SA Chapter 7


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SA Chapter 7

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SA Chapter 7

  1. 1. Phase 2 : Systems analysis- Evaluating Alternatives and Strategies บทที่ 7
  2. 2. การวิเคราะห์ระบบ <ul><li>เป็น phase ที่ 2 ในวงจรการพัฒนาระบบ </li></ul><ul><li>มี 3 ขั้นตอน ได้แก่ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determination Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyzing Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Alternatives and Strategies </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Best to generate three alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides all required functionality users demand with a system that is minimally different from the current system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solves problem in question and provides many extra features users desire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midrange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise of features of high-end alternative with frugality of low-end alternative </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>In-house Development </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Customized </li></ul><ul><li>Other alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsource development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End-user Applications </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. 1. In-house Development Pros Cons <ul><ul><li>Allows flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skills and functional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge in-house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires significant time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often costs more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often takes more calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of project failure </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Application software packages <ul><li>Set of prewritten, precoded application software programs commercially available for sale or lease </li></ul>2. Purchase Packaged Software
  7. 8. Purchase Packaged Software <ul><li>Rarely a perfect fit with business needs </li></ul><ul><li>May not allow for customization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation of system parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing way features work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronizing with other application interfaces </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Sources of Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware manufacturers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packaged software producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise solution software </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. ขั้นตอนการซื้อโปรแกรมสำเร็จรูป <ul><li>Evaluate the information systems requirements and constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Identify potential software vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate software packages alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>- ตรงความต้องการ </li></ul><ul><li>- ใช้งานง่าย (user interface, help function etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>- performance (response time, data validation, security, backup and restore etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>- flexibility (many platforms supported etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>- Quality of documentation </li></ul><ul><li>- Vendor reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Make the purchase </li></ul>
  10. 11. Validating Purchased Software Information <ul><li>Information from vendor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Request for proposal (RFP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A document provided to vendors to ask them to propose hardware and software that will meet the requirements of your new system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Software evaluation period </li></ul><ul><li>Customer references from vendor </li></ul><ul><li>Independent software testing service </li></ul><ul><li>Trade publications </li></ul>
  11. 12. 3. Customization <ul><li>Modification of software package to meet organization’s unique requirements without destroying the software’s integrity </li></ul>
  12. 13. Systems Integration <ul><li>Building systems by combining packages, legacy systems, and custom pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating data is the key </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>The practice of turning over responsibility of some to all of an organization’s information systems applications and operations to an outside firm ( Hiring an external vendor, developer, or service provider) </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide a cost effective solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( May reduce costs or add value) </li></ul></ul>11. 4. Outsourcing
  14. 15. Outsourcing <ul><li>Risks include possibly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Losing confidential information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losing control over future development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losing learning opportunities </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. What are the three major types of outsourcing contracts? <ul><li>Time and arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed-price </li></ul>
  16. 17. Outsourcing Guidelines <ul><li>Keep lines of communication open </li></ul><ul><li>Define and stabilize requirements before signing the contract </li></ul><ul><li>View the relationship as a partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Select vendor, developer, or provider carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Assign someone to manage the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t outsource what you don’t understand </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize flexible requirements </li></ul>
  17. 18. 5. End-User Development <ul><li>Development of information systems by end users with little or no formal assistance from technical specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Allows users to specify their own business needs </li></ul><ul><li>Improves requirements gathering leading to higher level of user involvement and satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot easily handle processing of large numbers of transactions or applications </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Software components deliverable over Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Enable one application to communicate with another with no translation required </li></ul>Web Services
  19. 20. Web Services
  20. 21. Web Services
  21. 22. Present all options to management <ul><li>Develop an in house system </li></ul><ul><li>Modify the current system </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase or customize a software packaged </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing or Users develop their own system </li></ul><ul><li>Perform additional systems an analysis work </li></ul><ul><li>Stop all further work </li></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><li>Discussion : </li></ul><ul><li>If your university were investing in an on-line registration system, would you recommend -- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building it in-house? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying a package? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing the project? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the basis for your recommendation? </li></ul>