Comprehensive collection of public statements subsequent to 9/11 attacks (Foreign Policy Bulletin)

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The feature on the 9/11 attacks from the Foreign Policy Bulletin. Comprehensive collection of public statements from 9/11 to 12/312001.

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Comprehensive collection of public statements subsequent to 9/11 attacks (Foreign Policy Bulletin)

  1. 1. Feature September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack and the Response by the United States The September 11 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington shocked the world. The attacks and their aftermath dominated the news during the latter half of 2001. These events were multifaceted, and involved a wide range of actors—within the Unites States and globally. This feature focuses on a subset of these events and actors— particularly, those related to diplomatic dialogue and the evolution of U.S. policy on terror following September 11. Other signficant topics—notably the military campaign in Afghanistan and the relationship of the attacks to long- standing conflicts in the Middle East region—are covered primarily as they relate to the main theme of the feature. Similarly, aspects of these events that are primarily domestic in nature are covered only tangentially. These include the human tragedy of the events, increases in domestic security, the anthrax scare, and changes in American societal views. ordered that the full resources of the fed- somehow achieve a political purpose. eral government go to help the victims They can destroy buildings, they can kill and their families, and to conduct a full- people, and we will be saddened by this scale investigation to hunt down and to tragedy; but they will never be allowed toI. September 11, 2001: find those folks who committed this act. kill the spirit of democracy. They cannot Terrorism against our nation will not destroy our society. They cannot destroyThe Attack stand. our belief in the democratic way. You can And now if you would join me in a be sure that America will deal with this moment of silence. May God bless the tragedy in a way that brings those respon- victims, their families, and America. sible to justice. You can be sure that as Thank you very much. terrible a day as this is for us, we will get through it because we are a strong nation, a nation that believes in itself. You can beRemarks by President Bush, Remarks by Secretary of sure that the American spirit will prevailSeptember 11, 20011 State Powell, September 11, over this tragedy. It is important that I remain here for a bit longer in order to bePresident Bush delivered his remarks at 20012 part of the consensus of this new charter9:30 A.M. at the Emma E. Booker on democracy. That is the most importantElementary School in Sarasota, Florida, Secretary Colin Powell delivered his thing I can do before departing to go backwhere he had been discussing education. remarks at a meeting of the Organization to Washington, D.C. and attend to the of American States in Lima, Peru. important business that awaits me and allLadies and gentlemen, this is a difficultmoment for America. I, unfortunately, will I also express my thanks to all of my col- my other colleagues in the administration,be going back to Washington after my leagues for their expressions of condo- and all Americans. I will bring to Presi-remarks. Secretary Rod Paige and the Lt. lence, and I thank you for the resolution dent Bush your expression of sorrow andGovernor will take the podium and dis- that was passed a few moments ago. A your words of support.cuss education. I do want to thank the terrible, terrible tragedy has befallen my I thank all of you, and Mr. President, Ifolks here at Booker Elementary School nation, but it has befallen all of the hope we can move the order of business tofor their hospitality. nations of this region, all the nations of the adoption of the charter because I very Today we’ve had a national tragedy. the world, and befallen all those who much want to be here to express the Unit-Two airplanes have crashed into the World believe in democracy. Once again we see ed States’ commitment to democracy inTrade Center in an apparent terrorist terrorism, we see terrorists, people who this hemisphere. Terrorism, as was noted,attack on our country. I have spoken to the don’t believe in democracy, people who is everyone’s problem and there are coun-Vice President, to the Governor of New believe that with the destruction of build- tries represented here who have beenYork, to the Director of the FBI, and have ings, with the murder of people, they can fighting terrorism for years and have seen2 Winter 2002
  2. 2. September 11, 2001horrible things happen. It is something wemust all unite behind. And we unitebehind it as democratic nations committedto individual liberties, committed to therights of people to live in peace and free-dom in a way in which they and not ter-rorists select their leaders or define howthey will be governed. So I thank you for your expression ofsolidarity. I ask, Mr. Chairman, if it wouldbe at all possible for the resolution to bemoved forward for adoption so that I canbe a part of the consensus.Remarks by Secretary ofState Powell, September 11,20013Secretary Colin Powell delivered hisremarks while en route from Peru toWashington DC. Today we’ve had a national tragedy. Two airplanes have crashed into the World Trade Center in anSecretary Powell. I know that we all feel apparent terrorist attack on our country. I have spoken to the Vice President, to the Governor of Newa deep sense of loss, a deep sense of sad- York, to the Director of the FBI, and have ordered that the full resources of the federal government go toness and outrage at what happened in the help the victims and their families, and to conduct a full-scale investigation to hunt down and to findUnited States today, and my heart goes those folks who committed this act.out to all those who lost their lives and to Terrorism against our nation will not stand.their families. And, you can be sure thatthe United States Government will do President George Bush, September 11, 2001everything to find the perpetrators of thiscowardly attack against innocent people resolution of support from the OAS. They damage to the best of my knowledge wasand bring them to justice. gave me an opportunity to say a few done from those. So it was obviously a As you know, I got word of this while I words and make the point that at a meet- well-coordinated, extensive assault againstwas meeting with President Toledo at ing where we are celebrating democracy, the United States. You may have gotten anabout 8:35*. It was an initial report, it was let there be no doubt that buildings can be earlier report that there was a car bombnot accurate, but it was serious enough to destroyed and precious lives can be lost outside the State Department, but that isgive me a sense that something terrible but our society cannot be destroyed and not the case.had happened. I briefed the President and our democracy cannot be destroyed. Our The President spoke to the nation nothis colleagues and a few moments later an spirit as a nation cannot be destroyed. too long ago and is in a secure facility.updated message came in that started to They then at their suggestion immediately The Vice President is in the secure facili-give a better understanding of how serious brought forward the declaration that we ties in Washington. The National Securitythis was. We finished the meeting. By then were there to consider, and I think you team is intact and everything is beingit was clear that a major disaster was saw the nations accept it by acclamation, done to restore communications and tounfolding back home. So I immediately standing in support of this acclamation of restore all the things that have been dis-made a decision to return home. But it democracy, but I think also standing and rupted in the course of this morning.would take a little while to get the air- applauding in solidarity with the Ameri- I’ve spoken to Deputy Secretaryplane ready, and it also gave me the can people. Armitage twice. He is of course in con-opportunity to go to the beginning of the With respect to the events of the day, as stant touch with the White House and I’veconference where I was surrounded by you know when we took off, both towers also spoken to Dr. Rice, and the Presidentcolleague after colleague, foreign minister of the World Trade Center had fallen, seri- and I, he tried to connect with me, butafter foreign minister expressing regrets ous fire at the Pentagon which is still rag- then we were moving and we were unableand extending their condolences to the ing and has not been brought under con- to connect. I don’t want to get into specu-United States and to the families of those trol yet. Other planes crashed elsewhere in lation as to who, what, where, why.who lost their lives. the United States, one crashed near Camp There’s been no reputable claim of I think you saw what happened on the David and the other crashed out in west- responsibility yet.remote screens out in the conference ern Pennsylvania**. To the best of my World leaders have been calling in toroom, the expressions of sadness and the knowledge that’s all that happened. No express their concern and extend condo- Foreign Policy Bulletin 3
