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Ec2009 ch07 e government e-learning e-supply chains collaborative commerce and intrabusiness ec


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Chapter 7
E-government e-learning e-supply chains collaborative commerce and intrabusiness ec

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Ec2009 ch07 e government e-learning e-supply chains collaborative commerce and intrabusiness ec

  1. 1. Chapter 7 E-Government, E-Learning, and Other EC Applications
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe e-government to citizens (G2C) and to business (G2B). </li></ul><ul><li>Describe various e-government initiatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss online publishing and e-books. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe e-learning and virtual universities. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (cont.) <ul><li>Describe knowledge management and dissemination. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe C2C activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how peer-to-peer technology works in intrabusiness, in B2B, and in C2C. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe other EC applications. </li></ul>
  4. 4. E-Learning at Cisco Systems <ul><li>The Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco’s products are continuously being upgraded or replaced; so extensive training of employees and customers is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees, business partners, and independent students seeking professional certification all require training on a continuous basis </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. E-Learning at Cisco Systems (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Traditional classroom training was both expensive and ineffective because of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rapid growth in the number of students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The fast pace of technological change </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. E-Learning at Cisco Systems (cont.) <ul><li>The Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built two e-learning portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For 40 partner companies that sell Cisco products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For 4,000 systems engineers who implement the products after the sale </li></ul></ul></ul>e-learning
  7. 7. E-Learning at Cisco Systems (cont.) <ul><ul><li>To encourage its own employees to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-learning, Cisco: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes e-learning a mandatory part of employees’ jobs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offers easy access to e-learning tools via the Web. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes e-learning nonthreatening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help employees pass and remove the fear associated with failed tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offers additional incentives and rewards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds e-learning as a strategic top-down metric for Cisco executives </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. E-Learning at Cisco Systems (cont.) <ul><li>For its employees, partners, and customers, Cisco operates E-Learning Centers for Excellence that offer training </li></ul>
  9. 9. E-Learning at Cisco Systems (cont.) <ul><li>The Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced costs of developing and blending courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saved productivity, travel and lodging costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saved per capita trainee costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are able to offer more courses at lower costs </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. E-Learning at Cisco Systems (cont.) <ul><li>What we can learn… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of e-learning as an efficient training tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-learning is also becoming popular in all levels and types of schools and universities </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. E-Government <ul><li>E-government: The use of IT and e-commerce to provide access to government information and delivery of public services to citizens and business partners </li></ul><ul><li>Offers an opportunity to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the functions of government and to make governments more transparent to citizens and businesses by providing access to more of the information generated by government </li></ul>
  12. 12. E-Government (cont.) <ul><li>Government-to-citizens (G2C): </li></ul><ul><li>E-government category that includes all the interactions between a government and its citizens </li></ul>
  13. 13. E-Government (cont.) <ul><li>Major features of government Web sites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phone and address information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>links to other sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>publications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>databases </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. E-Government (cont.) <ul><li>Major areas of G2C activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tourism and recreation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research and education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>downloadable forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discovery of government services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information about public policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>advice about health and safety issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Useful in solving constituents’ problems </li></ul>
  15. 15. E-Government (cont.) <ul><li>Netizen: A citizen surfing the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nationwide EBT system to deliver government benefits electronically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>deliver benefits to recipients’ bank accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smart card system for those without bank accounts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. E-Government (cont.) <ul><li>Government-to-business (G2B): E-government category that includes interactions between governments and businesses (government selling to businesses and providing them with services and businesses selling products and services to government) </li></ul>
  17. 17. E-Government (cont.) <ul><li>Group purchasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eFAST service conducts reverse auctions for aggregated orders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forward e-auctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>auction surplus or other goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tax collection and management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic filing of taxes is now available in over 100 countries </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. E-Government (cont.) <ul><li>Government-to-government (G2G): E-government category that includes activities within government units and those between governments </li></ul><ul><li>Government-to-employees (G2E): E-government category that includes activities and services between government units and their employees </li></ul>
  19. 19. Implementing E-Government <ul><li>Transformation process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1: Information publishing/dissemination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2: “Official” two-way transactions with one department at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Multipurpose portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 4: Portal personalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 5: Clustering of common services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 6: Full integration and enterprise transformation </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Implementing E-Government (cont.)
