English Language Teaching ,professional development and teachernarratives in present day educationalcontexts of compulsory schoolingMg Silvana BarboniUniversidad Nacional de La Plata
Ongoing educational debates centre aroundPARTICIPATION and SOCIAL JUSTICEHow are we participating in those debates?From ELT we have traditionally addressed questions ofINTECULTURALITY and how ELT fosters interculturaldialogue
InterculturalityIt involves being open to, interested in, curious about andempathetic towards people from (any) other cultures.Interculturality is the capacity to experience cultural othernessand use it to:-reflect on matters that are usually taken for granted within one’sown culture and environment;- evaluate one’s own everyday patterns of perception, thought,feeling and behaviour in order to develop greater self-knowledgeand self-understanding;- act as mediators among people of different cultures, to explainand interpret different perspectives.
Ongoing educational debates centre aroundPARTICIPATION and SOCIAL JUSTICEHow are we participating in those debates?INTECULTURALITYand intercultural dialoguerelationship betweenKNOWLEDGE & TECHNOLOGYAnd how ELT mediates in that relationship
Present day debates are focusing on a deeperunderstanding of the relationship betweenKNOWLEDGE & TECHNOLOGYin our knowledge societiesand how this relationship shapes PARTICIPATION andSOCIAL JUSTICE.
Knowledge societiesThose in which different forms ofproduction (using science and technology)and distribution (using new communicationtechnologies) of knowledge have becomefundamental processes in the tapestry ofthese societies (Dominguez Rubio andBaert, 2012).
This conceptualisation of the knowledge society creates anew agenda for the State, current administration and publicpolicies because of three main aspects of the knowledgesociety:1.knowledge becomes key to understand new forms ofeconomic accumulation and development.2.the sociocognitive relationships that are established arebased on new social, cultural and political articulations andbring about changes in the way relationships are establishedat both an interpersonal and institutional levels.3.by taking advantage of a diversity circulating bulks ofknowledge, new possibilities in the generation of goods andservices are developed, as well as new cultural goods andlearning trajectories.
The relationship between knowledgeand technology shapes participationand social justice in 2 distinct ways
1. DEVELOPMENTO OF THE SOUTHproduction and distribution of knowledge have becomecentral processes in the generation of value in capitalisteconomies. “surdesarrollo” in terms of the wayknowledge and technology can help add value to primaryexploitation of natural resources in a region which hashistorically been characterised as the source of primaryresources namely from mining and agriculturalexploitation.
2. CITIZENSHIPthe paradox of knowledge and non-knowledgeNew knowledge, under the conditions presented by theknowledge society, brings about uncertainty and risksrequiring citizens´participation before the ethic andpolitical debates generated by knowledge.both knowledge intensive as well as uncertainty intensive
The flexible and sustained mastery ofa repertoire of practices through oral,written or multimedia texts containinga variety of semiotic systems used fordifferent purposes in different contexts(Luke and Freebody, 2000; Ansteyand Bull, 2006).
DIGITAL LITERACYlearners need to:* develop an understanding on how digital content iscreated making use of images, text, sound andlanguages considering communicative purposes.* become aware of the collective responsibility forconstruction and distribution of knowledge in a connectedworld, "the collective intelligence". So, developing digitalliteracy at school is not about learning to use softwareper se but rather learning to operate with this "collectiveintelligence" with discernment and responsibility usingmultiliteracies.
The multiliterate person canInterpret, use and produceElectronic, live and paper texts that employ linguistic,visual, auditory, gestural and spatial semiotic systemsforsocial, cultural, political, civic and economic purposesinsocially and culturally diverse contexts(Anstey and Bull, 2006: 41)
Translanguaging:The multiple discursive practices in which bilingualsengage in order to make sense of their bilingual worlds.It is a systematic, strategic, affiliative and sense makingprocess.Bilinguals tanslanguage to include and facilitatecommunication with others, but also to construct deeperunderstandings and make sense of their worlds.
Challenge before teachers:Mediate LITERACY in particularcontexts of compulsory schooling forPARTICIPATION AND SOCIALJUSTICE.
Social Justice“Bilingual teaching combines two or more languages andcultures. It is thus important for equity between the twolanguages and content to be established, and for students ofall linguistic and cultural backgrounds to be recognised asknowers (Freire, 1970)…. This principle… enables thecreation of a learning context which is not threatening tostudents´identities but that builds multiplicities of languageuses and linguistic identities, while maintaining academicrigour and upholding high expectations.” (García, 2009: 318)4 dimensions:•Equity• Language tolerance• Expectations and rigor• Assessment
Social practice“Places learning through an additional language as a resultof collaborative social practices in which students try outout ideas and actions (Lave and Wenger, 1991), and thussocially construct their learning (Vygotsky, 1978). Learningis seen as occurring through doing (Dewey, 1897). Thus,an action based pedagogy falls within this principle. In thefield of language education, this is often referred to as taskbased pedagogy (Ellis, 2003)”. (García, 2009: 323)4 dimensions:•Interactions and involvement• Language• Collaboration and group work• Relevance
What is the educational context of compulsory educationtoday?EXPANSION, APARENT DEMOCRATIZATION ANDLOW QUALITY
Early exclusion. 50% students do not finishsecondary school, they drop out or re attendrepeatedly and leave.Total exclusion 700 thousand young people between13- 17 are out of school in ArgentinaExclusion due to inclusion with no quality: studentsattend school but learn very little or do not learn.
