passed to stream_filter_append() or stream_filter_prepend()The stream resource being filtered. Maybe available only during filter calls when the closing parameter is set to FALSE.
  • This method is called upon filter shutdown (typically, this is also during stream shutdown), and is executed after the flush method is called.
  • PSFS_PASS_ON Filter processed successfully with data available in the outbucket brigade.PSFS_FEED_ME Filter processed successfully, however no data was available to return. More data is required from the stream or prior filter. PSFS_ERR_FATAL (default) The filter experienced an unrecoverable error and cannot continue. Note that you CANNOT change that signature – you MUST accept consumed by referenceClosing tells you if the filter
  • Sometimes a picture is worth a thousand wordsthis is how data is handled in filters – the bucket brigade is the line of people passing those buckets full of water (or in our case data) to the fire
  • So – you get a bucket (using stream_bucket_make_writeable)The name is a misnomer – what it is actually doing is grabbing a bucket from the brigade… it’s the handoffSo we get the handoff and then we do something to itBuckets are actually a little object with a datalen and data insideThen when we’re done with it, we append to preprend it to the out brigade (we’re done with the bucket, we filled it with water, we’re passing it off)Note that you can also create an entirely NEW bucket and whack it into brigade if you want!You’ll most definitely want to keep track of your current state in your filter class. Remember you can rip data out of the bucket, store it in an internal property … and then say “feed me” to get more data
  • So enough of the runaround, we’ve learned what PHP streams and filters are, we’ve learned how to use them, we’ve learned how to use built in streams, filters, and transports and how to create custom streams and filters. Now lets take a look at a couple of use cases for PHP streamsA use case in software engineering and systems engineering is a description of a system’s behavior as it responds to a request that originates from outside of that system. In other words, a use case describes "who" can do "what" with the system in question. The use case technique is used to capture a system's behavioral requirements by detailing scenario-driven threads through the functional requirements.So what is a use case and why are we bothering – so many times I hear “these are awesome, but when would I ever use it?”
  • Theoretical company wants to store lots of dataNeeds a way to transparently change where and how that data is storedHave to keep it flexible enough that when the next guy down the line changes his mind as to HOW the data is stored minimal changes will be necessary
  • This also filters over into using an entire template system based on streams instead of really abstract object orientation – this allows the implementation to be very simple and to get complex behavior, you add in custom filters and streamstalk about zend frameworks stream wrapper and phpbb’stemplating using it as well
  • So this is actually a clever idea I found in a piece of code by Wez Furlong - mtrack (basically a trac clone in PHP)
  • Now is question time
  • Streams, sockets and filters oh my!

    1. 1.  Idea originating in 1950’s  Standard way to get Input and Output A source or sink of dataDefinitions   C – stdin, stderr, stdout  C++ iostreamWho uses them  Perl IO  Python io  Java  C#
    2. 2. Είναι πολύ σημαντικό νακατανοήσουμε τους  Stream  Socketόρους ότι το εγχειρίδιοχρησιμοποιεί για ναεξηγήσει πώς PHP κάνειρέματα.  FilterAnd NOT in Greek:It is very important tounderstand the terms that  Transportthe manual uses toexplain how PHP does  Wrapperstreams.  Context  Scheme  Target
    3. 3.  Stream › Resource that exhibits a flow or sucession of data Socket › Bidirectional network stream that speaks a protocol Filter › Performs operations on data as it is read from or written to a stream
    4. 4.  Transport › Tells a network stream how to communicate Wrapper › Tells a stream how to handle specific protocols and encodings Context › A set of parameters and options to tell a stream (or socket or filter) how to behave
    5. 5.  Scheme › The name of the wrapper to be used. file, http, https, ftp, etc. Target › Depends on the wrapper, filesystem uses a string path name, ssh2 uses a PHP resource home/bar/foo.txt file:///home/bar/foo.txt php://filter/read=string.toupper|string.rot13/resource =
    6. 6.  EVERYTHING include/require _once stream functions file system functions many other extensions
    7. 7. What are and how to useStreams, Sockets and Filters
    8. 8. Stream Contexts Stream Stream StreamALL IO Filter Wrapper Transport
    9. 9.  Access input and output generically Can write and read linearly May or may not be seekable Comes in chunks of data
    10. 10.  flock transport and wrapper limitations non-existent pointers (infinite loops can and will happen) error handling
    11. 11.  Performs operations on stream data Can be prepended or appended (even on the fly) Can be attached to read or write When a filter is added for read and write, two instances of the filter are created.