  21. 21. Implementing E-Government (cont.) <ul><li>Implementation issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G2B implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security and privacy issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless applications </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Implementing E-Government (cont.)
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Online Publishing, E-Books,and Blogging <ul><li>Online publishing: The electronic delivery of newspapers, magazines, books, news, music, videos, and other digitizable information over the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>e-zines: Electronic magazines </li></ul>
  26. 26. Online Publishing <ul><li>Online publishing approaches and methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online-archive approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New-medium approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing-intermediation approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic approach </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Online Publishing (cont.) <ul><li>Content providers and distributors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who provide and distribute content online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The issue of intellectual property payments is critical to the success of content distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2002, many online content providers were starting to charge for content, as advertising was insufficient to cover their expenses </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Online Publishing (cont.) <ul><li>Publishing of music, videos, games, and entertainment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Webcasting: Live shows broadcast on the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Webinars: Seminars on the Web (Web-based seminars) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edutainment: The combination of education and entertainment, often through games </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. E-Books <ul><li>E-book: A book in digital form that can be read on a computer screen or on a special device </li></ul><ul><li>E-books can be delivered and read via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web download </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General-purpose reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web server </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. E-Books (cont.) <ul><li>Types of e-books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online bookshelf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The download </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Rubics-cube hyperlink book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The interactive, build-your-own (BYO) decision book </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. E-Books (cont.) <ul><li>Advantages of e-books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower production and distribution costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower updating and reproduction costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to reach many readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of combining several books (customization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower advertising costs </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. E-Books (cont.) <ul><li>Limitations of e-books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-books require hardware and software that may be too expensive for some readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people have difficulty reading large amounts of material on a screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batteries may run down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are multiple, competing standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only a few books are available as e-books </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. E-Books (cont.) <ul><li>E-book issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to protect the publisher’s/author’s copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to distribute and sell e-books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much to charge and collect payment for an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to best support navigation in an e-book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which standards to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to increase reading speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to deal with resistance to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to design an e-book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How publishers can justify e-books in terms of profit and market share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to secure content </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. E-Books (cont.) <ul><li>Print on demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customized printing jobs, usually in small quantities, and possibly only one document or book </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A publisher creates a digital master and sends it to a specialized print-on-demand company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When an order is placed, a print-on-demand machine prints out the text of the document or book, then covers, binds, and trims it (300-page book in 1 minute) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The books are packaged and shipped to the publisher or the consumer </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Blogging <ul><li>Weblogging/blogging: Technology for personal publishing on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Blog: A personal Web site that is open to the public </li></ul>
  36. 36. Weblog
  37. 37. E-Learning <ul><li>E-learning: The online delivery of information for purposes of education, training, or knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Web-enabled system that makes knowledge accessible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to those who need it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when they need it, anytime, anywhere </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. E-Learning (cont.)
  39. 39. E-Learning (cont.) <ul><li>Benefits of e-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large volume and diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher content retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updated and consistent material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear-free environment </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. E-Learning (cont.) <ul><li>Drawbacks and challenges of e-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for instructor retraining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment needs and support services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of face-to-face interaction and campus life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance and updating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of intellectual property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student retention </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. E-Learning Failures <ul><li>E-learning failures due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believing that e-learning is always a cheaper learning or training alternative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overestimating what e-learning can accomplish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlooking the shortcomings of self-study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failing to look beyond the course paradigms </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. E-Learning (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Viewing content as a commodity, which causes lack of attention to quality and delivery to individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignoring technology tools for e-learning or, on the other hand, fixating too much on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology as a solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming that learned knowledge will be applied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believing that because e-learning has been implemented, employees and students will use it </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. E-Learning (cont.) <ul><li>Virtual and online universities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance learning: Formal education that takes place off campus, usually, but not always, through online resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual university: An online university from which students take classes from home or other off-site locations usually via the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. E-Learning (cont.) <ul><li>Online corporate training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>via the intranet and corporate portals or the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. E-Learning (cont.) <ul><li>Drivers of e-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition and cost pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continual learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network connectivity </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. E-Learning (cont.) <ul><li>E-learning tools available from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WebCT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blackboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Space from Lotus Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. E-Learning (cont.) <ul><li>Implementing e-learning centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A learning center is a focal point for all corporate training and learning activities, including online ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities may be run by a third party rather than connected to any particular corporation, and they are referred to as electronic education malls </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48.
