Fats and Oils

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Fats and Oils

  1. 1. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triglyceride—3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various fatty acids within the TG </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Straight chain fatty acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated or trans fatty acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fat crystals suspended in oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid fats (oils) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain kinked chain fatty acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No fat crystals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Melting temperature is directly proportional to degree of saturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li> saturation (less double bonds) = higher melting point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> saturation (more double bonds) = lower melting point </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Essential fatty acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linolenic and Linoleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent source of vitamin E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combats rancidity (free radical scavenger) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Varies in amounts by: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of plant used for pressing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refining process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preserved by storing in cool, dark place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degraded by overheating </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Influences on texture (mouth-feel) and flavor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of fatty acids present and their corresponding chain lengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of saturation (thus melting temp.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of refinement (flavor components removed) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Smokepoint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves chemical degradation of glycerol molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Induced by overheating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks down into acrolein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irritating to eyes and nose </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Reduction of smoke point by avoiding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged or repeated heating of fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected food particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure of fat to air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidation occurs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep fryers are better than shallow pans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of emulsifiers in fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of iron and/or copper pans which contributes to oxidative rancidity </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Shelf life of fat can be extended: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frying below smokepoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat absorption leads to greasy products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil is not hot enough (too far below smokepoint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much food added at once </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Ingredients that increase fat absorption of food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leavening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aqueous liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crispiness (favorable attribute) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydrating outer portion of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanging fat for lost moisture </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Fat in cheese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Butterfat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly saturated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of cheese and relative fat content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dessert cheese (comparable to butter fat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard cheese (1/3 fat by weight) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low fat cheese (about 7% fat by weight) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fat replacers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetable gums </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Fats and Oils <ul><li>Other types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheese spread (Velveeta, which uses emulsifier to aid in ease of melting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cream cheese (soft cheese) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More water than cheddar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fat free cream cheese utilizes: </li></ul></ul></ul>

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