  3. 3. Featurelences. I will get back to Washington is on that and other agencies are on it. I **Correction: No plane crashed near Campimmediately to contact leaders around the don’t have any information. David.world and get plugged into what’s beengoing on. Because of this, we’re in com- Q. Those two aircraft that crashed, domunications with the Department but you have any sense of where they were Remarks by President Bush,we’re going to keep that minimized due to headed to?the overload of communications all over September 11, 20014the country at this time. I think that’s real- Secretary Powell. One was going from President Bush delivered his remarksly all I have for you and I’ll take one or Logan to LA— upon arriving at Barksdale Air Forcetwo questions if it flushes out what I’ve Base in Louisiana, in transit to ansaid, but not to get into speculation. Q. No. The Camp David and Pennsyl- undisclosed, secure location. vania. Q. Secretary Powell, as you know I want to reassure the American peoplethere have been a number of worldwide Secretary Powell. No, I know nothing that the full resources of the federal gov-cautions that your Department has about them, all I heard were the reports ernment are working to assist localissued, do you think, and I recognize and I don’t know if they are big airplanes authorities to save lives and to help thethat it’s very early, but do you think or little airplanes or what. There was con- victims of these attacks. Make no mistake:that this is something that could have cern that there might be other airplanes The United States will hunt down andoriginated from the people that were and so, I mean we have AWACS up flying punish those responsible for these coward-planning this trying to throw the U.S. a CAP. All the airports are closed. ly acts.off their scent, obviously not thinking I’ve been in regular contact with thethat this attack would happen on U.S. Q. Did the State Department receive Vice President, the Secretary of Defense,soil? any kind of warning or did any U.S. the national security team and my Cabi- agency get any warning that you’re net. We have taken all appropriate security Secretary Powell. I don’t know, I don’t aware of? precautions to protect the American peo-want to speculate on who, what or ple. Our military at home and around thewhether the warnings are connected to Secretary Powell. Specific warning world is on high alert status, and we havethis. I don’t know the answers to any of about this specific incident, nothing I’m taken the necessary security precautions tothe questions you might pose to me with aware of. Of course we have sent advi- continue the functions of your govern-respect to responsibility or what triggered sories and warnings out to embassies and ment.it. I just don’t know. requests for any information they might We have been in touch with the leaders have. of Congress and with world leaders to Q. Mr. Secretary, anything on the assure them that we will do whatever iscasualties, also on the types of aircraft Q. Mr. Secretary is there anything necessary to protect America and Ameri-that were used. now that you are prepared to ask other cans. countries to do to respond to this, are I ask the American people to join me in Secretary Powell. Obviously, I don’t there any diplomatic initiatives that are saying a thanks for all the folks who haveknow the casualty numbers and they will likely? been fighting hard to rescue our fellowbe very large. The information I have on citizens and to join me in saying a prayerairplanes was a 767 coming out of Logan Secretary Powell. I don’t have anything for the victims and their families.that went into the World Trade Center to give you at this time, I’m sure that there The resolve of our great nation is beingbound for Los Angeles. I don’t have are many things that we’ll be talking tested. But make no mistake: We willenough details on the others to comment. about in the days ahead, but I don’t have show the world that we will pass this test. anything to give you now. God bless. Q. Will you be able to work out of theState Department? Is the State Depart- Q. What’s the status of U.S. missionsment operational? elsewhere in the world now? White House Press Briefing, Secretary Powell. The State Depart- Secretary Powell. We have sent out September 11, 20015ment is functioning. I will be working out advisories and cables to all of our U.S.of lots of places. missions for them to take added security White House Press Secretary Ari cautions, for them to be vigilant, to be in Fleischer delivered his remarks aboard Q. Have you heard yet whether any- touch with their host governments for not Air Force One en route to Andrews Airbody has been able to identify, at least only security but also for any assistance Force Base at 1:45 P.M.by name, the people who hijacked the with respect to information concerningplanes? this that might be of use to us. Mr. Fleischer. While on the ground at Barksdale, the President spoke to the Vice Secretary Powell. No. I’m sure the FBI * Actual time was 8:10. President several times—the Vice Presi- dent, of course, being at the operations4 Winter 2002
  4. 4. September 11, 2001center at the White House. Excerpt from White House He spoke with the Secretary of Defense; Mr. Fleischer. First things first: hishe spoke to Senator Schumer; he had spo- concern is with the safety of people who Press Briefing, Septemberken to his wife prior to landing in have lost their—the health and security of 11, 20016Louisiana. the American people and with the families of those who have lost their lives. There White House Press Secretary Ari Q. Do you know where she is? will come an appropriate time to do all Fleischer delivered his remarks aboard appropriate look backs. is focus is on Air Force One en route to Andrews Air Mr. Fleischer. She’s at a secure facility. events this morning. Force Base at 5:30 P.M. Mr. Fleischer. The President will address Q. And his daughters? Q. Has he been given any estimate of the nation tonight, upon his return to the what the American casualties may be? White House. He met this afternoon for Mr. Fleischer. They’re also at a secure one hour and five minutes with his nation-location. Mr. Fleischer. I don’t believe so, Ann. al security team via live tele-conference from Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska. Q. Are they with her or—? Q. Has he spoken with Mayor Giu- Among the things the President said liani or Governor Pataki? were, “We will find these people and they Mr. Fleischer. No, no, they’re at their will suffer the consequence of taking onrespective schools. Mr. Fleischer. He spoke with Governor this nation. We will do what it takes,” and So he spoke to several members of the Pataki. He plans to speak with Mayor he continued, “No one is going to dimin-national security team, and I mentioned Giuliani. ish the spirit of this country.”Senator Schumer. And he has been receiv- The President has also heard today froming information—information will contin- Q. Who is with him on the plane? countless world leaders either who areue to come in and it’ll continue to be eval- calling to—back to Washington or haveuated. There will be a National Security Mr. Fleischer. Chief of Staff Card, Karl sent him directly communiqués. He’sCouncil meeting later this afternoon, in Rove, Dan Bartlett, myself, Gordon. heard from Britain, France, Germany,which the President will participate via Russia—a host of nations, all of whomteleconference. Q.