Skeletal System

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Simple explaination regarding human skeletal system with bones and joints

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Skeletal System

  1. 1. WELCOME TO HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM
  2. 2. PRESENTED BY <ul><li>MR.ATUL MANKAR </li></ul><ul><li>P.G.T. (BIOLOGY) </li></ul><ul><li>Kendriya Vidyalaya DIPHU </li></ul>
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>To impart knowledge about human skeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>To make the viewers realize their body framework </li></ul>
  4. 4. CONTENTS <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>DIVISIONS OF SKELETON </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The human skeletal system consists of frame work of </li></ul><ul><li> Cartilages Bones </li></ul><ul><li>(206) (few) </li></ul>INTRODUCTION
  6. 6. <ul><li>Bones & Cartilages are specialized connective tissues </li></ul><ul><li>BONES CARTILAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Has hard matrix Has slightly pliable </li></ul><ul><li>matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of Ca salts Presence of chondroitin </li></ul><ul><li>salts </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li> Human Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li> Grouped into 2 main divisions </li></ul><ul><li>Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton </li></ul>HUMAN SKELETON
  8. 9. AXIAL SKELETON <ul><li>Comprises of 80 bones distributed along the main axis of the body Comprises of – </li></ul><ul><li>Skull </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebral column </li></ul><ul><li>Sternum </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs </li></ul>
  9. 11. SKULL <ul><li>Cranial bones (8) </li></ul><ul><li>Skull </li></ul><ul><li>Facial (14) </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial bones form the hard protective outer covering of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Facial bones form front part of the skull </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Hyoid </li></ul><ul><li>It is a single U shaped bone present at the base of buccal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Also included in the skull </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Our each middle ear contain 3 tiny bones- </li></ul><ul><li>Mallaeus ,Incus & Stapes </li></ul><ul><li>Called ear ossicles </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Human skull is dicondylic as it articulates with the superior region of vertebral column with the help of 2 occipital condyles. </li></ul>
  13. 15. VERTEBRAL COLUMN <ul><li>Formed of 26 serially arranged units called vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>It is dorsally placed </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from base of the skull </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutes main framework of the trunk </li></ul><ul><li>The spinal cord passes through the central hollow neural canal of the vertebrae </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>1 st vertebra - Atlas </li></ul><ul><li>It articulates with the occipital condyles </li></ul><ul><li>7 cervical vertebrae - make up the neck part </li></ul><ul><li>12 thoracic vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>5 lumbar vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>1 fused sacral vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>1 fused coccygeal vertebrae </li></ul>
  15. 19. Function of Vertebral Column <ul><li>Protects the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the head </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as point of attachment for the ribs & musculature of the back </li></ul>
  16. 20. STERNUM <ul><li>It is a flat bone on the ventral midline of the thorax </li></ul>
  17. 22. RIBS <ul><li>12 pairs of ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Each rib is a thin flat bone connected dorsally to the vertebral column & ventrally to the sternum </li></ul><ul><li>Has 2 articulation surface on it’s dorsal end (dicephalic) </li></ul><ul><li>1 st 7pairs of ribs -true ribs. attached dorsally to the vertebral column & ventrally to the sternum with the help of hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>8 th ,9 th & 10 th pairs of ribs called false ribs. Do not articulate directly with the sternum but join the 7 th rib with the help of hyaline cartilage (vertebrochondral rib) </li></ul><ul><li>11 th & 12 th pairs of ribs called floating ribs. They are not connected ventrally </li></ul><ul><li>RIB CAGE --- THORACIC VERTEBRAE + RIBS+ STERNUM </li></ul>
  18. 24. APPENDICULAR SKELETON <ul><li>Limb bones + Girdles </li></ul><ul><li>LIMB - Each limb made of 30 bones </li></ul><ul><li>Forelimb - Bones are humerus , radius + ulna </li></ul><ul><li>carpals (wrist- 8) metacarpals (palm -8), </li></ul><ul><li>phalanges (fingers- 14) </li></ul><ul><li>Hind limb - Bones are femur (thigh bone - longest) </li></ul><ul><li>tibia + fibula </li></ul><ul><li>tarsals (ankle-7), metatarsals (sole -5), phalanges(toes - 14) </li></ul><ul><li>Knee - covered by a cup shaped bone called </li></ul><ul><li>patella </li></ul>
  19. 27. <ul><li> Pectoral </li></ul><ul><li>GIRDLES Pelvic </li></ul><ul><li>Girdle bones helps in the articulation of the </li></ul><ul><li>upper & lower limbs with the axial skeleton </li></ul>
  20. 28. <ul><li>Each half of pectoral girdle consists of a CLAVICLE & a SCAPULA </li></ul><ul><li>Scapula-large triangular flat bone </li></ul><ul><li>Situated in the dorsal part of the thorax between the 2 nd & 7 th ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal side has a slightly elevated ridge called spine which extends as a flat expanded acromian process </li></ul><ul><li>It articulates with the clavicle </li></ul><ul><li>Below acromian a depression called glenoid cavity which atriculates with head of humerus to form shoulder joint (ball & socket joint) </li></ul><ul><li>Clavicle - called collar bone </li></ul><ul><li> - Long slender bone with 2 curvatures </li></ul>
  21. 29. <ul><li>Pelvic girdle consists of 2 coxal bones: </li></ul><ul><li>= Each coxal bone formed by fusion of 3 bones </li></ul><ul><li>= Ilium ,Ischium & Pubis </li></ul><ul><li>= At the point of fusion of the 3 bones is a </li></ul><ul><li>cavity , acetabulum to which femur </li></ul><ul><li>articulates (ball& socket joint) </li></ul><ul><li>= The 2 halves of the pelvic girdle meet </li></ul><ul><li>ventrally to form pubic symphysis containing </li></ul><ul><li>fibrous cartilage </li></ul>

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