  49. 49. learning . sau . ac . th / ATutor
  50. 50. <ul><li>ระบบสนับสนุนการทำงาน ของ Learn2 </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบการสมัครเรียน </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบการลงทะเบียน </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบการเรียน </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบการจัดการหลักสูตร </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบการจัดตารางสอน </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบการจัดการผู้ใช้งาน </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบสนทนา เว็บบอร์ด </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>ระบบจดหมายอิเลกทรอนิกส์ </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบปฏิทินนัดหมาย </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบการติดตามการเข้าเรียน </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบจัดการข้อมูลส่วนตัว </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบสร้างข้อสอบและประเมินผลอัตโนมัติ </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบการออกใบรับรองอัตโนมัติ </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบรายงานสถิติต่างๆ </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบสำรองข้อมูล </li></ul><ul><li>ระบบการกระจายเนื้อหา </li></ul>
  52. 52. Knowledge Management and E-Commerce <ul><li>Knowledge management (KM): The process of capturing or creating knowledge, storing it, updating it constantly, interpreting it, and using it whenever necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational knowledge base: The repository for an enterprise’s accumulated knowledge </li></ul>
  53. 53. Knowledge Management (cont.) <ul><li>KM types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured capital (organizational capital) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer capital </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Knowledge Management (cont.) <ul><li>KM activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating knowledge repositories where knowledge can be stored and retrieved easily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing a knowledge environment in order to conduct more effective knowledge creation, transfer and use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing knowledge as an asset so as to increase the effective use of knowledge assets over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving knowledge access to facilitate its transfer between individuals </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Knowledge Management (cont.) <ul><li>Knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge has a limited value if it is not shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to share knowledge decreases its cost and increases its effectiveness for greater competitive advantage </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Knowledge Management (cont.) <ul><li>Song (2002) proposed a framework for organizing and sharing knowledge gleaned from the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>list strategic goals and objectives and the critical information needed for their attainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>build analysis and storage mechanism as part of a business intelligence system </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Knowledge Management and E-C (cont.) <ul><li>KM relationship to EC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organizations need knowledge, which is provided by KM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large amounts of data can be gathered easily, and through analysis organizations learn about their clients and generate useful knowledge for planning and decision making </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Core knowledge management activities should include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture and codification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of the knowledge needed to develop products and partnerships </li></ul></ul>Knowledge Management and E-C (cont.)
  59. 59. <ul><li>Knowledge portal: A single point of access software system intended to provide timely access to information and to support communities of knowledge workers </li></ul>Knowledge Management and E-C (cont.)
  60. 60. <ul><li>Online advice and consulting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management consulting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gurus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other advisory services </li></ul></ul>Knowledge Management and E-C (cont.)
  61. 61. Customer-to-Customer EC <ul><li>Customer-to-customer (C2C): </li></ul><ul><li>e-commerce in which both the buyer and the seller are individuals (not businesses); involves activities such as auctions and classified ads </li></ul>C2C
  62. 62. Customer-to-Customer EC (cont.) <ul><li>C2C auctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>general sites (, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specialized sites (, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classified ads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>national, rather than a local, audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greatly increases the supply of goods and services available and the number of potential buyers </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Personal services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lawyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>handy helpers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tax preparers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>investment clubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dating services </li></ul></ul>Customer-to-Customer EC (cont.)
