SA Chapter 2

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SA Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Information Systems Concepts
  2. 2. วัตถุประสงค์ <ul><li>Data, Process, Information </li></ul><ul><li>Information System </li></ul><ul><li>Information System examples </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Information Systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Data, Process, Information Data Process Information ข้อเท็จจริง ที่หน่วยงาน หรือระบบต้องการจัดเก็บ การทำให้ข้อมูลอยู่ ในรูปที่ใช้ประโยชน์ ได้สะดวก ข้อมูลที่ถูกประมวลผล ให้อยู่ในรูปที่ ใช้ประโยชน์ได้สะดวก
  4. 4. Information System <ul><li>ระบบที่ประกอบด้วย ข้อมูล ( data) วิธีการ </li></ul><ul><li>ประมวลผล (process) และ กลุ่มคน (people) ที่ทำ </li></ul><ul><li>หน้าที่ประมวลผลข้อมูล เพื่อให้ได้สารสนเทศที่ใช้ </li></ul><ul><li>สนับสนุนการทำงานขององค์กรในระดับปฏิบัติการ </li></ul><ul><li>รวมทั้งสนับสนุนการทำงานในระดับบริหาร อาทิ </li></ul><ul><li>การวางแผนงาน การตัดสินใจ การกำหนดกลยุทธ์ ฯลฯ </li></ul>
  5. 6. Information System Development Information Systems Data Process Programs Manual Procedure Database System Data Oriented Process Oriented Oriented (a) : giving a lot of time, effort, or attention to one particular thing
  6. 7. Information System : example Purchasing System <ul><li>Vendor Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Ordering </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Buying </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Account Payable </li></ul>Inspection(n) : a careful examination of something to find out more about it or to check for anything wrong
  7. 8. Information System : example Production System <ul><li>Raw Material Inventory Control </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Requirement Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Production Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Shop Floor Control </li></ul><ul><li>Finished Goods Inventory Control </li></ul><ul><li>Costing </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping and Distribution </li></ul>
  8. 9. Information System : example Human Resources System <ul><li>Employee Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits Projections </li></ul><ul><li>Employment History </li></ul><ul><li>Skills Inventory </li></ul>Compensation (n) : money paid to someone because they have suffered injury or loss, or because something they own has been damage
  9. 10. Information System : example Finance System <ul><li>General Ledger </li></ul><ul><li>Payroll </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Assets </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeting </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio Analysis </li></ul>Portfolio (n) : a group of stocks owned by a particular person or company
  10. 11. Information System : example Receivable System <ul><li>Customer Invoicing and Billing </li></ul><ul><li>Cash Receipts </li></ul><ul><li>Account Receivable </li></ul>
  11. 12. Information System : example Marketing System <ul><li>Order Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Site </li></ul>Demographics (n) : a part of the population that is considered as a group, especially by advertisers who want to sell things to that group
  12. 13. Basic Information Systems Order Entry Inventory Control Purchasing Account Payable General Ledger Payroll Account Receivable Billing
  13. 14. Types of Information Systems <ul><li>Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) </li></ul><ul><li>Management Information Systems(MIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Support Systems (DSS) </li></ul><ul><li>expert system </li></ul><ul><li>communications and collaboration system </li></ul><ul><li>office automation system </li></ul>
  14. 15. Transaction Processing System Characteristics : <ul><li>High-volume, data capture focus ; </li></ul><ul><li>goal is efficiency of data movement and </li></ul><ul><li>processing and interfacing different TPSs </li></ul>Capture (n) : when you put information into a form a computer can use Goal (n) : something that you hope to achieve in the future
  15. 16. Transaction Processing System Systems Development Methods : <ul><li>Process orientation ; </li></ul><ul><li>concern with capturing, validating, and </li></ul><ul><li>storing data and with moving data </li></ul><ul><li>between each required step. </li></ul>Validate (v) : to prove that something is true or correct, or to make a document or agreement officially and legally acceptable Concern (v) : to make someone feel worried or upset
  16. 17. Management Information System Characteristics : <ul><li>Draws on diverse yet predictable data </li></ul><ul><li>resources to aggregate and summarize </li></ul><ul><li>data ; may involve forecasting future data </li></ul><ul><li>from historical trends and business </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge </li></ul>Draw on : to use information, experience, knowledge etc for a particular purpose Diverse (a) : very different from each other Predictable (a) : if something or someone is predictable, you know what will happen or what they will do Aggregate (v) : to put different amounts, pieces of information etc together to form a group or a total Involve (v) : to include or affect someone or something
  17. 18. Management Information System Systems Development Methods : <ul><li>Data orientation ; </li></ul><ul><li>concern with understanding relationships </li></ul><ul><li>among data so data can be accessed and </li></ul><ul><li>summarized in a variety of ways ; builds a </li></ul><ul><li>model of data that supports a variety of </li></ul><ul><li>uses. </li></ul>Variety (n) : a lot of things of the same type that are different from each other in some way