—that’s it? have expressed their outrage at this attack, And, needless to say, all elements of the and who have assured the American peo-United States government are now doing Mr. Fleischer. Yes, as I indicated, we’ve ple that the international communitytheir part, not only to help those who have pared everything back so that we can— stands with America.been hurt, but to collect information, to That’s what I’ve got.analyze it and to provide it to the Presi- Q. And does the President feel hunteddent. or in jeopardy? I mean, he is kind of Q. The message tonight, do you know trying to stay out of— how soon after he gets back to the Q. Does the President now know any- White House he’ll be able to do that?thing more about who is responsible, Mr. Fleischer. The President is lookingthe coordinated attack, and whether forward to returning to Washington. He Mr. Fleischer. Can’t indicate yet.this is it or— understands at a time like this, caution must be taken; and he wants to get to back Q. And when he does, the message is Mr. Fleischer. That information is still to Washington. to the American people, as he said earli-being gathered and analyzed. And I antic- er, and to foreign countries?ipate that will be an ongoing process for a Q. What’s he doing right now?little while. Often, at a time like this, Mr. Fleischer. It will be a message ofinformation comes in, it turns out not to Mr. Fleischer. He’s talking to people on resolve and reassurance. It will be a reas-be true. The proper procedure is to care- the phone from his cabin. suring message that our nation has beenfully, thoroughly evaluate all information tested before, our nation has always pre-and do so in a— Q. In his cabin? vailed. Q. Had there been any warnings that Mr. Fleischer. Yes. Q. Does the President have any infor-the President knew of? mation about the source of the violence and the mastermind behind it? Mr. Fleischer. No warnings. Mr. Fleischer. I’m not going to discuss Q. Does the President—is he con- any of the intelligence information that’scerned about the fact that this attack of been provided to the President.this severity happened with no warn-ing? Q. Can you give us some idea of why Foreign Policy Bulletin 5
  5. 5. Featurethe stops that we made today were President reached him. Remarks by Secretary ofmade? I understand the nature of thetragedy that we’re dealing with, but Q. A number of domestic groups have State Rumsfeld, Chairman ofwhy these particular locations? called off, you know, scheduling a num- the Joint Chiefs of Staff ber of activities—baseball, Emmy Mr. Fleischer. For security purposes awards. How does the President now Shelton, Secretary of thethat involve the President. view the next few days for his concen- Army White, Senator Levin, tration? He will have to deal with this Q. I mean, was this more like a roll of pretty exhaustively over the rest of the and Senator Warner,the dice as in, which Air Force bases week. September 11, 20017will we end up at? Or is this morewanting— Mr. Fleischer. The President thinks it’s Secretary Donald H. Rumseld, General important for America to return to their Hugh Shelton, Secretary Thomas E. Mr. Fleischer. Well, of course, nobody lives. As he indicated, this is a test of White, Senator Carl Levin (D-MI), andwould ever know what Air Force base we America’s resolve and that no one will Senator John Warner (R-VA) deliveredwould end up at. That’s routine procedure. diminish America’s spirit; and America’s their remarks at a press conference atThere are a series of plan that you always spirit includes a return to normal the Pentagon at 6:42 P.M.hope remain on the shelf that, unfortunate- lifestyles. Secretary Rumsfeld. This is a—first ofly, today had to be implemented. all, good evening. This is a tragic day for And so, as a matter of security, the Pres- Q. As for his schedule for the rest of our country. Our hearts and prayers go toident traveled in the manner that he did the week, he will now focus on this pri- the injured, their families and friends.and that also allowed the national security marily? We have taken a series of measures tocommunity to assess the ongoing nature prevent further attacks and to determineof a threat. Obviously, the President is Mr. Fleischer. Of course, this will be who is responsible. We’re making everynow returning to Washington. his top priority now. effort to take care of the injured and the casualties in the building. I’m deeply Q. Why is he returning now? Who Q. What are his plans for—in terms grateful for the many volunteers from themakes the decision that it is safe for his of, is he going to stay in the White defense establishment and from the excel-return now? House? Is he going to be moved to a dif- lent units from all throughout this region. ferent location from there? They have our deep appreciation. Mr. Fleischer. Well, ultimately, it’s the We have been working closely through-President. Information is provided to the Mr. Fleischer. We’ll, of course, advise out the day with President Bush, VicePresident about any type of threat, and the you of any presidential travel, as always. President Cheney, CIA Director GeorgePresident makes the final determination. But the President is returning to the Oval Tenet, the vice chairman of the JointThe President wanted to get back to Office and he will go to work. Chiefs of Staff, Dick Myers, who is cur-Washington. He understood that there can rently participating in a meeting elsewherebe a period of caution so that the security Q. He will what? I’m sorry. in the building, and a great many otherpeople can make a full and proper assess- officials from throughout the government.ment about any threats. Mr. Fleischer. The President is return- I should say we’ve received calls from They were afforded that opportunity. ing to the White House to go to work. across the world offering their sympathyThe President traveled to a secure location and indeed their assistance in variouswhile they took that opportunity. And ways.now, obviously, the President is returning I’m very pleased to be joined here byhome safely. Chairman Carl Levin and Senator John Warner. Senator Warner called earlier Q. There was some confusion earlier today and offered his support and wasabout whether the Vice President was at kind enough to come down and has beenthe White House the entire time, or with us. We’ve very recently had a discus-whether he was evacuated and ultimate- sion with the president of the Unitedly returned to the White House. States. Chairman Hugh Shelton has just landed from Europe. Secretary of the Mr. Fleischer. Well, my information is Army Tom White, who has a responsibili-he was at the White House the whole ty for incidents like this as executive agenttime. You’d have to check with his office for the Department of Defense, is alsoabout what time he arrived at the White joining me.House. But from the beginning, when the It’s an indication that the United StatesPresident spoke to him this morning, he government is functioning in the face ofwas at the White House, that’s where the this terrible act against our country. I6 Winter 2002
  6. 6. September 11, 2001should add that the briefing here is taking are bombs exploding in Kabul,place in the Pentagon. The Pentagon’s Senator Warner. Thank you. Afghanistan. Are we, at the moment,functioning. It will be in business tomor- As a past chairman, preceding Carl striking back? And if so, is the targetrow. Levin, I can assure you that the Congress Osama bin Laden and his organization? I know the interest in casualty figures, stands behind our president, and the presi-and all I can say is it’s not possible to dent speaks with one voice for this entire Secretary Rumsfeld. I’ve seen thosehave solid casualty figures at this time. nation. This is indeed the most tragic hour reports. They—in no way is the UnitedAnd the various components are doing in America’s history, and yet I think it can States government connected to thoseroster checks, and we’ll have information be its finest hour, as our president and explosions.at some point in the future. And as quickly those with him, most notably our secretaryas it’s possible to have it, it will certainly of Defense, our chairman, and the men Q. What about Osama bin Laden, dobe made available to each of you. and women of the armed forces all over you suspect him as the prime suspect in I’ll be happy to take a few questions this world stand ready not only to