    12. 12.  Data has an input and output state When reading in chunks, you may need to cache in between reads to make filters useful Use the right tool for the job
    13. 13.  Network Stream, Network Transport, Socket Transport Slightly different behavior from a file stream Bi-directional data
    14. 14.  Sockets block › stream_set_blocking › stream_set_timeout › stream_select feof means “connection_closed”? huge reads or writes (think 8K) stream_get_meta_data is READ ONLY
    15. 15.  New APIS in streams and filesystem functions are replacements Extension is old and not really kept up to date (bit rot) Extension is more low level stream_socket_server stream_socket_client
    16. 16.  Pipes STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR proc_open popen
    17. 17.  Parameters Options Modify or enhance a stream stream_context_set_param stream_context_set_option stream_context_create
    18. 18. Streams, Stream Transports,and Filters all available bydefault
    19. 19.  file:// http:// ftp:// data:// glob://
    20. 20.  SSL  Phar › https:// › phar:// › ftps://  Zlib › ssl:// › compress.zlib:// › tls:// › zlib:// SSH  Bzip › › compress.bz2:// › ssh2.exec:// › ssh2.tunnel:// › ssh2.sftp:// › ssh2.scp://
    21. 21.  string filters › string.rot13 › string.toupper › string.tolower › string.strip_tags
    22. 22.  convert filters › convert.*  base64-encode  base64-decode  quoted-printable-encode  quoted-printable-decode dechunk › decode remote HTTP chunked encoding streams consumed › eats data (that’s all it does)
    23. 23.  bzip.compress and bzip.compress convert.iconv.* zlib.inflate and zlib.deflate mcrypt.* and mdecrypt.*
    24. 24.  tcp udp unix udg SSL extension › ssl › sslv2 › sslv3 › tls
    25. 25.  php://stdin php://stdout php://stderr php://output php://input php://filter (5.0.0) php://memory (5.1.0) php://temp (5.1.0)
    26. 26. Userland Filters and Streams
    27. 27.  There are no interfaces Implement as though there were an interface Seekable is optional Flushable is optional Directory support is optional
    28. 28.  fopen  file_get_contentsInformation  Return true or false  $this->context will have any context metadataCode
    29. 29.  fread  fgets  file_get_contentsInformation  etc…  Return string data or false  $this->context will have any context metadataCode
    30. 30.  fwrite  file_put_contentsInformation  get in a string of data to deal with  return how many bytes you wroteCode
    31. 31.  feof  file_get_contents  freadInformation  etc…  Return true or false  $this->context will have any context metadataCode
    32. 32.  fclose  file_get_contentsInformation  Don’t return anything  any cleanup should go hereCode
    33. 33.  fstat calls stream_stat EVERYTHING ELSE uses url_stat Good idea to do both Return an array of data identical to stat()
    34. 34.  stream_seek stream_tell stream_flush
    35. 35.  mkdir rmdir dir_closedir dir_opendir dir_readdir dir_rewinddir
    36. 36.  stream_lock stream_cast rename unlink
    37. 37.  Extend an internal class php_user_filter It’s not abstract… Yes that’s a horrible name Remember this pre-dates php 5.0 decisions
    38. 38.  onCreate  basically a constructor Called every time PHP needs a new filterInformation  (on every stream)  return true or falseCode
    39. 39.  php_user_filter › $this->filtername › $this->params › $this->stream
    40. 40.  onClose  basically a destructorInformation  no returnCode
    41. 41.  MUST return › PSFS_PASS_ON › PSFS_FEED_MEInformation › PSFS_ERR_FATAL  You get buckets of data and do stuff to themCode
    42. 42.  $in and $out are “bucket brigades” containing opaque “buckets” of data You can only touch buckets and brigades with the stream_bucket_* functions You get a bucket using stream_bucket_make_writeable
    43. 43. Use Case land – when streamsmake sense
    44. 44.  Data in s3 Data locally during development Easy switch out if alternative storage is ever desired Storing image files
    45. 45.  Existing Zend Framework Code Register the s3:// wrapper Use a configuration setting for the stream to use for all images on the system
    46. 46.  Store and edit template files in a database Have the snappiness of including from disk Minimal Configuration
    47. 47.  db:// stream simple stream wrapper that looks for the template in the db, and writes it to the filesystem before returning the data The cached location is FIRST in the include path, so if it fails, the db stream gets hit
    48. 48.  Talk to mercurial (hg binary) hg communicates via command line continue to pipe additional commands
    49. 49.  Use proc_open to keep a pipe to the binary going Pass commands through stdin pipe as necessary Abstract this out to other binaries that are used by the system
    50. 50.  Elizabeth Marie Smith -file-operations-using-php-stream-wrappers