  64. 64. <ul><li>C2C exchanges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consumer-to-consumer bartering exchanges ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consumer exchanges that help buyers and sellers find each other and negotiate deals (see </li></ul></ul>Customer-to-Customer EC (cont.)
  65. 65. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications <ul><li>Peer-to-peer (P2P): A network architecture in which workstations (or PCs) share data and processing with each other directly rather than through a central server </li></ul>P2P
  66. 66. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Characteristics of P2P systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide for real-time access to other users (e.g., instant messaging) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maximize the use of physical attributes such as processor cycles, storage space, bandwidth, and location on the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employ user interfaces that load outside of a Web browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>address the need to reach content resources located on the Internet periphery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support “cross-networking” protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promote popular interest by doing something new or exciting </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>P2P networking connects people directly to other people </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an easy system for sharing, publishing, and interacting that does not require knowledge of system administration </li></ul>
  68. 68. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Models of P2P applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business process automation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed search </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications (cont.)
  70. 70. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>C2C P2P applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napster— people could enter files that other people were willing to share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. federal court found Napster to be in violation of copyright laws because it enabled people to obtain music files without paying the creators of the music for access to their material </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Gnutella ( a P2P program connects the peer computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kazaa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICQ (the instant messenger-type chat room) where chatters share the same screen </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>Intrabusiness P2P applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>companies are using P2P to facilitate internal collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B2B P2P applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enable companies to store documents in-house instead of on an unknown, and possibly unsecured, server </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Applications (cont.) <ul><li>B2C P2P applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B2C payments </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Other EC Applications <ul><li>Selling prescription drugs online </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postal services </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Services for adults </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Other EC Applications (cont.) <ul><li>E-alliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For a large EC project, a company may join with a technology provider, a logistics provider, and a bank </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wedding-related sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wedding channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gift registries </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Managerial Issues <ul><li>Are there e-government opportunities? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there e-learning opportunities? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we capitalize on C2C? </li></ul><ul><li>How well are we managing our knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there P2P applications? </li></ul>
  77. 77. Summary <ul><li>E-government to citizens and businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Other e-government activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Online publishing and e-books. </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning, and virtual universities. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Knowledge management and dissemination. </li></ul><ul><li>C2C activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer technology and applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Other innovative applications. </li></ul>
  79. 79. E-Supply Chains, Collaborative Commerce, and Intrabusiness EC
  80. 81. Tourism C-commerce
  81. 82. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define the e-supply chain and describe its characteristics and components. </li></ul><ul><li>List supply chain problems and their causes. </li></ul><ul><li>List solutions to supply chain problems provided by EC. </li></ul><ul><li>Define c-commerce and list its major types. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe collaborative planning and Collaboration, Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishing (CPFR), and list their benefits. </li></ul>
  82. 83. Learning Objectives (cont.) <ul><li>Define intrabusiness EC and describe its major activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss integration along the supply chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand corporate portals and their types and roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe e-collaboration tools such as workflow and groupware. </li></ul>
  83. 84. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online <ul><li>The Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information regarding a new car design has to be shared among a pool of approximately 20,000 designers and engineers in hundreds of divisions and departments at 14 GM design labs, some of which are located in different countries </li></ul></ul>
  84. 85. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Communication and collaboration with the design engineers of the more than 1,000 key suppliers could mean 4 years to completion of a model </li></ul></ul>
  85. 86. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online (cont.) <ul><li>The Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GM began by examining over 7,000 existing legacy IT systems, reducing that number to about 3,000 and making them Web enabled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer-aided design (CAD) program that allows 3D design documents to be shared online by both the designers (internal and external) and engineers </li></ul></ul>
  86. 87. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Collaborative and Web conferencing software tools have radically changed the vehicle review process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GM electronically sends its specifications for the seat to the vendor’s product data system allowing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Searching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tooling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testing in real time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This expedites the process and cuts costs by more than 10% </li></ul></ul>
  87. 88. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online (cont.) <ul><li>The Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It now takes less than 18 months to bring a new car to market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The change has produced enormous savings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter cycle time enables GM to bring out more new car models more quickly, providing the company with a competitive edge </li></ul></ul>
  88. 89. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online (cont.) <ul><li>What we can learn… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications of EC that help reduce costs and increase profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative commerce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improvements along the supply chain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B2E </li></ul></ul></ul>
  89. 90. E-Supply Chains <ul><li>The success of organizations depends on their ability to manage the flow of materials, information, and money into, within, and out of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain involves activities that take place during the entire product life cycle including the movement of information, money and individuals involved in the movement of a product or a service </li></ul>
  90. 91. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>Supply chain: The flow of materials, information, money, and services from raw material suppliers through factories and warehouses to the end customers </li></ul><ul><li>E-supply chain: A supply chain that is managed electronically, usually with Web technologies </li></ul>
  91. 92. E-Supply Chains (cont.)
