2010Task-Based Language LearningThe Incorporation of ICTs into Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching This document presents the process as well as the final product of my inquiry carried out throughout the 2010 Fall semester at University of Maryland and three Publics Schools as part of the Fulbright program for Distinguished Awards in Teaching. I have focused my research on how New Technologies of Information and Communication are being incorporated to the teaching of languages in general and to Task-Based Learning specifically. Aurelia García firstname.lastname@example.org home country: ARGENTINA host country: USA
AURELIA M. GARCIAACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful to the Fulbright Commission, Bureau of Educational andCultural affairs, the US Department of State, and the Academy of EducationalDevelopment (AED) staff for giving me the opportunity to be a part of theDistinguished Award in Teaching Program. At the University of Maryland, Dr James Greenberg, Mrs. Letitia Williamsand Dr Lea Ann Christenson as well as my teachers and mentors Dr RobertaLavine and Dr Jennifer Turner are among the special people who have beensupportive in this memorable experience. I want to mention the thoughtful input from my roommates and all myother Fulbright colleagues who have been generously sharing their experiencesand projects, enlightening my own. I am grateful to my PDS coordinators, Mrs. Peggy Wilson and Mrs. StacyPritchett, school administrators, teachers and students from Samuel OgleMiddle School and Montgomery Blair High School, where I could makeobservations and interviews and take photos and field notes that substantiallycontributed to my collection of data. A great deal of support has come from my dear children, mother, family,friends and colleagues from Argentina who have encouraged me in thefulfillment of this lifelong dream. 16
Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching Program UMD The Incorporation of ICTs into Task-Based Language Learning 2010RESEARCH PAPER The Incorporation of ICTs Into Task-Based Language LearningLITERATURE REVIEW • WEB-BASED LEARNING In the last decade, we have been witnessing a shift in the nature of Internet.It has changed from a static, information-provider environment in whichstudents and teachers were able to explore, select and adapt the content theyfound useful and transform it within the context of their interest, to a dynamicsocial environment in which everyone can participate in an interactive sphere,becoming not only consumers, but also producers of content. Computers and electronic technologies have come to permeate our dailylives, our homes and our schools. As a consequence, integrating them into theclassroom pedagogy is becoming a reality for teachers who are supplyingstudents with the possibility of learning a specific content at the same time asthey are incorporating technology skills. Becoming techno-teachers is not an easy task. In the first stages, theygenerally have to find support from their institutional environments, to allowthem to share the school or University virtual platform. After that, they will haveto be able to satisfy their special requirements according to the languagelearning experience they want to propose - an instance in which lab techniciansand administrators become involved. After dealing with all the administrative and technical issues, the real workstarts: planning the course or activity, looking for Web resources, moderatingand tutoring, solving students technical problems (with patience and positivefeedback, so that they start feeling confident with the proposal as well), creatingWebPages (google groups, blogs, forums, google sites) where all theproductions can be shared.
AURELIA M. GARCIA As Hanson-Smith and Rilling (2006) state the available technological toolshave made impact in teachers’ practices in three different areas: 1- Administrative: teachers use the computer to keep records of students’ assignments, attendance, mailing to parents, lesson plan presentations, online professional development. This use of technologies has proved to make teachers and administrators work more efficient. 2- Blended: teachers and students use computers to complement classroom activities with a computerized activity. They sometimes share two or three computers which are connected in one corner f the classroom or they move to a computers lab where, in general, they have more computers available and a technician. Blended learning can also take place while using home or public computers outside schools. 3- Distance: teachers also use computers to support distant learning, where students and teachers only meet in virtual environments and computers become the only means of communication and instruction. Placing the focus of this inquiry on the blended use mentioned above, it canbe assumed that new technologies are reshaping learning as a two-wayprocess. Instead of presenting content in a linear, sequential manner, learnersare provided with a rich array of tools and information resources to use increating their own learning pathway. (Arena & Crubinel, 2010) Technology-rich environment provides two options to language learners:1 - Internet Software Resources which are delivered over the internet throughschool platforms and where students can access for some specific practicepurposes. In general they are more teacher-controlled and the software itselfgives incentives or rewards to students who go on through different phases orstages of a game-like practice. Examples of these are: Kidspiration, a K-5learner’s oriented software that develops thinking, literacy and numeracy skillsusing proven visual learning principles. In reading and writing, Kidspirationstrengthens word recognition, vocabulary, comprehension and written 16
Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching Program UMD The Incorporation of ICTs into Task-Based Language Learning 2010expression. With some new visual math tools, students can build reasoning andproblem solving skills. Another example is Study Island, a Web-basedinstruction, practice, assessment and reporting software, built for different states´ standards over rigorous academic content that is both fun and engaging.2 - Internet Communications Resources which allow students to manipulatelanguage skills such as reading, listening, speaking and writing, interactcollaboratively, or share Web-based project from their own classmates orstudents from different parts of the world as well. This communication can takethe form of synchronic, in real time, o asynchronic, or not in real time. Teacherscan profit more for the development of an integrated-skills approach using avariety of collaborative resources – blog, email, wiki, podcast. This new cooperative and participative environment offers teachers awhole realm of possibilities that could really make a difference in the teachingsetting. Then the question now is: How can teachers effectively use these online spaces… a) to engage students in meaningful, cultural connections, b) through collaborative interactive projects c) that promote authentic, contextualized, culturally enriched exchanges, d) having English as a tool for communication and learning?Web 2.0 tools –defined as World Wide Web technology and web design thatenhance creativity, communications, information sharing, and collaboration- notonly have the power to revolutionize our classrooms and schools, they alsohave special value for English language learners. Our students are nowempowered to create content, publish it and share it with others. Needless tosay, when students write or speak for a broader and more internationalaudience, they tend to pay more attention to revising. In addition, Web 2.0 tools also prepare students to meet the demands of the21st Century Skills, delineated by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, which
AURELIA M. GARCIAsuggest students need to develop additional skills apart from the acquisitions ofthe increasing subject areas contents. These skills are referred to as the 4 Cs:critical thinking and problem solving, cross-cultural communication,collaboration and creativity and innovation skills. Based on the premise anticipated by John Dewey (1997) that language is asocial and cognitive phenomenon, teachers should foster communicative andsociolinguistic competence through a range of activities that require interactionand negotiation of meaning for their completion. Wiki contexts, threads ofdiscussion -whether written or voiced-, or chatting are significant means ofachieving these competences and of taking students a step forwards theelectronics media consumption industry. The gift of time, as Lori Langer de Ramirez (2010) describes, issomething schools cannot give English language learners in the amount theywould need; so by using these new technological tools teachers are offeringstudents a learning maximizer. Web 2.0 can provide extra opportunities toengage in meaningful language-learning tasks from the comforts of their homes,libraries or cybercafes. Both advanced and beginning learners can profit from Web 2.0 tools. It isin general easier to see its benefits when we focus on advanced learners sincethey can skillfully manage a wider variety of language tasks; however,beginners can equally benefit from being in a more anonymous atmosphere.They sometimes may feel reticent to speaking in public or reading out loud theirwork; nevertheless, Internet offers them the possibility of drafting, editing, peercorrecting – to improve their writing skill - and recording, checking andrerecording themselves – to improve their speaking skill-, until they feelconfident enough to share their creations. • TASK- BASED LEARNING Communicative language teaching has been the umbrella approach underwhich many other approaches and techniques have developed. Among themTask-Based Language Learning (Nunan 2001, Willis 1996 Norris 2009) has 16
Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching Program UMD The Incorporation of ICTs into Task-Based Language Learning 2010lately become the most prominent. This methodological approach focuses onstudents using the language to solve tasks, placing an important emphasis onmeaningful real life situations over form and knowledge of the language system. This problem-solving methodology allows not only learning skills but mainlyprocedures and concept learning. Working with problems and tasks facilitatesunderstanding of reality through the use of some methods such as solvingstrategies, experimental or observational techniques. Teachers have three mainroles within this approach: 1. selecting, adapting and designing tasks; 2. facilitating their implementation and 3. creating techniques to help students become aware of the form of the language being required to solve the task, without making of these grammar points the focus of the design. There are a number of researchers who have defined what a task is in thelanguage learning context from a psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic or pedagogicviewpoint. Yet Candlin´s (2009) definition adjusts quite well to the usesuggested in this paper from a teacher´s and practitioner´s standpoint. A language learning task is a set of differentiated, sequencable, problem-posing activities involving learners and teachers in some joint selection from a varied cognitive and communicative procedures applied to existing and new knowledge in a collective exploration and pursuance of foreseen or emerging goals within a social milieu. (Candlin, 2009) Whatever definition is adopted, since teachers are concerned withlearning, certain pedagogical goals should guide their task-based curriculumdesign. Among them Candlin mentions: awareness, responsibility, tolerance,self-realization and self confidence.
