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  1. 1. MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE AND INTELLIGENT PACKAGING OF FOOD Mona Elena Popa Associate professor USAMV Bucharest-Biotechnology Faculty <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>According to the recent FAO report, 50% of agricultural products are destroyed because of the absence of packaging. The causes of this loss are bad weather, physical, chemical and microbiological deteriorations. </li></ul><ul><li>Progress in the packaging of foodstuffs will prove crucial over the next few years mainly because of new consumer patterns, demand creation and world population growth which is estimated to reach 15 billion by 2025. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. GENERAL OVERWIEV <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul><ul><li>FOOD PACKAGING TECHNIQUES </li></ul><ul><li>In the last decade, the most important additional function of the packaging method is to prolong the shelf-life of the food product. </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate vacuum packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Active packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Modified atmosphere packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Aseptic packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Edible coatings </li></ul>
  4. 4. SYSTEMS FOR GAS PACKAGING <ul><li>Horizontal form-fill-seal machines for rigid and semi-rigid packages (so-called deep-draw machines) </li></ul><ul><li>This type of packaging system is mainly suitable for the retail packaging of meat, poultry, fish, cooked meats, bakery products, cheese and nuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal and vertical form- f ill-seal machines for flexible “pillow-pack” pouches (so-called flow-pack machines) </li></ul><ul><li>These kinds of packaging systems are mainly suitable for the retail packaging of bakery products, snack foods, coffee, cheese, nuts, meats, fish, salads and fruits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. SYSTEMS FOR GAS PACKAGING <ul><li>Vacuum chamber machines </li></ul><ul><li>These types of packaging systems are suitable for both retail and catering packaging of meat, fish, nuts, and prepared meals. </li></ul><ul><li>Gemella packaging systems </li></ul><ul><li>The system can be applied to meat, poultry, fish, cooked meats, fruit, vegetables, cheese, bakery products, salads and ready meals. </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrelam system </li></ul><ul><li>The system can be applied to meat, poultry, cooked meats, fruit, vegetables, bakery products, salads and ready meals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. SYSTEMS FOR GAS PACKAGING <ul><li>Bag – in – carton system </li></ul><ul><li>The packages are consumer size for dry powders and granules such as coffee, tea and dried potato powder. </li></ul><ul><li>Bag-in-box system </li></ul><ul><li>This system has the advantage that a conventional unit pack can be produced and then gas-flushed. </li></ul><ul><li>Walki-Vent system </li></ul><ul><li>The system can be applied to raw meat, chicken and fish. </li></ul><ul><li>Flavaloc is similar to the conventional gas package except that an intermediate web is introduced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>MAP - an atmosphere with a gas composition different from that of air is created in the package. The gases mainly used are the following : CO2 – antimicrobial effect; O2 – a reduced oxygen concentration in the head-space of a package below 1-2 %, even to 0.2 % by replacing oxygen with nitrogen and /or carbon dioxide; - a high oxygen concentration, even 80 % or above is used in order to inhibit microbial growth through oxygen shock; N2 – inert gas (equilibrium of atmospheric pressure) .