  92. 93. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>Supply chain parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upstream supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>activities of a manufacturing company with its suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in-house processes for transforming the inputs from the suppliers into the outputs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downstream supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>activities involved in delivering the products to the final customers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  93. 94. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>Managing supply chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-supply chain management (e-SCM): The collaborative use of technology to improve the operations of supply chain activities as well as the management of supply chains </li></ul></ul>
  94. 95. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>The success of an e-supply chain depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability of all supply chain partners to view partner collaboration as a strategic asset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information visibility along the entire supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed, cost, quality, and customer service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating the supply chain segments more tightly </li></ul></ul>
  95. 96. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>E-supply chain consists of six processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply chain replenishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-procurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative design and product development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of B2B exchanges and supply webs </li></ul></ul>
  96. 97. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>Major infrastructure elements and tools of e-supply chains are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow systems and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupware and other collaborative tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDI and EDI/Internet </li></ul></ul>
  97. 98. Supply Chain Problems and Solutions <ul><li>Typical problems along the supply chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow and prone to errors because of the length of the chain involving many internal and external partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large inventories without the ability to meet demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient logistics infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor quality </li></ul></ul>
  98. 99. Supply Chain Problems (cont.) <ul><li>Bullwhip effect: Erratic shifts in orders up and down supply chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates production and inventory problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockpiling can lead to large inventories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effect is handled by information sharing—collaborative commerce </li></ul>
  99. 100. Supply Chain Problems (cont.) <ul><li>Need for information sharing along the supply chain including issues on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>product pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shipping status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>credit and financial information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technology news </li></ul></ul>
  100. 101. Supply Chain Problems (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Information systems are the links that enable communication and collaboration along the supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information and information technology are one of the keys to the success, and even the survival in today’s economy </li></ul></ul>
  101. 102. Supply Chain Problems (cont.) <ul><li>Major solutions provided by an EC approach and technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order fulfillment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic payments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventories can be minimized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative commerce </li></ul></ul>
  102. 103. Collaborative Commerce <ul><li>Collaborative commerce </li></ul><ul><li>(c-commerce): The use of digital technologies that enable companies to collaboratively plan, design, develop, manage, and research products, services, and innovative EC applications </li></ul>
  103. 104. Collaborative Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Major benefits are: cost reduction, increased revenue, better customer retention </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fewer stock outs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less exception processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced inventory throughout the supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower materials costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased sales volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased competitive advantage </li></ul></ul>
  104. 105. Collaborative Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Collaboration can be done both between and within organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative platform can help in communication and collaboration between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>headquarters and subsidiaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>franchisers and franchisees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The platform provides around the globe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>message boards and chat rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>online corporate data access </li></ul></ul>
  105. 106. Collaborative Commerce (cont.)
  106. 107. Collaborative Commerce (cont.)
