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  • This presentation was prepared by the FSF ALAR Task Force as a product to help prevent approach-and-landing accidents (ALAs), including those involving controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). January 2001
  • Atc

    1. 1. Air Traffic Control Communication © 2000, 2001 Flight Safety Foundation
    2. 2. CFIT and ALAR Task Forces CFIT Steering Committee and Working Groups Flight Safety Foundation ALAR
    3. 3. Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) ALAR Task Force Organization Data Acquisition and Analysis Working Group Operations and Training Working Group Aircraft Equipment Working Group Air Traffic Control Training and Procedures/ Airport Facilities Working Group FSF CFIT/ALAR Action Group (CAAG) Approximately 125 aviation safety specialists are involved worldwide. Steering Committee
    4. 4. ALAR Objectives <ul><li>To reduce the approach-and-landing accident (ALA) rate by 50% within 5 years of issuing final recommendations in 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify equipment, operational, regulatory and training measures that will improve safety for aircraft from commencement of approach through circling, landing or missed approach. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Statistics for Approach-and-landing Accidents (ALAs) <ul><li>56% of Western-built large commercial jet accidents are ALAs. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 50% of fatalities are the result of Western-built large commercial jet ALAs. </li></ul><ul><li>By 2010, the task force estimates 23 Western-built large commercial jet fatal accidents will occur annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT) accidents are not showing a downward trend. </li></ul>
    6. 6. ALAR Data-driven Strategy <ul><li>High-level analyses of 287 accidents </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth study of 76 incidents and accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Line observations on 3,300 U.S. flights </li></ul><ul><li>All conclusions supported by data </li></ul>
    7. 7. Most Common Types of Approach-and-landing Accidents <ul><li>CFIT </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of control </li></ul><ul><li>Landing overrun </li></ul><ul><li>Runway excursion </li></ul><ul><li>Unstabilized approach </li></ul>These comprised 76 percent of the sample.
    8. 8. Photo by Jan Ovind
    9. 9. Factors in Unstabilized Approaches and Missed Approaches <ul><li>42% involved “press-on-itis.” </li></ul><ul><li>36% were low and/or slow on approach. </li></ul><ul><li>30% were high and/or fast on approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 17% of crews initiated go-arounds. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Photo by Dr. David Powell
    11. 11. How Is ATC Involved? <ul><li>ATC instruction/advice/service was a causal factor in 33% of ALAs and serious incidents. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Pilot-Controller Communication <ul><li>Improving communication and mutual understanding between controllers and pilots of each other’s operational environment will improve approach-and-landing safety. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Improving Pilot-Controller Communication <ul><li>Improve knowledge of modern flight decks and operational requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss specific problems and work to resolve them. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Joint Pilot-Controller Programs <ul><li>Germany: Lufthansa and Frankfurt ATC </li></ul><ul><li>USA: US Airways and Charlotte, N.C. ATC </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands: KLM and Amsterdam ATC </li></ul>
    15. 15. US Airways Experience <ul><li>Mutual training/discussion sessions between pilots and controllers (US Airways and Charlotte ATC) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on effective communication, operational procedures, error management, workload and team building </li></ul>
    16. 16. Tragedy Leads to Improvements <ul><li>“ Aircraft Emergency and the Role of ATC” </li></ul><ul><li>Flight simulator sessions for controllers </li></ul><ul><li>Joint meetings of pilots and controllers </li></ul>
    17. 17. Flight Simulator Sessions For Controllers <ul><li>Promote the understanding of limitations, workload and operational requirements of pilots during unusual situations. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Use ICAO Standard Phraseology <ul><li>Pilots experiencing unusual situations should inform ATC: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan, Pan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mayday </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controllers who hear Pan, Pan or Mayday should respond by using ASSIST. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Controllers: Use ASSIST to Respond to a Mayday or Pan, Pan . A S S I S T cknowledge eparate ilence nform upport ime Allow pilots sufficient time to work on their problem! Give maximum support to the flight crew! Inform your supervisor and other involved sectors, units and airports! Impose silence on your radio frequency, if necessary. Don’t disturb urgent pilot actions by unnecessary transmissions! Don’t forget to establish/maintain separation with other aircraft and terrain! Make sure you understand and acknowledge the nature of the emergency!
    20. 20. ALAR Tool Kit <ul><li>Flight Safety Digest: “ALAR Briefing Notes” </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Safety Digest: “Killers in Aviation: FSF Task Force Presents Facts About Approach-and-landing and Controlled-flight-into-terrain Accidents” </li></ul><ul><li>FSF ALAR Task Force Conclusions and Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>FSF ALAR Task Force Members </li></ul><ul><li>Selected FSF Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Approach-and-landing Risk Awareness Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Approach-and-landing Risk Reduction Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Operating Procedures Template </li></ul><ul><li>ALAR Information Posters </li></ul><ul><li>CFIT Checklist </li></ul><ul><li>CFIT Alert </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Operations and Training </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment for Aircraft and Air Traffic Control </li></ul><ul><li>Air Traffic Control Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Guide to Preventing CFIT </li></ul><ul><li>Approach-and-landing Accident Data Overview </li></ul><ul><li>An Approach and Landing Accident: It Could Happen to You </li></ul><ul><li>CFIT Awareness and Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Links to Aviation Statistics on the Internet </li></ul>
    21. 21. More information? Flight Safety Foundation Suite 300, 601 Madison Street Alexandria, VA 22314-1756 U.S. Telephone: +1 (703) 739-6700 Fax: +1 (703) 739-6708
    22. 22. This is a self-contained product of the Flight Safety Foundation Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force and includes a variety of information to help prevent approach-and-landing accidents, including those involving controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). This information is not intended to supersede operators’/manufacturers’ policies, practices or requirements, or to supersede government regulations. In the interest of aviation safety, the contents of the FSF ALAR Tool Kit may be displayed, printed, photocopied and/or distributed on paper for noncommercial use. Except as specifically permitted above, the contents must not be offered for sale directly or indirectly, used commercially, distributed on the Internet and/or on any other electronic media without the prior written permission of Flight Safety Foundation. All uses of the FSF ALAR Tool Kit must credit Flight Safety Foundation. Contact Roger Rozelle, director of publications, for more information. © 2000, 2001 Flight Safety Foundation (official release v. 3.0) Flight Safety Foundation Suite 300, 601 Madison Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22314-1756 U.S. Telephone: +1 (703) 739-6700; Fax: +1 (703) 739-6708