  18. 19. Decision Support System Characteristics : <ul><li>Provides guidance in identifying </li></ul><ul><li>problems, finding and evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>alternative solutions, and selecting or </li></ul><ul><li>comparing alternatives; potentially </li></ul><ul><li>involves group of decision makers; often </li></ul><ul><li>involves semi-structure problems and the </li></ul><ul><li>need to access data at different levels of detail </li></ul>Guidance (n) : help and advice that is given to someone about their work, education, or personal life Evaluate (v) : to judge how good, useful, or successful something is Alternative (n) : something you can choose to do or use instead of something else Potential (a) : likely to develop into a particular type of person or thing in the future
  19. 20. Decision Support System Systems Development Methods : <ul><li>Data and logic orientations ; </li></ul><ul><li>Design of user dialogue; group </li></ul><ul><li>communication may also be key, and </li></ul><ul><li>access to unpredictable data may be </li></ul><ul><li>necessary; nature of systems requires </li></ul><ul><li>iterative development and almost </li></ul><ul><li>constant updating. </li></ul>
  20. 21. expert system <ul><li>An expert system is an information system that captures the expertise of workers and then simulates that expertise to the benefit of non-experts. </li></ul>
  21. 22. communications and collaboration system <ul><li>A communications and collaboration system is an information system that enables more effective communications between workers, partners, customers, and suppliers to enhance their ability to collaborate. </li></ul>
  22. 23. office automation system <ul><li>An office automation system is an information system that supports the wide range of business office activities that provide for improved work flow between workers. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Stakeholders: Players in the Systems Game <ul><li>A stakeholder is any person who has an interest in an existing or proposed information system. Stakeholders can be technical or nontechnical workers. They may also include both internal and external workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Information workers are those workers whose jobs involve the creation, collection, processing, distribution, and use of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge workers are a subset of information workers whose responsibilities are based on a specialized body of knowledge. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Stakeholders: Players in the Systems Game
  25. 26. System Owners <ul><li>System owners – an information system’s sponsor and executive advocate, usually responsible for funding the project of developing, operating, and maintaining the information system. </li></ul>
  26. 27. System Users <ul><li>System users – a “customer” who will use or is affected by an information system on a regular basis – capturing, validating, entering, responding to, storing, and exchanging data and information. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Internal System Users <ul><li>Clerical and service workers </li></ul><ul><li>Technical and professional staff </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors, middle managers, and executive managers </li></ul>
  28. 29. External System Users <ul><li>Customers </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Partners </li></ul><ul><li>Employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote users - users who are not physically located on the premises but who still requires access to information systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile users - users whose location is constantly changing but who requires access to information systems from any location </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. System Designers and System Builders <ul><li>System designer – a technical specialist who translates system users’ business requirements and constraints into technical solution. She or he designs the computer databases, inputs, outputs, screens, networks, and software that will meet the system users’ requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>System builders – a technical specialist who constructs information systems and components based on the design specifications generated by the system designers. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Systems Analysts <ul><li>Systems analyst – a specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A programmer/analyst (or analyst/programmer ) includes the responsibilities of both the computer programmer and the systems analyst. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A business analyst focuses on only the non-technical aspects of systems analysis and design. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. The Systems Analyst as a Problem-Solver <ul><li>By &quot;Problems&quot; that need solving, we mean: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems , either real or anticipated, that require corrective action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities to improve a situation despite the absence of complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directives to change a situation regardless of whether anyone has complained about the current situation </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Where Do Systems Analysts Work?