National and international assessmentsshow:•Low levels of attainment (in particularwhen analysing reading skills).• Dispersion of results, inequality indistribution of learning achievementdepending on the socioeconomic level ofstudents.
Challenge before teachers:Mediate LITERACY in particular contexts ofcompulsory schooling for PARTICIPATION ANDSOCIAL JUSTICE in contexts of EXPANSION,APARENT DEMOCRATIZATION AND LOWQUALITYThe REAL trajectories of students in contrast tothe THEORETICAL ones.
“Las injusticias que el sistema educativo reproduce, lasque legitima y sobre todo las que origina pueden serconsideradas “injusticias reparables”, tal como lasdenomina Sen, que son las que nos mueven a ladiscusión crítica y a la investigación (Sen, 2011). Estemovimiento hacia la reflexión es crucial para laproducción de conocimiento, en tanto la percepción delas injusticias y los fuertes sentimientos que éstaspueden desencadenar sirven de estímulos para laacción, aunque son insuficientes para la comprensióndel problema. Comprender requiere razonar, examinar,buscar explicaciones que puedan sostenerse conevidencias.”(Claudia Romero, Gabriela J. Krichesky y Natalia Zacarías, 2012)
Construction of an inquisitive teacher identity tolook for answers and to introduce innovationsinformed before the present challenges.• Development of an interpretiveperspective of the teacher before theirown practices, classes and institution.• Development of a space for systematicresearch practices in teacher practice tofeed teaching.
A never ending process of investigating andexperimenting, reflecting and analysing whatone does in the classroom and school,formulating one´s own personal professionaltheories and using these theories to guidefuture practice, and deciding what and how toteach based on one´s best professionaljudgement. (Loughan, 2010)What is teaching ?
JubileoLa historia grande, se hace de historias chicas? o es otra cosa? Una vida esun conjunto de momentos o es algo más? Este momento largo que finaliza, esuna historia que termina? , un peldaño?, una vuelta?, una trayecto? unsentido? antes y después es como atrás y adelante o todo es siempre?reflexiones de jubilada? ja! no sé bien....Como cada vez que cambia algo uno se asoma como a un sinodesconocido, elige, proyecta, se juega, se sorprende, vive, sufre, disfruta,siempre con otros, con algunos que terminan siendo como uno mismo yentonces cuando uno se quiere despedir no puede, con historias chicas queterminan siendo nuestra historia grande, con momentos que no terminanporque uno los siente o son como el sentido de ser uno acá.Ahora es una bisagra, doy la vuelta, quizá encuentre alguna respuesta o solomas preguntas...Una cosa sí, este trabajo que hoy dejo tiene muchos componentesque son para siempre , que creo no dejaré nunca: la pasión por hacer un otromejor de alguien y de uno mismo y de hacerlo con los demás que creen más omenos en las mismas cosas y terminan siendo como socios de una tareainfinita.Gracias a todos esos socios en la tarea, por todo.Claudia
A sociocultural perspective arguesthat human cognitive “developmentcan be understood only in light of thecultural practices and circumstancesof their communities—which alsochange”
Learning to teach, from a sociocultural perspective,is based on the assumption that knowing, thinking,and understanding come from participating in thesocial practices of learning and teaching in specificclassroom and school situations.Teacher learning and the activities of teaching areunderstood as growing out of participation in thesocial practices in classrooms; and what teachersknow and how they use that knowledge inclassrooms is highly interpretative and contingent onknowledge of self, setting, students, curriculum, andcommunity.
•Continuous Professional Development•Personal agency• A community of practice• Code of Ethics
Teacher authored accounts of professional developmentRetrospectively interpretativeThey selectively infuse meaning to those interpretationsThey actively seek to bring meaning.
“educative mentoring”mentoring that is aimed at teacher growth byenabling teachers at all levels of experience andexpertise to respect, challenge, and support oneanother as they collectively seek to reach standardsof excellence in their work
We can trace teacher learning from asociocultural perspective bylooking at the progressive movementfrom externally, socially mediatedactivities to internal mediation controlledby the individual teacher.
This means the process through which aperson’s activity is initially mediated by otherpeople or cultural artifacts but later comes to becontrolled by him/herself as he or sheappropriates and reconstructs resources toregulate his or her own activities. Three types oftools which humans use to mediate theiractivities are cultural artifacts and activities,concepts, and social relations.
All three will help teachers walk throughthe “zone of proximal development”(ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1978), that is, thedistance between what a person can doon his/her own and what a person canachieve with the support of a culturalartifact or someone else.
The models of inquiry-based professionaldevelopment described here seek to:1.create alternative structural arrangementsthat support sustained dialogic mediationbetween and among teachers and teachereducators2.provide assisted performance as teachersstruggle through issues that are directlyrelevant to their professional development andclassroom lives.