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  1. 1. R-tist I Sky - & Technolo gies
  2. 2. Input Embeded Output system DevicesDevices
  3. 3.  It is an open source hardware. The arduino program done on arduino IDE board. Crystal oscillation is of 16 MHz follow the path of minimum error with acurate maxi. Efficiency. Microcontroller need only squar wave form that that is why we need capacitor with crystal oscillator. It also reduce noise.
  4. 4. Hardware Software The Arduino or  The Arduino IDE. other clone boards  Based on win AVR Based on the Atmel (C compiler for AVR AVR series Microcontrollers) Controllers
  5. 5.  Swarms of robots are effective: ◦ They can perform tasks that one expensive robot cannot. Swarms are robust: ◦ Even if some robots fail, the swarm can still achieve the task.
  6. 6. Scenario: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Cooperate To Detect Targets
  7. 7.  Inter-Integrated Circuit( generically referred to as "two-wire interface“) is a multi- master serial single-ended computer bus invented by Philips that is used to attach low-speed peripherals to a motherboard, embedded system, or cellphone or other electronics. I²C uses only two bidirectional open-drain lines, Serial Data Line (SDA) and Serial Clock (SCL), pulled up with resistors. Typical voltages used are +5 V or +3.3 V although systems with other voltages are permitted.
  8. 8. The interintegrated circuit (I 2 C) bus is designed for short-rangecommunication between chips in the same system using a softwareaddressing system. It requires only two signal wires and operateslike a simplified local area network. The I 2 C slave chips are attached to a two-wire bus, which is pulled up to logic 1 when idle. Passive slave devices have their register or location addresses determined by a combination of external input address code pins and fixed internal decoding. If several memory devices are connected to the bus, they can be mapped into a continuous address space. The master sends data in 8-bit blocks, with a synchronous clock pulse alongside each bit. As for SPI, the clock is derived from the instruction clock, up to 5 MHz at the maximum clock rate of 20 MHz. To send a data byte, the master first sends a control code to set up the transfer, then the 8-bit or 10-bit address code, and finally the data. Each byte has a start and acknowledge bit, and each byte must be acknowledged before the next is sent, to improve reliability.
  9. 9. master Slave 1 Slave 25 volt scl sda
  10. 10. How to use arduino IDE Select Board Tool Select serial port
  11. 11. cotrol panel -> device manager -> unknown serial port->right click on unknown serial port->update dreiver from computer ->Give the path of pin drive then next-> see your port no is showing or not if not repeat the process.
  12. 12. Q-: Make a program using pin D11, D12 and D13 blink LED in the manner of aeroplane light you see in night.
  13. 13.  int sen1=11;  digitalWrite(12, HIGH); int sen2=12; digitalWrite(13, LOW); int sen13=13; digitalWrite(11,LOW); delay(1000); void setup() { digitalWrite(11, LOW); // initialize the digital pin as an digitalWrite(12, LOW); output. digitalWrite(13, HIGH); // Pin 13 has an LED connected on delay(1000); most Arduino boards: digitalWrite(11, HIGH); pinMode(11, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(12, HIGH); pinMode(12, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(13, HIGH); pinMode(13, OUTPUT); delay(1000); } digitalWrite(11, LOW); digitalWrite(12, LOW); void loop() { digitalWrite(13, LOW); digitalWrite(11, HIGH); delay(1000); digitalWrite(12, LOW); digitalWrite(13, LOW); delay(1000); }
  14. 14.  Make a program using bit D11,D12 and D13 to show binary counting by blinking led.