defend this?after asking first General Shelton if he this nation and our allies against furtherwould like to say anything, and then we attack, but to take such actions as are Secretary Rumsfeld. It’s not the timewill allow the others to make a remark or directed in the future in retaliation for this for discussions like that.two. terrorist act—a series of terrorist acts, unprecedented in world history. Q. Mr. Secretary, you said you could General Shelton. Thank you, Mr. Sec- We call upon the entire world to step up not be specific about casualties. Canretary. Ladies and gentlemen, as the secre- and help, because terrorism is a common you give us some characterization,tary just said, today, we have watched the enemy to all, and we’re in this together. whether it’s dozens, hundreds in thetragedy of an outrageous act of barbaric The United States has borne the brunt, but building?terrorism carried out by fanatics against who can be next? Step forward and let usboth civilians and military people, acts hold accountable and punish those that Secretary Rumsfeld. Well, we knowthat have killed and maimed many inno- have perpetrated this attack. there were large numbers, many dozens,cent and decent citizens of our country. Again, I commend the secretary, the in the aircraft that flew at full power, I extend my condolences to the entire chairman, and how proud we are. We steering directly into the—between, IDepartment of Defense families, military spoke with our President here moments think, the first and second floor of the—and civilian, and to the families of all ago. He’s got a firm grip on this situation, opposite the helipad. You’ve seen it. Therethose throughout our nation who lost and the Secretary and the General have a cannot be any survivors; it just would beloved ones. firm grip on our armed forces and in com- beyond comprehension. I think this is indeed a reminder of the munication the world over. There are a number of people thattragedy and the tragic dangers that we they’ve not identified by name, but identi-face day in and day out both here at that Secretary Rumsfeld. Thank you very fied as being dead, and there are a numberhome as well as abroad. much. of causalities. But the FBI has secured the I will tell you up front, I have no inten- We’ll take a few questions and then site. And the—information takes time totions of discussing today what comes we’ll adjourn. come. People have been lifted out andnext, but make no mistake about it, your Charlie. taken away in ambulances. And the num-armed forces are ready. bers will be calculated, and it will not be a Q. Mr. Secretary, did you have any few. Senator Warner. The chairman. inkling at all, in any way, that some- thing of this nature and something of Q. Mr. Secretary, could you tell us Secretary Rumsfeld. The chairman of this scope might be planned? what you saw?the Senate Armed Services Committee,Carl Levin. Secretary Rumsfeld. Charlie, we don’t Secretary Rumsfeld. Yeah? discuss intelligence matters. Senator Levin. Our intense focus on Q. Mr. Secretary, do you considerrecovery and helping the injured and the Q. I see. And how—how would you what happened today, both in New Yorkfamilies of those who were killed is respond if you find out who did this? and here, an act of war?matched only by our determination to pre-vent more attacks and matched only by Secretary Rumsfeld. Obviously, the Secretary Rumsfeld. There is no ques-our unity to track down, root out and president of the United States has spoken tion but that the attack against the Unitedrelentlessly pursue terrorists, states that on that subject, and those are issues that States of America today was a vicious,support them and harbor them. he will address in good time. well-coordinated, massive attack against They are the common enemy of the civ- Yes? the United States of America. What wordsilized world. Our institutions are strong, the lawyers will use to characterize it isand our unity is palpable. Q. Mr. Secretary, we are getting for them. Senator John Warner. reports from CNN and others that there Foreign Policy Bulletin 7
  7. 7. Feature Q. Does that mean that the U.S. is at ate. Senator Levin. You bet.war then? Q.—what do you say to the American Q. Senator Levin, you and other Q. Mr. Secretary, you said that the people who may have questions on how Democrats in Congress have voiced fearPentagon would be open for business something so coordinated has been car- that you simply don’t have enoughtomorrow. What kind of assurances can ried out against this nation? What do money for the large increase in defenseyou give the people who work here at you say to them who might not have that the Pentagon is seeking, especiallythe building that the building will be confidence that our intelligence and for missile defense, and you fear thatsafe? security are what they should have you’ll have to dip into the Social Securi- been? ty funds to pay for it. Does this sort of Secretary Rumsfeld. A terrorist can thing convince you that an emergencyattack at any time at any place using any Secretary Rumsfeld. I say to them that exists in this country to increase defensetechnique. It is physically impossible to the president of the United States will be spending, to dip into Social Security, ifdefend at every time in every place against making some remarks to them this necessary, to pay for defense spend-every technique. It is not possible to give evening that will address those subjects. ing—increase defense spending?guarantees. The people who work in this Q. Mr. Secretary, you’ve declared—building do so voluntarily. They’re brave the Pentagon has declared Threatcon Senator Levin. One thing where thepeople, and they do their jobs well. Delta for forces around the world. committee was unanimous on, among Could you tell me why? Have you many, many other things, was that the— Q. Mr. Secretary, can you give a sense received any threats? Or has anyone we authorized the full request of the Presi-of what happened—what did you see claimed credit for this? dent, including the $18 billion. So I wouldwhen you left your office, ran down to say that Democrats and Republicans havethe site and apparently helped people Secretary Rumsfeld. We have in fact seen the need for the request.on stretchers and then returned to the declared Force Protection Condition Deltacommand center? and a condition of high alert—indeed, the Q. Mr. Secretary, could you describe highest alert. We did so almost immediate- what steps are being taken—defensive Secretary Rumsfeld. The—I felt the ly upon the attacks, and it is still in force. measures—beyond force protection,shock of the airplane hitting the building, and whether there’s been any opera-went through the building and then out Q. Mr. Secretary, were there threats tional planning for homeland defenseinto the area, and they were bringing bod- issued against other U.S. facilities else- and as to—ies out that had been injured, most of where in the world today?which were alive and moving, but serious- Secretary Rumsfeld. Those aren’t thely injured. And a lot of volunteers were Secretary Rumsfeld. The—I don’t kinds of things that one discusses.doing a terrific job helping to bring them know that there’s a day that’s gone byout of the buildings and get them into since I’ve been in this job that there Q. Sir, the perpetrators of the Khobarstretchers and into ambulances and into haven’t been threats somewhere in the Towers bombing were never found—theairlifts. world to some facility somewhere. It’s a— Cole bombing as well. What assurances it’s one of the complexities of the intelli- or what confidence do you have that the Q. Mr. Secretary, can you tell us how gence business that you have to sort perpetrators of this act will be found?many of the dead were soldiers and how through those kinds of things. But wemany were civilians? Have you been don’t get into the specifics. Secretary Rumsfeld. All one can offerable to determine that? Yes? You had your hand up? Yes? by way of assurance is a seriousness of purpose. We’re still taking bodies out of Secretary Rumsfeld. Absolutely not. Q. Mr. Secretary, there were rumors this building, so I would say that that’s a Yeah. earlier in the day that the plane which little premature. crashed in Pennsylvania had been Q. Mr. Secretary, today we saw mili- brought down by the United States, Q. Mr. Secretary?tary planes both in New York and in either shot down or in some other man-Washington. How much more of a mili- ner. Secretary Rumsfeld. Yes?tary presence will we see, now that thisincident has occurred, for the next Secretary Rumsfeld. We have absolute- Q. You’ve talked about—and othersweek? ly no information that any U.S. aircraft at the podium have talked about being shot down any other aircraft today. ready, the military is ready, General Secretary Rumsfeld. Those kinds of Shelton said. And we understand thedecisions are made day to day. It is correct Q. I wonder if we could just ask Sena- Navy has dispatched two carriers andthat we had aircraft flying protective mis- tor Levin one thing, Senator, if that’s all some guided-missile cruisers andsions at various places in the United States right. destroyers and a couple of Marinetoday. And they will do that as appropri- Corps helicopter amphibious ships,8 Winter 2002