AURELIA M. GARCIA As students carry out the task, they become aware not only of the languageforms involved in the resolution of the situation, but also of the sociolinguisticfactors that intervene in the interactions. Furthermore, students becomeindependent users of the language when deciding how to solve a task whenthey must feel responsible for the choices they make and the challenges theyaccept as learners. At the same time, cultural tolerance is another goal task-based learning pursues, when showing learners a range of situations in whichthey have to face cultural diversity and multi-cultural contexts. Task designing is a major task in itself, since teachers should providestudents with situations they can acknowledge as challenges rather than threatsand situations that can develop their sense of self-confidence and self-realizations. The purpose of a task in the classroom is to stimulate real communication,creating an authentic purpose for language use while providing a naturalcontext for the study analysis and reflection on it. Students prepare to solve aspecific problematic situation, solve it, and report on their findings; and onlythen, they then focus on the study of language that emerged in the situation. All that the teacher plans to develop and everything that happens in theteaching-learning process translates into activities. Each activity has a numberof features, and here are three moments in this program of activities appropriateto the teaching of English under the TBL as follows: Activities related to the search, recognition, identification and formulation of problems:The problem should not be considered only as an initial condition but a processthat is developing, reshaping and diversifying in parallel to the process ofimplementation of the methodology for learning English. Another key aspect ofthis methodology is clear in advance that there is not always a single correctsolution, but that the resolution is open to multiple learning opportunities ofemerging issues around the main shaft. 16
Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching Program UMD The Incorporation of ICTs into Task-Based Language Learning 2010 Activities that facilitate the resolution of the problem:This is achieved through interaction between students conceptions regardingthe use of language, as evidenced by the problem, and new information fromother sources. Looking at the constructivist conception of learning we mustadmit that it is produced by interaction between the knowledge available to thestudent and the new information he/she receives. Conceptions that studentshave about academic subjects sometimes differ from the contents of thecurriculum. The curriculum tends to be deeply rooted in the individual and isvery resistant to change. It is necessary then, as a first step, to help studentsexplain these concepts so that the teacher gets an overview of which may affectthe learning process and students - being aware of their own ideas - put them ina position to reflect upon them and confront them with new information whichwill lead to its possible restructuring, and the construction of new knowledge. Activities that facilitate the synthesis of the work, drawing conclusions and expressing the results.The English language at this stage becomes the vehicle for solving a task, butthe emphasis is on meaning and communication rather than in the production ofgrammatically correct utterances. Drawing conclusions is closely related to theconstruction of knowledge that the student is achieving. But the final reviewpromotes knowledge restructuring and conceptual clarification. Stating in detailthe task of synthesizing the results helps to establish learning. Moreover, if itprovides students with the opportunity to implement their new learning it willencourage students´ confidence in their abilities. By teaching through problem solving the teacher becomes a researcherand connoisseur of reality along with the student. Assessment is made naturallyin contact with the student, supervised by the experience and the analysis donewith the teacher. Student and teacher, in a really close relationship, both areinvolved in the task, reporting on the progress being made; both of them areactually reading and understanding the whole process.