  33. 34. Skills Needed by the Systems Analyst <ul><li>Working knowledge of information technology </li></ul><ul><li>Computer programming experience and expertise </li></ul><ul><li>General business knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>General problem-solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>Good interpersonal communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Good interpersonal relations skills </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility and adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Character and ethics </li></ul>
  34. 35. The Systems Analyst as Facilitator
  35. 36. <ul><li>1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Thou shalt not interfere with other people’s computer work. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s computer files. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Thou shalt not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Thou shalt not appropriate other people’s intellectual output. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that insure consideration and respect for your fellow human </li></ul>The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics Source: Computer Ethics Institute
  36. 37. Other Stakeholders External Service Provider (ESP) – a systems analyst, system designer, or system builder who sells his or her expertise and experience to other businesses to help those businesses purchase, develop, or integrate their information systems solutions; may be affiliated with a consulting or services organization. Project Manager – an experienced professional who accepts responsibility for planning, monitoring, and controlling projects with respect to schedule, budget, deliverables, customer satisfaction, technical standards, and system quality.
  37. 38. Business Drivers for Today’s Information Systems <ul><li>Globalization of the Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Commerce and Business </li></ul><ul><li>Security and Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration and Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Asset Management </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Improvement and Total Quality Management </li></ul><ul><li>Business Process Redesign </li></ul>
  38. 39. Globalization of the Economy <ul><li>Global Economy brings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New and expanded international markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New international competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require support of multiple languages, currency exchange rates, business cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require consolidation of international data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for players who can communicate, orally and in writing, with management and users that speak different languages </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Electronic Commerce and Business <ul><li>E-Commerce – the buying and selling of goods and services by using the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>E-Business – the use of the Internet to conduct and support day-to-day business activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of e-commerce and e-business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing of corporate image, products, and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business-to-consumer (B2C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business-to-business (B2B) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most new information systems are being designed for an Internet (or intranet) architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the only client-side software is a web browser, the choice of client operating system is becoming less important </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. An Electronic Commerce Storefront
  41. 42. An Electronic Commerce Procurement Storefront
  42. 43. e-business/ Dot com business <ul><li>e-business is a new business structure which takes advantage of the Internet and computers. In an environment of expanding networks, this is an innovative business structure connecting that expansion with the expansion of transactions. It is achieved by defining a business model and making changes in business processes, rules, and organization. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Dot com business <ul><li>Dot com business (.com business) is a collective term referring to general business activities using the Internet. The term “dot com (.com)” is the domain name indicating the US “company.” </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations actively doing business on the Internet are called “.com (dot com) companies” or “e-companies.” </li></ul>
  44. 45. EC (Electronic Commerce) <ul><li>EC (Electronic Commerce) : It is a method of selling goods and services on a network such as the Internet instead of at a store or through conventional mail order. A business can be started with little capital, and the operating costs can be significantly reduced because there is no store and just a few people are managing the business. Also it is possible to provide different information to different customers. </li></ul>
  45. 46. SOHO <ul><li>SOHO (Small Office Home Office) is a term coined by joining the phrases s mall office and home office . The former is an attempt to use business resources in and out of the company effectively through networks such as the Internet. The latter refers to working at home by obtaining necessary information by accessing the company server from home and working via network communication. This is a business mode popularized with the growth of the Internet. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Virtual company <ul><li>Virtual company : It is a corporate structure where a company is set up virtually on a network and is managed by multiple people. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Security and Privacy <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will the business continue in the even of a security breach, terrorist attack, or disaster? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can the business protect its digital assets from outside threats? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer demands for privacy in e-commerce transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to incorporate stringent security and privacy controls </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Collaboration and Partnership <ul><li>Organizations seek to break down the walls that separate organizational departments and functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations collaborate with outside business partners and even competitors. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to provide secure, external access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to pass data between different information systems </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Knowledge Asset Management <ul><li>Data – raw facts about people, places, events, and things that are of importance in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Information – data that has been processed or reorganized into a more meaningful form for someone. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge – data and information that is further refined based on the facts, truths, beliefs, judgments, experiences, and expertise of the recipient. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Asset Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes that data, information, and knowledge are critical business resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asks: “How can the organization manage and share knowledge for competitive advantage?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strives to integrate the data and information that can create and preserve knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Continuous Improvement and Total Quality Management <ul><li>Business Processes – Tasks that respond to business events (e.g., an order). Business processes are the work, procedures, and rules required to complete the business tasks, independent of any information technology used to automate or support them. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous process improvement (CPI) – The continuous monitoring of business processes to effect small but measurable improvements in cost reduction and value added. </li></ul><ul><li>Total quality management (TQM) – a comprehensive approach to facilitating quality improvements and management within a business. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Business Process Redesign <ul><li>Business process redesign (BPR) is the study, analysis, and redesign of fundamental business processes to reduce costs and/or improve value added to the business. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More substantial changes and improvements than CPI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually complemented by CPI </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Technology Drivers for Today’s Information Systems <ul><li>Networks and the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile and Wireless Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Object Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Applications </li></ul>
  53. 54. Networks and the Internet <ul><li>Networks include mainframe time-sharing systems, network servers, and a variety of desktop, laptop, and handheld client computers. </li></ul><ul><li>The most pervasive networking technologies are based on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XHTML and XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripting languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-specific programming languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web services </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. Mobile and Wireless Technologies <ul><li>Some mobile and wireless technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless networking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless connectivity must be assumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations of mobile devices and screen sizes must be accommodated </li></ul></ul>
  55. 56. Object Technologies <ul><li>Object technology – a software technology that defines a system in terms of objects that consolidate data and behavior (into objects). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects are reusable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects are extensible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object-oriented programming languages include C++, Java, Smalltalk, and .NET </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Object-oriented analysis and design – a collection of tools and techniques for systems development that will utilize object technologies to construct a system and its software. </li></ul><ul><li>Agile development – a system development strategy in which system developers are given the flexibility to select from a variety of tools and techniques to best accomplish the tasks at hand. </li></ul>
  56. 57. Collaborative Technologies <ul><li>Collaborate technologies are those that enhance interpersonal communications and teamwork. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work flow </li></ul></ul>
  57. 58. Enterprise Applications <ul><li>Virtually all organizations require a core set of enterprise applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial mgmt, human resources, sales, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently purchased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently need to have custom elements added </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems Integration - the process of building a unified information system out of diverse components of purchases software, custom-built software, hardware, and networking. </li></ul>
  58. 59. Enterprise Applications
  59. 60. <ul><li>ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) is the concept of planning optimization of management resources through company-wide understanding of business information. Integrated (cross-sectoral) software to achieve this goal is called an ERP package. An ERP package is a software package integrating, in one database, all the common tasks regardless of the task type such as production management, accounting, sales management, personnel, and payroll. </li></ul>