  8. 8. September 11, 2001such as the Bataan—it’s not theBataan—here and to New York. Canyou tell us if that’s true? And also anyother things you can share with us Today, our fellow citizens, ourabout how the United States military is way of life, our very freedompreparing to take on whatever in the came under attack in a series ofnext few days? deliberate and deadly terrorist acts. The victims were in air- planes, or in their offices; secre- Secretary Rumsfeld. We don’t make taries, businessmen and women,announcements about ship deployments. military and federal workers; moms and dads, friends and Q. Mr. Secretary? neighbors. Thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil, Secretary Rumsfeld. Yes? despicable acts of terror. Q. Can you describe the fire-fighting President George Bush, Sep-efforts that are going on right now in tember 11, 2001that corridor and the search-and-rescueefforts that are beginning? Secretary Rumsfeld. Can I describethem? Q. Yeah. Secretary Rumsfeld. Why don’t we letthe Secretary of the Army, who was outthere with me a few minutes ago and hasbeen talking to the incident commanderon the site. Statement by President steel, but they cannot dent the steel of Secretary White. I think it’s fair to say American resolve.at this point that the fire is contained, and Bush, September 11, 20018 America was targeted for attack becausewill shortly, if not already, be sufficiently we’re the brightest beacon for freedomcontrolled to allow entry into the building. President Bush delivered the following and opportunity in the world. And no oneThat entry will be supervised by the FBI, address to the nation at 8:30 P.M. will keep that light from shining.who are in charge of the site, assisted by Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, Today, our nation saw evil, the verythe fire departments that are present. We, our very freedom came under attack in a worst of human nature. And we respondedon the Army side, will support them as series of deliberate and deadly terrorist with the best of America—with the daringthey go in the building and search for acts. The victims were in airplanes, or in of our rescue workers, with the caring forcasualties and bring them out, then we their offices; secretaries, businessmen and strangers and neighbors who came to givewill support them in dealing with that. women, military and federal workers; blood and help in any way they could.That’s what’s going on on the ground. moms and dads, friends and neighbors. Immediately following the first attack, I Thousands of lives were suddenly ended implemented our government’s emergency Secretary Rumsfeld. We’ll take one by evil, despicable acts of terror. response plans. Our military is powerful,last question. The pictures of airplanes flying into and it’s prepared. Our emergency teams buildings, fires burning, huge structures are working in New York City and Wash- Q. Is the government operating under collapsing, have filled us with disbelief, ington, D.C. to help with local rescuethe assumption that this attack is done, terrible sadness, and a quiet, unyielding efforts.or is it poised or bracing for more anger. These acts of mass murder were Our first priority is to get help to thoseaction? intended to frighten our nation into chaos who have been injured, and to take every and retreat. But they have failed; our precaution to protect our citizens at home Secretary Rumsfeld. The government country is strong. and around the world from further attacks.is certainly aware that it’s difficult to A great people has been moved to The functions of our government contin-know when attacks are concluded. defend a great nation. Terrorist attacks can ue without interruption. Federal agencies shake the foundations of our biggest in Washington which had to be evacuated buildings, but they cannot touch the foun- today are reopening for essential person- dation of America. These acts shattered nel tonight, and will be open for business Foreign Policy Bulletin 9
  9. 9. Featuretomorrow. Our financial institutions condemn them utterly. Terrorism must be Obviously some of these measures, notremain strong, and the American economy fought resolutely wherever it appears. least the effect upon airports, will lead towill be open for business, as well. In such moments, cool and reasoned some disruption, and I hope people under- The search is underway for those who judgement is more essential than ever. We stand that. But other than the specificare behind these evil acts. I’ve directed the do not know yet who is behind these acts, measures we have taken, or that we havefull resources of our intelligence and law or what objective they hope to achieve. advised others to take, business and every-enforcement communities to find those What we do know is that no just cause can day life can continue as normal. As forresponsible and to bring them to justice. be advanced by terror. those that carried out these attacks, thereWe will make no distinction between the are no adequate words of condemnation.terrorists who committed these acts and Their barbarism will stand as their shamethose who harbor them. Statement by British Prime for all eternity. I appreciate so very much the members As I said earlier, this mass terrorism isof Congress who have joined me in Minister Blair, September 11, the new evil in our world. The people whostrongly condemning these attacks. And 200110 perpetrate it have no regard whatever foron behalf of the American people, I thank the sanctity or value of human life, andthe many world leaders who have called The full horror of what has happened in we the democracies of the world, mustto offer their condolences and assistance. the United States earlier today is now come together to defeat it and eradicate it. America and our friends and allies join becoming clearer. It is hard even to con- This is not a battle between the Unitedwith all those who want peace and securi- template the utter carnage and terror States of America and terrorism, butty in the world, and we stand together to which has engulfed so many innocent between the free and democratic worldwin the war against terrorism. Tonight, I people. We’ve offered President Bush and and terrorism. We, therefore, here inask for your prayers for all those who the American people our solidarity, our Britain stand shoulder to shoulder withgrieve, for the children whose worlds have profound sympathy, and our prayers. But our American friends in this hour ofbeen shattered, for all whose sense of it is plain that citizens of many countries tragedy, and we, like them, will not restsafety and security has been threatened. round the world, including Britain, will until this evil is driven from our world.And I pray they will be comforted by a have been caught up in this terror.power greater than any of us, spoken I have just chaired an emergency meet-through the ages in Psalm 23: “Even ing of the British government Civil Con- Statement by NATOthough I walk through the valley of the tingencies Committee, and I would like toshadow of death, I fear no evil, for You explain some of the measures that we Secretary Generalare with me.” have agreed to take here. There are a Robertson, September 11, This is a day when all Americans from range of precautionary measures. We haveevery walk of life unite in our resolve for stepped up security at airports to the high- 200111justice and peace. America has stood est levels. No flights will take off from the I condemn in the strongest possible termsdown enemies before, and we will do so United Kingdom for which we cannot