-Amt of generated solid waste in our country is 0.2 to .0.3 kg per person.-it is estimated that total urban solid waste production in india is nearly 12 million tone per ann.
Solid Waste Pollution & Control
Environment and Related
Environment :-The surroundings of an organism in
which the organism lives. It includes the abiotic
and biotic things.
Environmental Engineering :- Environmental
engineering is the systematic study of our
environment and our proper place in it.
Environmental Pollution :- The addition of
undesirable substances or energy(heat , radiation
and noise) into physical environment (air , water
and land),making it less fit or unfit for life.
What is Solid Waste???
• All solid and semi-solid wastes arising from human
and animal activities and are discarded as useless or
unwanted are included in the term „solid –wastes‟.
• Solid Waste is often called the third pollution after air
and water pollution.
• It includes garbage , rubbish , ashes and residues
, demolition and construction wastes , dead animals
, radio active wastes.
• The amount of solid waste produced in urban India is
steadily and rapidly increasing.
Harmful Effects of Solid Waste
• Improper handling of solid wastes is dangerous to
health and environment.
• Improper disposal of solid wastes are resulted in
the deaths of humans and animals through
contamination of crops of water supplies.
• Uncontrolled dumping of urban wastes destroys
the beauty of the countryside.
• Uncontrolled burning of open dumps can cause
• Solid wastes is also responsible for water pollution.
Terms used in Solid Waste
• Garbage :- It includes putrescible organic waste like
the animal, fruit or vegetable residues resulting from
the handling , preparation , cooking and eating
• Rubbish :-It includes combustible and non-
combustible solid wastes , excluding food wastes or
• Organic Wastes :-Wastes which includes animal and
vegetable refuse , animal dungs , decay leaves etc.
are called organic wastes.
• Inorganic Wastes :-Metal pieces , glass , ceramic tiles
, dust , mud etc. those are non combustible known
as inorganic wastes.
Source of Solid Wastes
I. Domestic Wastes :-waste that arises from
household activities of human beings, includes :
II. Industrial Wastes :- wastes, which arises from
industrial activities, includes :
Construction and demolition wastes
Discarded equipment and tools
Mining wastes etc..
III. Agricultural Wastes :- These includes agricultural residues
and poultry and diary wastes . Further, agricultural wastes
may also include packing and cans of fertilizers, pesticides
and soil conditioners used in modern agricultural practices
IV. Commercial Wastes :-wastes, those arise from public places
such as offices, markets, restaurants, streets etc,.includes :
Types of Solid Wastes
i. Biodegradable Wastes :-Wastes which can be broken down
into simpler and harmless substances by nature in due
course of time using biological means.
ii. Non-Biodegradable Wastes :- Wastes that can not be broke
down into simpler and harmless substances by biological
means. Ex- plastics; polythene bags; glass objects etc.
iii. Toxic Wastes :- which can pose an substantial danger to the
health of living beings and environment ,immediately or
over an period of time. Ex- pestisides; heavy metals like
mercury; sulphur dioxide etc.
iv. Non-toxic Wastes :- wastes that do not pose any problem to
the health of living beings or to the environment .These are
generally domestic wastes which are easily biodegradable.
Ex- papers, rags, boards etc.
v. Biomedical Wastes :- wastes generated from hospitals,
health centres, medical and dental colleges and
laboratories. Ex- biological cultures, used syringes etc.
These wastes are potentially dangerous and infectious.
Solid Waste Management
It defines as the application of techniques that will
ensure the orderly execution of the functions of
collection , processing and disposal of solid waste. Three
basic functional elements are :-
Collection :- It refers to the gathering of solid wastes
from places such as residences, commercial,
institutional and industrial establishments, and other
public places. Two methods of collection:
1-hauled –container system
Processing :- It refers to the activity applied to solid waste to
prepare it for subsequent operation. Processing improves the
efficiency of solid waste disposal and prepares solid waste for
subsequent recycling and recovery of materials.
Disposal :- It refers to the placing of solid waste in its ultimate
Techniques of Solid Waste
In Solid waste Management, the stress should
be on 3R‟s-Reduce,Reuse and Recycle as
Reduction in the use of raw materials is one
of the fundamental way s to decrease the
production of solid waste.
On the individual level,one can reduce the
use of unnecessary items while shopping.
For example, Buy items with minimal
packing,avoid buying disposable items and
also avoid plastic carry bags.
Reuse of the materials in their original form is the next
fundamental way to minimize the generation of solid
The reuse of materials,instead of throwing them
away,not only reduces waste but also save money.
Recycling involves reprocessing of discarded
materials that may have some economic value into
new useful products.
Recycling will not only make materials available to
future generations but also save energy and
Some examples of recycling and waste utilisation:-
Recycling of metals papers,glass and plastic.
Utilising fly ash in brick making
Paper from agricultural waste
Energy from urban waste.