  60. 61. Enterprise Applications - ERP <ul><li>Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) – a software application that fully integrates information systems that span most or all of the basic, core business functions. </li></ul><ul><li>An ERP solution is built around a common database shared by common business functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Representative ERP vendors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle/Peoplesoft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAP AG </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. Enterprise Applications - SCM <ul><li>Supply Chain Management (SCM) – a software application that optimizes business processes for raw material procurement through finished product distribution by directly integrating the logistical information systems of organizations with those of their suppliers and distributors. </li></ul><ul><li>Representative SCM vendors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i2 Technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manugistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCT </li></ul></ul>
  62. 63. Supply Chain
  63. 64. CRM (Customer Relationship Management) <ul><li>CRM (Customer Relationship Management) is the concept that all departments which have contact opportunities with customers should share and manage customer information and contact history so that any questions from the customers can be answered appropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies attempt to promote the expansion of their customers by integrating all communication channels including telephone, fax, the Web, and e-mail, reinforcing the relationships with their customers and providing services that meet individual customer needs. </li></ul>
  64. 65. Enterprise Applications - CRM <ul><li>Customer Relationship Management (CRM) </li></ul><ul><li>– a software application that provides customers with access to a business’s processes from initial inquiry through postsale service and support. </li></ul><ul><li>Representative CRM vendors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BroadVision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.piphany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amdocs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle/Peoplesoft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siebel </li></ul></ul>
  65. 66. SFA (Sales Force Automation) <ul><li>SFA (Sales Force Automation) is the basic concept of information systems that facilitate work restructuring of the entire sales activities that support corporate profits by using information technology. For example, more sales can be generated by managing previous contact records for each customer on computers. Moreover, transfer of work to new staff can be made more smoothly. </li></ul>
  66. 67. CTI (Computer Telephony Integration) <ul><li>CTI (Computer Telephony Integration) is technology that provides a high level of telephone services by combining the information processing functions of computers and the communication functions of telephone switches. </li></ul>
  67. 68. Enterprise Applications - EAI <ul><li>Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) </li></ul><ul><li>– the process and technologies used to link applications to support the flow of data and information between those applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Middleware </li></ul><ul><li>– software (usually purchased) used to translate and route data between different applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Representative EAI vendors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BEA Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM (MQSeries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercator Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TIBCO Software </li></ul></ul>
  68. 69. Enterprise Application Integration
  69. 70. System Development Process <ul><li>System development process </li></ul><ul><li>– a set of activities, methods, best practices, deliverables, and automated tools that stakeholders use to develop and maintain information systems and software. </li></ul><ul><li>A general problem-solving approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze and understand the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify solution requirements or expectations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify alternative solutions and choose the “best” course of action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design the chosen solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement the chosen solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the results. If the problem is not solved, return to step 1 or 2 as appropriate. </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. A Simple System Development Process <ul><ul><li>Implement the chosen solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the results. If the problem is not solved, return to step 1 or 2 as appropriate. </li></ul></ul>System implementation <ul><ul><li>Identify alternative solutions and choose the “best” course of action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design the chosen solution. </li></ul></ul>System design <ul><ul><li>Analyze and understand the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify solution requirements or expectations. </li></ul></ul>System analysis <ul><ul><li>Identify the problem. </li></ul></ul>System initiation General Problem-Solving Steps Our Simplified System Development Process
  71. 72. Systems Development Process Overview
  72. 73. System Development Process Overview <ul><li>System initiation </li></ul><ul><li>– the initial planning for a project to define initial business scope, goals, schedule, and budget. </li></ul><ul><li>System analysis </li></ul><ul><li>– the study of a business problem domain to recommend improvements and specify the business requirements and priorities for the solution. </li></ul><ul><li>System design </li></ul><ul><li>– the specification or construction of a technical, computer-based solution for the business requirements identified in a system analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>System implementation </li></ul><ul><li>– the construction, installation, testing, and delivery of a system into production. </li></ul>
  73. 74. Project and Process Management <ul><li>Project management </li></ul><ul><li>– the activity of defining, planning, directing, monitoring, and controlling a project to develop an acceptable system within the allotted time and budget. </li></ul><ul><li>Process management </li></ul><ul><li>– the ongoing activity that defines, improves, and coordinates the use of an organization’s chosen methodology (the “process”) and standards for all system development projects. </li></ul>
  74. 75. Summary <ul><li>Data, Process, Information </li></ul><ul><li>Information System </li></ul><ul><li>Information System examples </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul>

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