the senseless attacks which have just beenthis time. None of us will ever forget this apply the highest standards of security for perpetrated against the United States ofday. Yet, we go forward to defend freedom air crew and passengers. Private flights America. My sympathies go to the Ameri-and all that is good and just in our world. have been stopped except where specifi- can people, the victims and their families. Thank you. Good night, and God bless cally authorized. Flight paths into London These barbaric acts constitute intolerableAmerica. have been changed, so there will be no aggression against democracy and under- civil over-flights of central London. line the need for the international commu- Security has been increased across the nity and the members of the Alliance toStatement by United Nations full range of government buildings and unite their forces in fighting the scourge military premises. The police across theSecretary General Annan, whole of the U.K. are on full alert. All our of terrorism.September 11, 20019 defense facilities round the world have been moved to high alert to ensure theWe are all traumatized by this terrible protection of British service personnel. Statement by the Northtragedy. We do not know yet how many Advice is being given to major financial Atlantic Council, Septemberpeople have been killed or injured, but and business institutions about appropriateinevitably the number will be high. Our security measures. A number of other 11, 200112first thoughts and prayers must be for security measures have been taken, and of The North Atlantic Council met tonight tothem and for their families. I wish to course we are in close touch with U.S., express its solidarity with the Unitedexpress my profound condolences to European and other allies, and are co- States of America at this moment of greatthem, and to the people and Government operating with them on issues of security. tragedy and mourning. Our deepest sym-of the United States. All relevant ministers remain in communi- pathy lies with the victims, their families There can be no doubt that these attacks cation, and the committee—the civil con- and all Americans. The NATO nationsare deliberate acts of terrorism, carefully tingencies committee—will meet again unanimously condemn these barbaric actsplanned and coordinated—and as such I tomorrow at 8am.10 Winter 2002
  10. 10. September 11, 2001committed against a NATO member state. Letter from Chinese Secretary Powell. Good morning,The mindless slaughter of so many inno- Katie.cent civilians is an unacceptable act of President Jiang to Presidentviolence without precedent in the modern Bush, September 11, 200114 Q. On a human level, I just want toera. It underscores the urgency of intensi- get your reaction to the events of yester-fying the battle against terrorism, a battle Shocked to learn of the serious attacks day.that the NATO countries—indeed all civi- against certain areas in New York City andlized nations—must win. All Allies stand Washington D.C. on September 11, which Secretary Powell. Total shock. I was inunited in their determination to combat caused horrendous casualty, I wish to a meeting in Lima, Peru with Presidentthis scourge. At this critical moment, the express, on behalf of the Chinese Govern- Toledo and his associates when a note wasUnited States can rely on its 18 Allies in ment and people, our deepest sympathy handed to me, and I just shouted outNorth America and Europe for assistance and solicitude to you and, through you, to across the breakfast table, “Oh my God.”and support. NATO solidarity remains the the Government and people of the United And then the situation got worse over theessence of our Alliance. Our message to States. I wish also to extend our condo- next 20 minutes as more reports came in,the people of the United States is that we lences to the families of the victims. The and I immediately made plans to return toare with you. Our message to those who Chinese Government has consistently con- Washington.perpetrated these unspeakable crimes is demned and rejected all forms of terrorist Before returning, though, I did attendequally clear: you will not get away with violence. briefly a meeting of the Organization ofit. American States, where 34 other total states—the United States was 33—were Israeli Ministry of Foreign assembled to bring into effect a new char-Statement by President of Affairs Press Statement, ter on democracy, and we did that by just a simple vote of acclamation. And then allthe United Nations Security September 11, 200115 of the delegates stood and applauded thisCouncil, September 11, 200113 statement in support of democracy, and to Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Min- show solidarity with the American peopleMembers of the Security Council are ister Peres wishes to extend, on behalf of in this time of crisis.shocked by and unanimously condemn in the government and people of Israel, Since my return, I’ve been in touch withthe strongest terms the horrifying terrorist deepest condolences to the American peo- leaders around the world, with Lordattacks which have taken place today in ple and leaders. The Foreign Minister Robertson and NATO, with Javier SolanaNew York, Washington, D.C., and else- expressed his rage and anger at the abom- and the European Union and Kofi Annan,where in the United States. This is a inable acts of terrorism. to make sure everybody understands thattragedy for and a challenge to all humani- FM Shimon Peres offered the United we need a worldwide response to thisty. There can be no excuse or justification States government, on behalf of the State assault on America, because it’s an assaultfor these acts and any terrorist act. of Israel, Israel’s aid and rescue assis- on civilization, it’s an assault on democra- Members of the Security Council tance. cy, it’s an assault on the world and theexpress their deepest sympathy and con- Israel is following the developments world must respond as the United Statesdolences to the victims and their families with deep concern and prays for the well- plans to respond.and to the people and government of the being of the American people. IsraelUnited States of America. grieves at this tragedy of unimaginable Q. Secretary Powell, last night the Members of the Security Council call proportions. President said, “Those who harboron all States to work together urgently to these criminals will be held responsi-bring to justice the perpetrators, organiz- ble.” If we believe the man behind thisers and sponsors of today’s outrages. Remarks by Secretary of is in fact Usama bin Laden and that theThey call on the international community Taliban, the ruling government into redouble its efforts to prevent and sup- State Powell, September 12, Afghanistan, is harboring him, whatpress terrorist acts by increased coopera- 200116 can the United States do to actuallytion and full implementation of relevant back up the President’s words?international anti-terrorist conventions and Secretary Colin Powell was interviewedSecurity Council resolutions. by Katie Couric on NBC’s Today Show. Secretary Powell. Well, there are many Members of the Security Council Q. The President is expected to meet options available to us: military options,express their readiness to take urgent fur- with his national security staff this diplomatic options, further isolation ofther steps in accordance with their respon- morning. Secretary of State Colin Pow- any country that might be harboring whosibilities under the Charter of the United ell is just across the Potomac River at is responsible. We are not yet prepared toNations. the State Department this morning. state this morning who is responsible, but Secretary Powell, good morning to the evidence is mounting, and I think it you, sir. will point us in the right direction in the not-too-distant future, and then we will Foreign Policy Bulletin 11