  107. 108. Collaborative Commerce ( cont.) <ul><li>Information sharing between retailers and suppliers: P&G and Wal-Mart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart provides P&G access to sales information on every item P&G makes for Wal-Mart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished done electronically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P&G has accurate demand information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart has adequate inventory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  108. 109. Collaborative Commerce Example: Target <ul><li>Retailer–supplier collaboration: Target Corporation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducts EC activities with 20,000 trading partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extranet enables Target to reach many more partners, and to use applications not available on the traditional EDI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business customers create personalized Web pages </li></ul></ul>
  109. 110. Collaborative Commerce Example: Target (cont.)
  110. 111. Collaborative Commerce Example: Adaptec <ul><li>Reduction of design cycle time: Adaptec, Inc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptec outsources manufacturing tasks, concentrating on product research and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An extranet-based collaboration and enterprise-level supply chain integration software incorporates automated workflow and EC tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A reduction in its order-to-product-delivery time from 15 weeks to between 10 and 12 weeks </li></ul></ul>
  111. 112. Collaborative Commerce Example: Caterpillar <ul><li>Reduction of product development time: Caterpillar, Inc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle time along the supply chain was long because the process involved the transfer of paper documents among managers, salespeople, and technical staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented an extranet-based global collaboration system </li></ul></ul>
  112. 113. Collaborative Commerce Example: Caterpillar (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Remote collaboration capabilities between the customer and product developers have decreased cycle time delays caused by rework time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers are connected to the system so that they can deliver materials or parts directly to Caterpillar’s shops or directly to the customer if appropriate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The system also is used for expediting maintenance and repairs </li></ul></ul>
  113. 114. Collaborative Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Collaborative commerce and knowledge management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge management : the process of capturing or creating knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathering and making available experts’ opinions, as well as providing them to partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is also facilitated by KM </li></ul></ul>
  114. 115. Collaborative Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Barriers to c-commerce— lack of defined and universally agreed-on standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technical reasons involving integration, standards, and networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>security and privacy concerns over who has access to and control of information stored in a partner’s database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal resistance to information sharing and to new approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of internal skills to conduct collaborative commerce </li></ul></ul>
  115. 116. Collaborative Planning and CPFR <ul><li>In collaborative planning , business partners—all have real-time access to point-of-sale order information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manufacturers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distribution partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other partners </li></ul></ul>
  116. 117. Collaborative Planning and CPFR (cont.) <ul><li>Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR): Project in which suppliers and retailers collaborate in their planning and demand forecasting to optimize flow of materials along the supply chain </li></ul>
  117. 118. Collaborative Planning and CPFR (cont.) <ul><li>CPFR provides a standard framework for collaborative planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve demand forecasting for all of the partners in the supply chain and then communicate forecasts using information-sharing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers and retailers also coordinate the related logistics activities </li></ul></ul>
  118. 119. Collaborative Planning and CPFR (cont.)
  119. 120. Collaborative Planning and CPFR (cont.)