  8. 8. MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING <ul><li>MAP of non-respiring foods, a high CO2 content (>20%) is used in most cases together with a low O 2 content (<0.5%) and a recommended storage temperature < 5 o C for the most foodstuffs. </li></ul><ul><li>MAP of respiring foods i.e. fresh fruits and vegetables, once the atmosphere has been changed to the desired level, the respiration rate of the produce should equal the diffusion of gases across the packaging material in order to achieve an equilibrium atmosphere in the package. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING <ul><li>Packaging materials </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of food packaging - the entire dynamic interaction between food, packaging material and ambient atmosphere has to be considered. </li></ul><ul><li>Design and manufacture of packaging materials: </li></ul><ul><li>- a multistep process </li></ul><ul><li>- involve careful and numerous considerations to successfully engineer the final package with all the required properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Properties to be considered in relation to food distribution may include gas or water vapour permeability , mechanical properties , sealing capability , thermoforming properties , resistance (towards water, grease, acid, UV, light, etc.), machinability (on the packaging line), transparency , antifogging capacity , printability , </li></ul><ul><li>availability and, of course cost . Moreover, a consideration </li></ul><ul><li>of the cradle to grave” cycle of packaging material is </li></ul><ul><li>also required; </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Packaging materials requirements <ul><li>Particularly with regard to gas packaging, the important factors are the following: </li></ul><ul><li>The gas barrier properties needed . </li></ul><ul><li>In most gas packaging applications, excluding vegetables and fruits, it is desirable to maintain the atmosphere initially injected into the package for as long a period as possible. Some of the polymers currently used include PE, PETP, metallised PETP, PP, PS, PVC, PVDC, PA, EVA, and EVOH. </li></ul><ul><li>These polymers are normally used as laminated or co-extruded multilayer materials in order to have the barrier properties required. The inner layer is usually polyethylene or its co-polymer which forms the food contact and heat seal medium; polyethylene or ethylene vinyl acetate alone are not suitable for gas packaging because of their high gas permeability. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Packaging materials requirements <ul><li>As a rule, packaging materials with oxygen permeability lower than 100 cm3/m2 24 h 101.3 kPa are used in gas packaging. In the literature, on the other hand, very few reported investigations are available on the significance of oxygen permeability between 0-100 cm3/m2 24h 101.3 kPa for quality gas-packed products. </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables and fruits differ from other foodstuffs in that they continue to respire even when placed in a modified atmosphere. Due to the respiration, there is a danger that CO2 will increase to levels injurious to the packed commodities. On the other hand, respiration consumes oxygen and there is a danger of anaerobiosis. A number of special packaging materials intended for vegetables and fruits have been developed such as smart films, microporous film and micro-perforated films. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical strength </li></ul><ul><li>In choosing packaging materials for food one has also pay attention to how resistant to mechanical stresses (e.g. puncture), humidity and temperature (frozen or chilled) the material needs to be. If a material is of poor mechanical strength, the mechanical stresses, humidity and low temperature during storage transport and handling can damage the package and cause leakage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Packaging materials requirements <ul><li>Integrity of sealing </li></ul><ul><li>The adequate integrity of the seal is important in order to maintain the correct atmosphere in the package. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of package </li></ul><ul><li>The type of package to be used, rigid or semi-rigid, lidded tray or flexible film pouch has to be taken into consideration when choosing packaging materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Fogging </li></ul><ul><li>In order to improve the appearance of the packages in retail outlets, the polyethylene in the packaging laminates can be specially treated to prevent condensation of water, which fogs the package and prevents the consumer examining the product. </li></ul><ul><li>Microwaveability of packaging materials is a factor that should also be considered in gas packaging, particularly in the case of ready-to-eat food products. For instance, the low melting point of PVC makes the PVC-LDPE-laminate or coextrusion film much used as a base web material in deep - draw machines unsuitable for microwave oven heating. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Packaging materials requirements <ul><li>Biodegradability and recyclability </li></ul><ul><li>These factors are new trends in packaging business. </li></ul><ul><li>A major challenge for the materials manufacture is the natural hydrophilic behaviour of many biobased polymers as a lot of food applications demand materials that are resistant to moist conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal and mechanical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Most biobased polymer materials perform in a similar fashion to conventional polymers. </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanical properties in terms of modulus and stiffness are not very different compared to conventional polymers. </li></ul><ul><li>Compostability </li></ul><ul><li>The compostability of the materials is highly dependent of the materials e.g. the first step of composting is often a hydrolysis or wetting of the material. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Packaging materials requirements <ul><li>In general, the oxygen permeability and the permeability of other gases of a specific material are closely interrelated. This relation is also observed for biobased materials. However, for some biobased materials, e.g. PLA and starch, the permeability of carbon dioxide compared to oxygen is much higher than for conventional plastics. </li></ul><ul><li>As many of these biobased materials are hydrophilic, their gas barrier properties are very much dependent on the humidity conditions for the measurements and the gas permeability of hydrophilic biobased materials may increase considerably at increased humidity levels. This phenomenon is also seen with conventional polymers. The gas permeability of high gas barrier materials, such as nylon and ethylvinyl alcohol, is likewise affected by increasing humidity. Gas barriers based on PLA and PHA are not expected to be dependent on humidity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Intelligent packaging techniques <ul><li>Techniques used for monitoring the food distribution chain and predicting the safe shelf life of MAP foods through different indicators of time-temperature or inside of packs atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>MEANS: </li></ul><ul><li>TTI – time temperature indicators – external; </li></ul><ul><li>TI – temperature indicators; </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen or CO2 indicators – internal; </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial growth indicators – internal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The principle of the smart indicators <ul><li>TTI/TI – mechanical, chemical, enzymic; </li></ul><ul><li>O2/CO2 in d icators – Redox or pH indicators; </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial growth indicators – pH indicators or certain metabolites indicators. </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. RESEARCH <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>Institute of Food Bioresources Bucharest Faculty of Food Science Galati University <ul><ul><ul><li>USAMV Bucharest –Faculty of Biotechnology </li></ul></ul></ul>Institute of Food Research - Bucharest
  18. 18. CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS <ul><li>MAP for poultry </li></ul><ul><li>MAP for bakery </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods for migration tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. OWN RESEARCH RESULTS <ul><li>In vitro studies on food spoilage filamentous fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Gas mixture experimented on 3 fungi </li></ul><ul><li>MAP I = 5 % CO2, 5% O2, 90% N2; </li></ul><ul><li>MAP II = 20% CO2, 5% O2, 75% N2; </li></ul><ul><li>MAP III = 40% CO2, 5% O2, 55% N2; </li></ul><ul><li>MAP IV = 60% CO2, 5% O2, 35% N2; </li></ul><ul><li>MAP V = 80% CO2, 5% O2, 15% N2; </li></ul><ul><li>MAP VI = 60% O2, 40% N2; </li></ul><ul><li>MAP VII = 80% O2, 20% N2; </li></ul><ul><li>MAP VIII = 90% O2, 10% N2; </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Penicillium hirsutum <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Botrytis cinerea <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Fusarium oxysporum <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. In situ studies on mushrooms <ul><li>MAP I: 3% O2, 5% CO2, 92% N2; </li></ul><ul><li>MAP II: 5% O2, 5% CO2, 90% N2; </li></ul><ul><li>MAP III: 1% O2, 5% CO2, 94% N2; </li></ul><ul><li>MAP IV: 3% O2, 7% CO2, 90% N2. </li></ul><ul><li>Pleurotus spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Agaricus bisporus </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Storage of mushrooms – temperature and atmosphere influence <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Storage of mushrooms – atmosphere packaging influence <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Storage of mushrooms – atmosphere packaging influence <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Storage of mushrooms – atmosphere packaging influence <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. In situ studies on bakery <ul><li>PIZZA - half-finished product ; </li></ul><ul><li>PĂSCUŢĂ – cheese pie, finished product . </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Pizza storage at chilling temperature <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Cheese pie storage at chilling temperature <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. RFERENCES <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Weber, C. J. (editor). 2000. The Food Biopack Conference Proceedings, EU-concerted action project sponsored by EU DG XII, Denmark. </li></ul><ul><li>Weber, C. J. (editor). 2000. Biobased Packaging Materials for the Food Industry – Status and Perspectives, EU-concerted action, Denmark. </li></ul><ul><li>* * * Food Consumption and Packaging Usage Factors, Summary of Workshop organised by ILSI Europe, Brussels, 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Bureau, G., Multon , J.L. (editors). 1995. Food Packaging Technology, Volume I and II, Wiley – VCH, Inc., USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Rooney, M.L. (editor). 1995. Active Food Packaging , Blackie Academic & Professional, an imprint of Chapman & Hall, Wester Cleddens Road, Bishopbriggs, Glasgow. </li></ul><ul><li>Farber, J.M., Dodds, K.L. (editors). 1995. Principles of modified – atmosphere and sous vide product packaging, TECHNOMIC PUBLISHING CO. INC, Lancaster – Basel, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Brody, A.L. (editor). 1994. Modified Atmosphere Packaging , Institute of Packaging Professionals, Virginia, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Ahvenainen, R. 1989. Gas packaging of chilled meat products and ready-to-eat food, Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT, Espoo, Finland. </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging related sites: </li></ul><ul><li>Biobased Food Packaging - Quality Assurance and Food Safety (project) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Biobased Cheese Packaging (project) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>FAIR Project &quot;Recyclability&quot; (project) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Provision for improved lifestyles via Access to Consumer packages (project) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Biobased Cheese Packaging (project) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>A brief summary of regulations on food contact materials may be found at the EU Commission's site: </li></ul><ul><li>The opinion of the SCF on BPA (Expressed on 17 April 2002) can be found at: </li></ul><ul><li>Food contact materials - legislation </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>ILSI Europe Report Series – Packaging Materials </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION <ul><ul><li></li></ul></ul>