AURELIA M. GARCIA Tasks can take different forms and there is a wide range of tasks thatteachers can design depending on the context, level and needs of the students.Though many authors have suggested different task classification, Willis (1996)organizes them in a very complete manner that can guide teachers and inspirethem as regards the most suitable task to implement. However, teachers areencouraged to understand Willis´ taxonomy as a flexible guide since tasks maybe planned under one format, but as students develop it, teachers may realizesome other format is more suitable and she must feel free to change it.TYPE SAMPLE TASKListing Make a list of the items they would need for a weekend camping by the river. They complete their lists in pairs and choose among themselves the most sensible list.Ordering Sts. Choose from the show page of the local newspaper twoor sorting events they would like to attend over the weekend. They persuade each other until they finally agree on only two for the whole group.Comparing Sts. design in groups an itinerary for a group of foreign middle school students who come into town for the weekend. All groups present their reports and the whole class compares and finds differences among the proposals.Problem- Our school´s 100 years anniversary is next month and studentssolving have been invited to participate in the organization of the commemorative dinner. In groups of four make a list of suggestions for that event. Share your ideas with the rest of the class and decide on a formal proposal to be given on the school´s parent´s day.Experience Childhood memories always awake memorable stories fromsharing students. The task would be telling the scariest childhood memory /most memorable moment of childhood glory and 16
Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching Program UMD The Incorporation of ICTs into Task-Based Language Learning 2010 writing a book including all the stories to he handed in to parents in school parents’ day.Creative Students are given the blueprints of the school plan and they have to make any necessary alterations so that the building can be transformed into a cultural centre/hospital/street children´s home. All the new blueprints should be exhibited in the school´s hall ways. Perhaps one of the most interesting aspects about task-based learning isthe discrepancy that we sometimes face between teachers intentions whenplanning a task and what students final outcomes results in. In general teachersspend quite lot of time designing a task, putting restrictions on it and settinglimits for possible language forms, linguistic contents and final products. Part ofthe magic of this approach relies on how much we can teach that is beyond ourplanning, just out of our students’ ideas. Students’ reinterpretation of the taskshould allow teachers to reformulate and evaluate permanently their taskproposals making them richer and more motivating and challenging. • EMBEDDED TASK-BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING With this new web 2.0 online environment English language teachers arefaced with a great challenge: finding ways to promote students interaction andcommunication in the target language through carefully designed tasks. Oncethe need for connection is needed students will be solving the task bynegotiating meaning, debating and arriving to conclusions. There is no magic formula or templates that can assure successfulinterventions because projects can take multiple shapes. Nevertheless, Arena &Cruvinel (2010) suggest a number of steps that could be used as a guideline.Teachers will have to remember that educational settings and pedagogicalneeds are their priority, so adaptations to these guidelines are welcomed.
AURELIA M. GARCIA First, teachers should identify needs, topics and decide on concrete goalsthat will guide their practice. Then, they should come up with the most suitabletools and the design of the specific task. Finally, they should implement the taskand start immediate evaluation of the process so as to make the necessaryadjustments before the final product is achieved. A final evaluation of the projectis equally advisable to allow teachers and students to reflect on the design andtechnical changes that might be needed so as to bring the possibility of futureadaptations. It can be assumed that the possibilities computers offer as regards types oftasks can be infinitely multiplied. Teachers can engage students in authenticlearning contexts that will give students the opportunity of learning with pleasureand commitment, validating students initiative as well as the groupscollaboration, characteristics which are, more often than not, absent from ourschool realities. Blake (2008) makes an interesting distinction between first-generation andsecond-generation Computer-mediated Communication (CMC) tools. First-generation tools include mainly two resources: email and discussion boards,both of them have evolved and changed format throughout the years with thedevelopment of accessories such as the possibility of adding images, graphics,sound and video to the original text-only format. The main pedagogical benefitsfrom this category are that students became autonomous users of the languagethrough a simple friendly technology interface, participating in exchangeprojects with students in other parts of the world. Second-generation tools, on which I particularly focus in my best practicesproposals, are exemplified by resources such as blogs and wikis. These toolsallow students to publish their own voice, as individuals or as groups, and takeresponsibility for their productions as well as over the feedback, comments orediting they do on someone else´s piece. At a receptive level (Langer de Ramirez, 2010) they can sign into a podcastwebsite that provides extra listening practice or watch some instructive video in 16
Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching Program UMD The Incorporation of ICTs into Task-Based Language Learning 2010YouTube. However, Web 2.0 tools work at their best when students are askedto develop, create and share their own work online. It is in this way that studentsare active learners negotiating meanings and creating media for a worldwideaudience. Students can meet virtually with classmates via the Web creatingblog entries, videos or comments on a classmate´s work1. The web provides primary source materials, as Blake (2008) calls them in abreakdown of inquiry-oriented activities such as webquests tasks, treasurehunts, hot potatoes- in which students get involved in small scale researchprojects or guided discovery to learn about a specific topic through real orhypothetical solving problem situations and simulations. Each L2 student needsto become a researcher on the Web, an interpreter of the culture, a carefulanalyzer of cultural differences and an ambassador of diversity. Blake cites ten methodological principles or language teachers’ universalsthat teachers should follow when integrating web 2.0 tools into their practice.Out of these ten, I mention here the five that I also consider apply to Task-Based Teaching methodology. This provides the basis for a proposal forintegrated embedded task based language teaching: • Use tasks not texts. • Promote learning by doing. • Encourage inductive learning. • Focus on meaning rather than on form. • Promote cooperative/collaborative learning. Another illuminating theoretical model that can help us understand thephenomenon is Kearsly´s Engagement theory. Its principle suggests that whenstudents are swallowed up in meaningful interactive tasks, they will feelengaged in their learning process and progress. The author believes thattechnology can have a relevant role in students’ engagement in learning tasks if1 Appendix: Best Practices: Photo Blog Project
AURELIA M. GARCIAthey involve active cognitive processes such as creating, problem-solving,reasoning, decision-making, and evaluation. Engagement theory is based upon the idea of creating successfulcollaborative teams that work on ambitious projects that are meaningful tosomeone outside the classroom. These three components, summarized byRelate-Create-Donate, imply that learning activities should: 1. Occur in a group context (i.e., collaborative teams): Research oncollaborative learning suggests that in the process of collaboration, students areforced to clarify and verbalize their problems, thereby facilitating solutions 2. Be project-based: making learning a creative, purposeful activity.Students have to define the project (problem domain) and focus their efforts onapplication of ideas to a specific context. 3. Have an outside (authentic) focus: stressing the value of making auseful contribution while learning. Ideally each task has an outside "customer"that the project is being conducted for. The customer could be a campus group,community organization, school, church, library, museum, government agency,local business, or needy individual. The authentic learning context of the projectincreases student motivation and satisfaction. What I find different in the Engagement theory model from other oldermodels of computer-based learning in which the emphasis was onindividualized instruction and interactivity, is that ET promotes humaninteraction in the context of group tasks, rather than individual interaction withan instructional program. • TEACHERS´ PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT It is essential that as teachers we start learning to communicate, collaborateand celebrate via Internet and Web 2.0. With our students -through classroomsproposals that bring us altogether into a challenging common environment-, and 16
Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching Program UMD The Incorporation of ICTs into Task-Based Language Learning 2010with other colleagues -whether technophobes or technophiles- in onlinecommunities of teachers’ development, who have decided to take a stepforward, just as we have. Robert Blake (2008) states that the rapidly changingparameters of the technological field have made first-time entry into usingtechnology in service of foreign languages curriculum a worrying task for many.(pxiii) Research on language learning with and through technology is definitelyresulting in new research methodologies. As a consequence, it is the role ofteacher trainers in educational training centers and colleges to bridge the gapbetween traditional and XXI century methodologies. This will facilitate facilitatinginstances of professional development allow teachers to become aware of theeducational changes taking place outside their everyday practice. The need for post graduation support is described by Dahlman & Tahtinen(2006) when they depict the first few years of teachers’ careers, as beingconsumed by many duties: struggling to know the curriculum, developing lessonplans and materials while, at the same time, having to deal with school issuesoutside the class. Meetings with pairs and parents, as well as catering forstudents needs, represent a great challenge since they do not count on themastery of veteran teachers who have already developed a skill. Following the “teach what you preach” approach, Van den Branden (2009)suggests giving greater credit to the in-service training offered on site, inschools where teachers can find themselves at home, using their own computerlabs and becoming aware of their own schools possibilities. Such formats couldrange from Schools-based or team-based coaching in which experts are invitedto visit schools on regular basis to offer teachers practice and coachingaccording to their needs and demands. In this context teachers need to create and join communities of practice forcontinuous peer mentoring and experimentation with collaborative practicessupported and enhanced, precisely, by new technologies. Immersion in thesecollaborative environments can provide teachers with academic andemotional support, create tasks collaboratively that they can later use in their