  11. 11. Featurehave to not only take action on our own terday. This is going to take a multi- ment experts. But in this case, we did notpart, but also mobilize the world against faceted attack along many dimensions: get the cuing we needed, we did not getwhatever regimes may be supporting the diplomatic, military, intelligence, law the intelligence information needed to pre-terrorists who conducted this act. enforcement. All sorts of things will have dict that this was about to happen or be to be done to bring this scourge under aware of this kind of event coming our Q. So you’re saying, General Powell, control. And it is not just one organiza- way.that as of this morning, you cannot say tion; it’s a network of organizations. We So I think it’s premature to call it anthat U.S. officials believe Usama bin have to make the whole world understand intelligence failure. Let’s see what weLaden was responsible for this? that this is something we all have to be might have picked up as we go back and involved in, and not just see it as a dis- do the postmortem on how this all came Secretary Powell. Let me just say that creet response to a single incident. We’ll about.there is evidence being developed now, do that, but we have to realize that terror-and good evidence. We will be able to ism has been around for a very long time, Q. Would you agree with your formermake a definitive statement in due course. and it’s going to take a very long time to colleague, General Schwartzkopf, thatBut I think it is best not to speculate until root it out. we need to emphasize human intelli-we do have the evidence all assembled, But what the President specifically was gence as much as technical intelligence,and we make an informed judgment and focusing on last night is that there are and we’ve got all the technological toysannouncement at that time. nations, there are states, there are organi- that can be used for those purposes, but zations who provide havens, and these what we need are real thinking, seeing Q. Secretary Powell, a diplomatic states and organizations cannot be given a people on the ground to infiltrate theseresponse may seem meager to many free ride any longer. And a major part of groups?Americans, who in a poll this morning our diplomatic effort will be to mobilizesaid 94 percent say they would support the international community against the Secretary Powell. Absolutely, but it’smilitary action in retaliation if the U.S. actions of such states and organizations easier said than done. And we do have tocan identify the groups or nation once we have a clear understanding of emphasize human intelligence, becauseresponsible; 92 percent said they would who is responsible for this and who might you can defeat electronic intelligence justsupport it even if it meant entering a have been giving them haven. by not emitting. So human intelligence iswar. very, very important, and I know that our What is your response to that? Q. Do you think this was an individ- intelligence community is very aware of ual cell of terrorists, or do you believe that. But these are also difficult activities Secretary Powell. I fully understand the this could be state-sponsored? In other to penetrate, and to be able to stay withinviews of the American people this morn- words, could Iraq or a country like that such a network for a long period of time.ing. We’re mad. We were assaulted. But have been involved in this? But certainly this will be looked at asour spirit wasn’t assaulted, and our fight- we review everything we’re doing in theing spirit was not assaulted. So we want to Secretary Powell. I just don’t know at field of intelligence.respond. You don’t attack America like this point, and I’d rather not speculate.this and get away with it. I’m sure as the evidence mounts, we will Q. If we do engage in another coun- And so I can assure the American peo- have a better idea of, one, who is directly try, or take military action, what areple that the President, if he is able to get responsible, and two, what kind of support the ramifications? In other words, if anthe information pinpointing who it is and they may have been receiving from out- Islamic fundamentalist group waswhere they are and get targetable informa- side that cell, outside that network, from responsible, what kind of retaliationtion, I am quite confident that he will look either state organizations or other types of might we expect, and what kind ofat every option he has available to him to terrorist organizations. access do they have, these groups, torespond militarily. But I’d think it best we not speculate weapons of mass destruction? too wildly at this point. Q. Along those lines, is the U.S. Gov- Secretary Powell. Well, let me noternment prepared to enter a war Q. The U.S. spends billions of dollars speculate as to what we might do. I thinkagainst these terrorists, and wouldn’t on intelligence. Was this, in your view, a a full range of options will be available,that entail committing ground troops to massive intelligence failure, as it has and I know that the Secretary of Defensefind them, weed them out? After all, the been called? and his colleagues are looking at that. ItU.S. has launched air strikes against all depends on where we run this toterrorist targets in the past, and the ter- Secretary Powell. I wouldn’t character- ground, as to what counter-attack werorists continue to survive, even flour- ize it that way. We spend many, many bil- might receive from those who are respon-ish. lions of dollars on intelligence, and then sible. intelligence allows us to thwart many But at this time it’s premature to start Secretary Powell. Let’s not think that attacks. There are many terrorist attacks speculating, or to identify them as Islamicone single counter- attack will rid the that never took place because of the fine fundamentalists. Let’s just identify themworld of terrorism of the kind we saw yes- work of our intelligence and law enforce- as a terrorist group that can have no reli-12 Winter 2002
  12. 12. September 11, 2001gious underpinning, no legitimate under- sense— Secretary Powell. I say that we do havepinning for this kind of action. This is the best intelligence system. We have themurder, which is against the tenets of Q. Are we talking weeks? Are we talk- best military on the face of the Earth. Butevery religion, every responsible religion ing months? as has been demonstrated many times inthat is in the world, and it is receiving the past, if you are a determined enemycondemnation from around the world, Secretary Powell. Well, we just don’t and if you are prepared to go after softfrom people of all faiths and religious know, Bryant. And it wouldn’t be—I don’t targets, and if you are—you are preparedbackgrounds. think it would proper for me to speculate to do it in ways that are rather different So let’s just view them as what they are: without knowing exactly who the perpe- from anything we’ve seen before, unlessterrorist organizations. And I cannot spec- trators are and whether there is something we get something that cues us, somethingulate whether they might have access to to respond to. that gives us some indication that this kindthe kinds of weapons you discussed, Diplomatically and in other ways, we of asymmetric attack is coming, we arebecause we don’t know exactly who it is can respond immediately. And I’ve been always at risk. We can’t defend againstyet. But we will be on guard for that. on the phone already with Kofi Annan at every single possibility short of shutting the U.N., with Lord Robertson at NATO ourselves up into some kind of block- and with Javier Solana at the European house. We’re an open society. And so weRemarks by Secretary of Union to get an international response to have thwarted many terrorist attacks over this—condemnation, consideration of the years. And some have been successful.State Powell, September 12, other actions that the international com- But I can assure you that we have compe-200117 munity might take. tent people working on this. We do have Now, that just might sound like diplo- the best people working on it. But it isSecretary Colin Powell was interviewed matic speak, but it’s important diplomatic impossible to stop every potential attackby Bryant Gumbel on the CBS Morning speak because we want the entire world to that is coming our way.Show. come down and not only condemn thisThe first thing I’m doing this morning, kind of activity, but together—united—to Q. Understood. Final note, are we atBryant, is, one, making sure that all our go after those who continue to believe that war, Mr. Secretary?embassies around the world are safe and by killing innocent civilians they cantaking necessary precautionary actions. achieve political purposes. That has to be Secretary Powell. I think the AmericanWe have about 25 percent of our the response of the international commu- people are not confused about theembassies on suspended operation. But nity to kill