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Kiwi PyCon 2011 - Audrey Roy Keynote Speech

My talk at Kiwi PyCon, covering the deployment revolution, front-end revolution, and more. This was the opening keynote speech.

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Python and the Web
       Can we keep up?




       Audrey Roy
       twitter: @audreyr



Saturday, August 27, 11
Audrey Roy
                                                                             @audreyr

       About me

       Python web developer by day
             ❖    MIT ’04, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science
             ❖    Python & Django developer for Cartwheel Web / RevSys


       Open-source advocate and more by night
             ❖    President/co-organizer of PyLadies
             ❖    Co-creator and core dev of djangopackages.com & OpenComparison
             ❖    Resident artist at LA's Hive Gallery
             ❖    Fiancée of Daniel Greenfeld (pydanny)




Saturday, August 27, 11
Quiz: When was the first Python web app written?




Saturday, August 27, 11
Audrey Roy
                                                                             @audreyr

       Quiz: When was the first Python web app written?

       I asked this in IRC channel #python. I was told:


       “audreyr, the first person to do it probably thought somebody else did it.
       CGI isn’t particularly hard”




Saturday, August 27, 11
Audrey Roy
                                                                                 @audreyr

       CGI code from circa 1999

       Was CGI hard?


                #!/usr/local/bin/python
                import cgi

                def main():
                    print "Content-type: text/htmln"
                    form = cgi.FieldStorage()   # parse query
                    if form.has_key("firstname") and form["firstname"].value != "":
                        print "Hello", form["firstname"].value, "</h1>"
                    else:
                        print "<h1>Error! Please enter first name.</h1>"

                main()

                © 1999 CNRI, Guido van Rossum

                from http://www.python.org/doc/essays/ppt/sd99east/sld041.htm




Saturday, August 27, 11
Audrey Roy
                                                              @audreyr

       Years of turmoil

       Connecting to web servers was hard and inconsistent
             ❖    CGI
             ❖    mod_python
             ❖    fastCGI
             ❖    custom Python web servers/frameworks




Saturday, August 27, 11

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Kiwi PyCon 2011 - Audrey Roy Keynote Speech