  120. 121. Collaborative Planning: APS <ul><li>Advanced planning and scheduling (APS) systems: Programs that use algorithms to identify optimal solutions to complex planning problems that are bound by constraints </li></ul>
  121. 122. Collaborative Planning: PLM <ul><li>Product lifecycle management (PLM): Business strategy that enables manufacturers to control and share product-related data as part of product design and development efforts </li></ul>
  122. 123. Collaborative Planning and Fulfillment
  123. 124. Internal Supply Solutions, Intrabusiness, and B2E <ul><li>Intrabusiness EC: E-commerce activities conducted within an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Business-to-employee (B2E): Intrabusiness EC in which an organization delivers products or services to its employees </li></ul>
  124. 125. Internal Supply Solutions, Intrabusiness, and B2E (cont.) <ul><li>Representative applications of B2E include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing field representatives with electronic communication tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training and education provided over intranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee use of electronic catalogs and ordering forms </li></ul></ul>
  125. 126. Internal Supply Solutions, Intrabusiness, and B2E (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Electronic tools for communication, collaboration, and information discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering corporate stores on the intranet that sell the companies’ products to employees, usually at a discount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems that disseminate information or allow employees to manage their fringe benefits via the intranet </li></ul></ul>
  126. 127. Internal Supply Solutions, Intrabusiness, and B2E (cont.) <ul><li>Activities between business units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large corporations consist of independent units, called strategic business units (SBUs)—transactions can be easily automated and performed over the organization’s intranet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special network may be constructed to support communication, collaboration, and execution of transactions </li></ul></ul>
  127. 128. Internal Supply Solutions, Intrabusiness, and B2E (cont.) <ul><li>Activities among corporate employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system by which employees can collaborate on an individual (sometimes nonbusiness) level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Via classified ads, corporate equipment may be sold to employees for private use </li></ul></ul>
  128. 129. Integration along the Supply Chain Example: Toshiba USA <ul><li>Toshiba created a Web-based order entry system for product parts using an extranet and intranets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealers can place orders for parts until 5:00 P.M. for next-day delivery without extra charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealers can check accounts receivable balances and pricing arrangements and read service bulletins, press releases, and so on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales reps can interact more effectively with dealers </li></ul></ul>
  129. 130. Integration along the Supply Chain Example: Toshiba USA (cont.)
  130. 131. Integration along the Supply Chain (cont.) <ul><li>Enabling integration and the role of standards and Web services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration involves connectivity, compatibility, security, and scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications, data, processes, and interfaces must be integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middleware, standards and protocols have been developed to facilitate integration </li></ul></ul>
  131. 132. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals <ul><li>Corporate (enterprise) portal: A gateway for entering a corporate Web site, enabling communication, collaboration, and access to company information </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate portals offer employees, business partners, and customers an organized focal point for their interactions with the firm </li></ul>
  132. 133. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals (cont.) <ul><li>Types of corporate portals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>portal for suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>portal for customers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>portal for employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supervisor portals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mobile portals—accessible via mobile devices, especially cell phones and PDAs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  133. 134. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals (cont.) <ul><li>Functional portals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information portals: Portals that store data and enable users to navigate and query these data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative portals: Portals that allow collaboration </li></ul></ul>
  134. 135. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals (cont.) <ul><li>Corporate portal applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge bases and learning tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>business process support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>customer-facing (front-line) sales, marketing, and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collaboration and project support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>access to data from disparate corporate systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>personalized pages for various users </li></ul><ul><li>effective search and indexing tools </li></ul><ul><li>security applications </li></ul><ul><li>best practices and lessons learned </li></ul><ul><li>directories and bulletin boards </li></ul><ul><li>identification of experts </li></ul><ul><li>news </li></ul><ul><li>Internet access </li></ul>
  135. 136. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals (cont.)
  136. 137. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals (cont.) <ul><li>Justifying portals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer a simple user interface for finding and navigating content via a browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve access to business content and increase the number of business users who can access information, applications, and people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer the opportunity to use platform-independent software </li></ul></ul>
  137. 138. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Workflow <ul><li>Workflow: The movement of information as it flows through the sequence of steps that make up an organization’s work procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Workflow systems: Business process automation tools that place system controls in the hands of user departments to automate information processing tasks </li></ul>
  138. 139. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Workflow (cont.) <ul><li>Workflow management: The automation of workflows, so that documents, information, and tasks are passed from one participant to the next in the steps of an organization’s business process </li></ul>
  139. 140. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Workflow (cont.) <ul><li>Three major categories of workflow applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>project-oriented and collaborative types of processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mission-critical, transaction-oriented, high-volume processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cross between collaborative and production </li></ul></ul></ul>