AURELIA M. GARCIAown teaching environment and be encouraged to scan the contents of onlinejournals which can inform them about current best practices. A successful network should be aware of the participants’ variables. Suchvariables as perceptions, teaching contexts, feelings, beliefs and imposedstandards, will define the characteristics of the network and its effectiveness.These professional development courses should put together knowledge andpractice into an integrated plan to allow, in a collaborative and cooperativeenvironment, sharing new insights of their teaching practices now embeddedwith technology. One of the most difficult challenges is to design and implement anembedded or fully online learning environment that can keep pace withteachers’ specific needs and demands as well as new technologicalapplications which keep flooding the educational field. The professionaldevelopment proposal should provide the means by which teachers developtheir technological skills supported by peers´ feedback and suggestions. Apostmethod methodological perspective will enlighten these newly informedteachers as regards which tools and resources to apply, when and where. Still another enlightening proposal that has proved enriching for the lessnovice teachers who want to share their favorite tools and learn about new oneson the web are the Online Communities of Practice, such as Webheads. Itsfounder has been able to explore since early 2000´s how teachers usecomputer-mediated communication (CMC) in a constructivist setting, sharingtheir approaches and pedagogical views on the issue, fostering the communityprofessional development. Communities find different tools to sustainthemselves together: internet chat software, blogs, photo galleries, email of text,audio or video files are among the most successfully welcomed by teachers. From this discussion it can be said that teachers’ development programs runa gamut of options to allow novice teachers gain expertise in technology. Thiscan be achieved through different workshop designs depending on the amountof face to face – online exposure they receive. The 4 or 5 days of immersion oftsunami speed holds one extreme and the fully online distance home slippersand warm soup being on the other. 16
Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching Program UMD The Incorporation of ICTs into Task-Based Language Learning 2010 Both extremes show advantages and disadvantages; however, anembedded methodology seems to assemble the most outstanding benefits ofboth. Alternating face to face meetings with online networking, teachersgradually start feeling confident with the virtual platform and they return to itinformed and inspired, invigorated by others ‘experiences and commentsinterwoven by technology. Technology makes us want to be permanentlearners. Furthermore, when the policy is carried out under the Action Researchparadigm, teacher development will lead both: teachers and their students tobecome critically reflective practitioners and computer assertive users. Thebuilding of learning communities suggested in this paper will provide teacherswith a myriad of tools that both trainer and trainees can explore together,followed by a critical reflection which will allow externalizing thoughts andfeelings.BIBLIOGRAPHY:Arena, C. and Cruvinel, E. (2010) Learning Through CALLaborative Projects UsingWeb 2.0 Tools. In A. Shehadeh and C. Coombe (Eds), Applications of Task-BasedLearning in TESOL (pp. 111-121). Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakersof Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL)Blake, R. (2008) Brave New Digital Classroom Technology and Foreign LanguageLearning. Washington, DC: Georgetown University PressBrown, D. (2007) Teaching by Principles. An Interactive Approach to Languagepedagogy. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education Inc.Candlin, C. (2009) Towards task-based language learning. In Van den Branden, K.,Bygate, M. & Norris, J. (Eds), Task-Based Language Teaching A reader.Philadelphia,PA: John Benjamins Oublishing Company.Dahlman, A. and Tahtinen S. (2006) Virtual Basegroup: E_Mentoring in a ReflectiveElectronic Support Network. In Hanson-Smith E. and Rilling S. (Eds), LearningThrough Technology(pp. 1-7). Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers ofOther Languages, Inc. (TESOL)Dewey, J. (1997) Experience & Education. New York, NY: TouchstoneGarcía Pérez, F. y García Díaz, J. (1997) Aprender Investigando. Sevilla, España:Diada Editora S. L.
AURELIA M. GARCIAHanson-Smith E. and Rilling S. (2006) Introduction: Using Technology in TeachingLanguages. In Hanson-Smith E. and Rilling S. (Eds), Learning ThroughTechnology(pp. 1-7). Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of OtherLanguages, Inc. (TESOL)Kearsley G.& Shneiderman B. (2000) Engagement Theory: A for technology-basedteaching and learning http://home.sprynet.com/~gkearsley/engage.htmLnager de Ramirez,L. (2010) Empowering English Language Learners with Toolsfrom the Web. United States of America: CorwinPeters M. & Desjardines F. (2007) Single course Aproach vs a program Approach toDevelop Technological Competencies in Preservice language teachers. inKassen M.,Lavine R., Murphy-Judy K. & Petres M (Eds), Preparing and Developing Technology-prficient L2 Teachers. (pp.3-20). USA: CALICO Monograph Series.Stenens,V. (2006) Issue: Tools for Online Teacher Communities of Practice. InHanson-Smith E. and Rilling S. (Eds), Learning Through Technology (pp. 1-7).Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL)The Partnership for 21st Century Skills(2004) Framework for 21st Century Skillsretrieved from http://www.p21.org/Van den Branden, K., Bygate, M., and Norris, J. M. (Eds.) (2009). Task-basedlanguage teaching: A reader. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 16