that idea and root these organi- legalisms of this. When you saw thosethey will all be coming back up in the zations up once and for all. scenes coming out of New York andcourse of the day, I’m quite sure. Washington today, the American people Next, the President has directed me to Q. Mr. Secretary, besides being a made a judgment, we are at war. And theywork with international organizations and diplomat, you’re also a military man. want a comprehensive response. Theyour friends around the world to make the You know the topography. You know want us to act as if we are at war. And wepoint that this is an assault against the civ- the landscape both diplomatic and oth- are going to do that—diplomatically, mili-ilized world—not just against the United erwise. How realistic is it to think we tarily, picking options that will respond toStates—and to mobilize them to respond could track down the individuals who this, searching out those who are responsi-to this assault: diplomatically, militarily, did this? ble, and those who harbor them.with police actions, intelligence actions— And so as we go through the legalismsand to make sure that those nations, as the Secretary Powell. I think it is realistic. of all this and determine how to respondPresident said last night, who might be I think we have demonstrated in the past in the international community, the Ameri-harboring or providing comfort to these our ability to find people who have com- can people know what they saw yesterdaykinds of terrorist organizations understand mitted these sorts of terrorist acts. We and what they believe they saw, clearly,that we will be holding them accountable. have very, very confident people who was an act of war. Not only against Amer-And once this trail leads us to who is know how to follow leads. Sometimes it ica but against the international communi-responsible, if there are nations that bear takes a few weeks. Sometimes it takes ty—the community of peace. But theyresponsibility in that regard for hosting years. But we won’t give up. We will find didn’t hurt our spirit. They didn’t hurt ourthem, then we will be doing something them. And they will be dealt with. resilience as a society. And we’ll comeabout that, as well. back—we’ll come back firmly. We are Q. The question being asked often this still very much intact as a society, as a Q. We heard the President’s words morning, Mr. Secretary, is this, that nation. And we know how to respond.last night. I don’t expect a specific ours is the most sophisticated defensetimetable. But in general terms, how system in the entire world, certainly thequickly can or will we respond? most expensive, to that question of how could we not have seen this coming, Secretary Powell. We’ll respond as what do you say?soon as we can. And in the diplomatic Foreign Policy Bulletin 13
  13. 13. FeatureRemarks by Secretary of perpetrator. As soon as we get that, And this will all be part of our strategy. what is the timeline—do you think— The important point is that we sufferedState Powell, September 12, between now and the time that you terrible losses yesterday. And our heart200118 think we will have pretty secure knowl- goes out—our hearts go out to all of our edge of who is responsible? fellow Americans who are in such pain.Secretary Colin Powell was interviewed But they didn’t get our spirit. They didn’tby Tony Snow on Fox Morning News. Secretary Powell. I don’t know, Tony, understand the resiliency of this great so I would rather not speculate or predict. nation of ours. And as the President saidQ. We have an international terrorist But there is a body of evidence that is last night, we will be back, we willnetwork. There is no way we can nego- starting to develop and come together that respond. And they will regret to theirtiate with these people, is there? death what they perpetrated against us yesterday. Secretary Powell. No. They have to berooted. They have to be destroyed. And Q. We have an international terrorist Q. When we tried to respond to thewe are hard at work on that this morning. network. There is no way we can Munich disco bombing some of ourWe are trying to make sure that the world negotiate with these people, is there? NATO allies did not allow us to do over-understands that this was an assault not flights in order to strike back at Muam-just on America, but on civilization—upon Secretary Powell. No. They have to mar Qadhafi. Do we now have assur-all of the nations of the world. And it ance from our European allies that theyrequires a worldwide response. be rooted. They have to be destroyed. will give us their full support when it And that response has to be diplomatic. comes to fighting whoever is responsi-It has to be political. It has to be going ble?after their means of support. It has to begoing after nations and states and other is starting to point us in certain directions. Secretary Powell. I have had expres-organizations that give them harbor and But that really is the purview of our intel- sions of full support from European allieshaven and support. And it has to be mili- ligence community. So I would rather not and other allies. Now, we haven’t gone totary, as well, if targets can be found that speculate or predict as to when we can them with any specific requests yet. But Iare actionable. And it has to be justice, make an announcement or when we can sense there is a good deal of leaning for-too—if that is possible to bring somebody let the world know. ward based in the calls I’ve had this morn-to justice. But it has to be a complete ing in recognition of the fact that thiscomprehensive response. It is not just one Q. To make diplomacy credible and could have happened to any one of them.action that is going to be taken. also to send a message to terrorists, one presumes that we would need to **** Q. Secretary Powell, last night the respond rather forcefully and ratherPresident said that we will make no dis- quickly. Again, how swiftly should the Q. Final question, sir, many Americanstinction between terrorists and nations United States respond once it knows today are filled with anxiety. Could youthat harbor them. Let me read you a who is responsible? tell them that you think that the attackslist of nations and see if you can pick are over for now?out any that have not offered aid and Secretary Powell. I would say that youcomfort to terrorists: Iran, Iraq, Syria, respond as quickly as you can once you Secretary Powell. Well, I can’t say that.Libya, Sudan, Afghanistan. Are any of know who is responsible and once you I simply don’t know. We have no indica-those off the list? have something to respond to. And this tion that anything similar to what hap- may take some patience. I’m quite confi- pened yesterday is afoot in the country. Secretary Powell. No. dent it isn’t going to be within a day or so. But at the same time, this is a time for You have to get something that is action- caution and vigilance. But it is also a time Q. We also have in the past—Saudi able and then put in place forces that can for us to get back to work. It is also a timeArabia certainly has not cut off the conduct whatever strikes may be appropri- for us to show the world that America isspigot of funds for Usama bin Laden. Is ate. working, to show the world that Americathat a problem, as well? And I know that my colleague Don is coming back from this tragedy and not Rumsfeld and the Joint Chiefs of Staff are to hide in bunkers, but to get back to Secretary Powell. Well, we’ll look at examining all the options that are avail- work—as we are here in the State Depart-all possibilities of support to terrorist able to them, and then, of course, avail- ment and as we are all over Washingtonorganizations in the course of our review able to the president. Diplomatically we and our facilities around the world.of this particular situation as part of our can start right away and we are contactingongoing struggle against terrorism. nations around the world. We’re very, very Q. Secretary Powell, I beg your indul- pleased with the response we have gotten gence for one last question. You’ve been Q. You have said a number of times from Russia, from China, from the U.N., working very hard on trying to worktoday in previous interviews that you from NATO, from the European Union. for Middle East peace. Yesterday Amer-think we’re pretty close to getting a14 Winter 2002

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