  • 1. Python and the Web Can we keep up? Audrey Roy twitter: @audreyr Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 2. Audrey Roy @audreyr About me Python web developer by day ❖ MIT ’04, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science ❖ Python & Django developer for Cartwheel Web / RevSys Open-source advocate and more by night ❖ President/co-organizer of PyLadies ❖ Co-creator and core dev of djangopackages.com & OpenComparison ❖ Resident artist at LA's Hive Gallery ❖ Fiancée of Daniel Greenfeld (pydanny) Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 3. Quiz: When was the first Python web app written? Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 4. Audrey Roy @audreyr Quiz: When was the first Python web app written? I asked this in IRC channel #python. I was told: “audreyr, the first person to do it probably thought somebody else did it. CGI isn’t particularly hard” Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 5. Audrey Roy @audreyr CGI code from circa 1999 Was CGI hard? #!/usr/local/bin/python import cgi def main(): print "Content-type: text/htmln" form = cgi.FieldStorage() # parse query if form.has_key("firstname") and form["firstname"].value != "": print "Hello", form["firstname"].value, "</h1>" else: print "<h1>Error! Please enter first name.</h1>" main() © 1999 CNRI, Guido van Rossum from http://www.python.org/doc/essays/ppt/sd99east/sld041.htm Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 6. Audrey Roy @audreyr Years of turmoil Connecting to web servers was hard and inconsistent ❖ CGI ❖ mod_python ❖ fastCGI ❖ custom Python web servers/frameworks Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 7. Audrey Roy @audreyr That was before WSGI WSGI (PEP 333) the spec for the interface between web servers & Python web apps/ frameworks Consistency! Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 8. Audrey Roy @audreyr What did we get from WSGI? The ability to write: ❖ web frameworks that work with any WSGI-compliant web server ❖ web servers that work with any WSGI-compliant web framework ❖ middleware that sits between any WSGI server/framework (in theory) Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 9. Audrey Roy @audreyr What didn’t we get from WSGI? The pluggable dream ❖ Few truly reusable WSGI middleware packages ❖ No other way to write pluggable pieces emerged Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 10. The web has changed since the early days of PEP 333 Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 11. Audrey Roy @audreyr What makes up a Python web framework, in 2011? Main pieces: ❖ Python ❖ HTML/CSS ❖ JavaScript, ajaxy bits Other pieces you need: ❖ Database adapter & database ❖ WSGI adapter & web server ❖ Deployment system Put it all together and you have a Python web framework. Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 12. Where is the web going? Beyond the limits of the WSGI protocol Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 13. Audrey Roy @audreyr WSGI 2 We're not talking middleware; we're talking protocols ❖ WSGI-lite to make WSGI more easily usable? (2011) ❖ WSGI 2 spec to address limitations/throw out baggage? ❖ It’s inevitable ❖ WSGI implementors, please speak out before it’s too late Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 14. Where is the Python web going? A deployment revolution Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 15. Audrey Roy @audreyr Devops: Everyone’s doing it Everyone seems to be working on: ❖ Automated, repeatable server setup ❖ Fabric, libcloud, Chef, Puppet ❖ Making deployment “easy” ❖ (well, maybe when you’ve got 20+ servers) Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 16. Audrey Roy @audreyr 99% of deployments are small Most projects only need 1-3 servers. Do we need to have this strong a community focus on large scale deployments? Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 17. Audrey Roy @audreyr Reproducible deployment for all Large-scale deployment techniques are trickling down to smaller projects. ❖ “Deploying the world’s smallest Django application, repeatedly” Soon to emerge: ❖ “Micro-deployment tools” - lightweight tools for small deployments Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 18. Audrey Roy @audreyr Another piece of the deployment revolution Python devops teams are using Ruby more and more: ❖ Chef ❖ Puppet Python has Fabric & libcloud, but nothing comparable to Chef/Puppet (to my knowledge) One of these will happen: ❖ We bring more deployment tools to Python and stay competitive ❖ Or we lose the deployment revolution to Ruby Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 19. Audrey Roy @audreyr After the deployment revolution In the future, deployment & hosting of web apps will be a solved problem: ❖ Shared hosting ❖ Single-server ❖ Multi-server configurations (db, media, app, etc.) ❖ Large-scale sites Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 20. Audrey Roy @audreyr Who is trying to solve this, in the Python world? PaaS companies are being forced to solve this in isolation: ❖ Djangozoom.com ❖ Gondor.io ❖ ep.io ❖ dotCloud ❖ Google App Engine ❖ Stackato (CloudFoundry, open-source?) Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 21. Audrey Roy @audreyr Who else is trying to solve this, in the Python world? Python devops teams are trying to solve this, in isolation: ❖ In-house Fabric scripts ❖ In-house Chef recipes ❖ In-house Puppet modules Repeated re-invention of the wheel ❖ Wasted Python developer energy Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 22. Audrey Roy @audreyr Can there be web hosting standards? WSGI addresses the interface with the web server. It does not address: ❖ Packaging up of app & dependencies ❖ Python module search paths/virtualenvs ❖ Location of Python egg cache ❖ Initialization of your application ❖ Initialization of logging ❖ Configuring web server for static media ❖ And much more... Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 23. Audrey Roy @audreyr If not standards, how about one “best practice” way Wouldn’t it be nice if Python hosting all worked the same way? ❖ Do you want to be locked into 1 hosting company’s approach? ❖ Or at least to the point that these are standardized: ❖ app packaging ❖ dependency management Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 24. Audrey Roy @audreyr Let’s solve this and move on Once we solve our deployment and hosting issues, we’ll be able to focus our energy on the avalanche that’s upon us... Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 25. Where is the web going? Front-end revolution Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 26. Audrey Roy @audreyr What makes up a Python web framework, in 2011? Main pieces: ❖ Python ❖ HTML/CSS ❖ JavaScript, ajaxy bits Other pieces you need: ❖ Database adapter & database ❖ WSGI adapter & web server ❖ Deployment system Put it all together and you have a Python web framework. Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 27. Audrey Roy @audreyr Why should we care? Today’s web apps have ❖ rich, dynamic, responsive user experiences ❖ multimedia ❖ special effects This isn’t just pretty templates anymore. Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 28. Audrey Roy @audreyr Why should we care? There are some very interesting Python web issues to address: ❖ UI effects require dynamic loading of data ❖ large multimedia files take time to load ❖ realtime chat, search, data analysis often required ❖ fancy caching mechanisms are becoming more important ❖ server can’t always handle processing; off-load to client side Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 29. Audrey Roy @audreyr Why should we care? Plus we have to deal with mobile phones & tablets ❖ Adaptive layouts with adaptive data sets ❖ Device memory/power limitations ❖ Limited connectivity Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 30. Quiz: What version of the Web are we on now? Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 31. Audrey Roy @audreyr So, what version of Web are we on now? Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 32. Audrey Roy @audreyr HTML5 New and improved web with fancy APIs ❖ Drawing graphics on canvas ❖ Offline data storage ❖ Drag and drop ❖ Multimedia ❖ Semantic elements (for search engines, screenreaders) and more Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 33. Audrey Roy @audreyr CSS3 The future of interaction ❖ Animations ❖ Special effects ❖ Support for mobile browsers ❖ Media queries - see http://mediaqueri.es Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 34. Audrey Roy @audreyr Web Open Font Format WOFF “provides typographic flexibility and control far beyond anything the web has offered before” from w3.org ‘the W3C commented that it expects WOFF to soon become the "single, interoperable [font] format" supported by all browsers’ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Open_Font_Format Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 35. By the way, I want Python in my web browser This work is attributed to the W3C. Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 36. Audrey Roy @audreyr Remember Grail (1995-1999)? ❖ Browser written in Python ❖ Lets you download Python applets ❖ Full HTML 2.0 support ❖ Support for much of HTML 3.2 Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 37. Audrey Roy @audreyr Remember Grail (1995-1999)? Invoking a Grail applet: <HEAD> <TITLE>Grail Applet Test Page</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <H1>Test an Applet Here!</H1> Click this button! <OBJECT CLASSID="Question.py"> If you see this, your browser does not support Python applets. </OBJECT> </BODY> Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 38. Audrey Roy @audreyr Python in the browser? Why does it have to be JavaScript? ❖ It makes me sad ❖ Skulpt: was an interesting idea; lost momentum ❖ Pyjamas: great idea that lost momentum too ❖ Pythonistas are so desperate for an alternative that they’ve settled for CoffeeScript CoffeeScript is the closest successful implementation ❖ But it’s not Python Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 39. Audrey Roy @audreyr Wish list: Python in the browser In jQuery: $(document).ready(function() { // Initialization code goes here }); In CoffeeScript: $(document).ready -> # Initialization code goes here In PythonInTheBrowserScript: jq(document).ready: # Initialization code goes here Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 40. Audrey Roy @audreyr Who’s going to help with the front-end revolution? Look for new ideas. Be first to bring them to Python! ❖ HTML5 spec ❖ CSS3 spec ❖ JavaScript community ❖ Ruby community ❖ Other communities Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 41. Where is the Python web going? More packages, more contributors Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 42. Audrey Roy @audreyr Diversity of Python packages (and contributors) See videos of my PyCon AU talk: “Diversity in Python: it’s about untapped resources” http://www.slideshare.net/audreyr/pycon-australia-2011-keynote-audrey-roy Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 43. Audrey Roy @audreyr The Python community needs you Opportunities for leadership in ❖ Mobile ❖ Real-time web ❖ Complex UI interactions ❖ Open-source standards/protocols ❖ Python in the browser Don’t be shy, implement it. Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 44. Audrey Roy @audreyr More leaders are emerging The open-source Python community can always use new leaders ❖ Implement a new idea ❖ Release a package ❖ Give a talk ❖ Demonstrate the possibilities Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 45. Audrey Roy @audreyr To all “PyLadies” in attendance ❖ Come and talk Python with me anytime! ❖ Informal breakfast for all female Python developers, planned for tomorrow morning: ❖ Kiallas Cafe in Newtown ❖ Sunday, 7:30am onward ❖5 min walk from Kiwi PyCon Saturday, August 27, 11
  • 46. Audrey Roy @audreyr Thank You We’re going to shape the future of the web together :) HTML5 & derivative graphics attributed to the W3C. Python logo attributed to the PSF. Special thanks for your help: Christine, Danny, Esther, Graham, Grant, Jess, Katharine, Michael, Sophia (this graphic is a parody, but the intended message is real) Saturday, August 27, 11