  140. 141. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Workflow (cont.) <ul><li>Benefits of workflow management systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved control of business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved quality of services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower staff training costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved user satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  141. 142. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Groupware <ul><li>Groupware: Software products that support collaboration, over networks, among groups of people who share a common task or goal </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a way for groups to share resources and opinions </li></ul>
  142. 143. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) <ul><li>Virtual meetings: Online meetings whose members are in different locations, frequently in different countries </li></ul><ul><li>Group decision support system (GDSS ) : An interactive computer-based system that facilitates the solution of semistructured and unstructured problems by a group of decision makers </li></ul>
  143. 144. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: GDSS (cont.) <ul><li>Major characteristics of a GDSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its goal is to support the process of group decision makers by providing automation of subprocesses using information technology tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a specially designed information system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It encourages generation of ideas, resolution of conflicts, and freedom of expression </li></ul></ul>
  144. 145. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: GDSS (cont.) <ul><li>GDSSs improve the decision-making process by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>providing structure to the planning process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support parallel processing of information and idea generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make larger meetings possible </li></ul></ul>
  145. 146. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Teleconferencing <ul><li>Teleconferencing: The use of electronic communication that allows two or more people at different locations to have a simultaneous conference </li></ul><ul><li>Video teleconference: Virtual meeting in which participants in one location can see participants at other locations on a large screen or a desktop computer </li></ul>
  146. 147. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Teleconferencing (cont.) <ul><li>Data conferencing: Virtual meeting in which geographically dispersed groups work on documents together and to exchange computer files during videoconferences </li></ul><ul><li>Web conferencing is conducted on the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>few as two and as many as thousands of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows users to simultaneously view something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interaction takes place via messaging or a simultaneous phone teleconference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is much cheaper than videoconferencing because it runs on the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  147. 148. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Real-time collaboration (RTC) tools help companies bridge time and space to make decisions and collaborate on projects by supporting synchronous communication of graphical and text-based information </li></ul>
  148. 149. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Interactive white boards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another type of groupware where all participants join in the use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users can view and draw on a single document “pasted” onto the electronic whiteboard on a computer screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users can save digital whiteboarding sessions for future use </li></ul></ul>
  149. 150. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Screen sharing: Software that enables group members, even in different locations, to work on the same document, which is shown on the PC screen of each participant </li></ul>
  150. 151. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.)
  151. 152. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Instant video—a video chat room that allows users to chat in real time, seeing the person they are communicating with </li></ul><ul><li>Integration and groupware suites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotus Notes/Domino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft NetMeeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell GroupWise </li></ul></ul>
  152. 153. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Virtual reality (VR): System that delivers interactive computer generated 3D graphics to a user through a head-mounted display </li></ul>
  153. 154. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Implementation issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An effective collaborative environment is necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting collaborative tools with file management products on an organization’s intranet is necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols to change the read-only Web to a truly collaborative environment </li></ul></ul>
  154. 155. Managerial Issues <ul><li>How difficult is it to introduce e-collaboration? </li></ul><ul><li>How much can be shared with business partners? Can they be trusted? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is in charge of our portal and intranet content? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will design the corporate portal? </li></ul><ul><li>Should we conduct virtual meetings? </li></ul>
  155. 156. Summary <ul><li>The e-supply chain, its characteristics, and components: Digitized and automated flow of information throughout the supply chain and managing it via the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain problems and their causes: access to inventories, lack of supplies when needed, need for rush orders, deliveries of wrong materials or to wrong locations, and poor customer service. </li></ul>
  156. 157. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Solutions to supply chains problem provided by EC: automate/expedite order taking, speed order fulfillment, provide e-payments, control inventories, provide for correct forecasting and scheduling, and improve collaboration among partners </li></ul><ul><li>C-commerce: Definitions and types: planned use of digital technology by business partners. </li></ul>
  157. 158. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Collaborative planning: concentrates on demand forecasting and on resource and activity planning along the supply chain. CPFR: business strategy that develops standard protocols and procedures for collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrabusiness: all EC initiatives conducted within an organization. </li></ul>
  158. 159. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Integration along the supply chain: critical to the success of companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Types and roles of corporate portals: for suppliers, customers, employees, and supervisors. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative tools: workflow, groupware, GDSS, devices that facilitate product design </li></ul>