Training report on
Industrial training at
On the topic:-
STUDY OF RADAR SYSTEM
Under:- Mr. Aman Vohra
Start Date for Internship:-June 16th 2014
End Date for Internship:-July 26th 2014
Atul Sharma, B.Tech IV
Maharaja Agrasen Institute
Of Technology, GGSIPU
RADAR is an acronym for
RAdio Detecting And Ranging.
First successfully demonstrated
It uses electromagnetic waves.
It enjoys wide range of
The World War II RADAR
Principle Of Working
Radar is used to find the
• Direction of the target.
Radar Range Equation
Rmax = [Pt .G.б.Ae / (4П)2Smin]1/4
G = 4ПAe / λ2
Ae = G.λ2 / 4П
Where Smin = Minimum power received
Pt = Power transmitted
G = antenna gain
б = radar cross section of target
Ae= effective area
Rmax = Maximum Radar Range
A Primary Radar transmits high-frequency signals
which are reflected at targets. The arisen echoes
are received and evaluated.
At these radar sets the target must have a
transponder (transmitting responder) on board
and this transponder responds to interrogation
by transmitting a coded reply signal.
An antenna either receives energy from an
electromagnetic field or radiates electromagnetic waves
produced by a high frequency generator.
Parabolic antenna Cassegrain antenna Slot antenna
A radar transmitter generates RF- energy
Necessary for scanning the free space.
The function of the receiver is to take the weak
echoes from the antenna system, amplify them
sufficiently, detect the pulse envelope, amplify
the pulses, and feed them to the indicator.
Presents only the range to
the target and the relative
strength of the echo.
It provides a 2-D representation in which
horizontal axis represents
measurement of azimuth
(bearing) and vertical axis
measurement of the range.
It is an intensity-modulation type display system
which indicates both range and
azimuthal angle of the target
simultaneously in polar
The distance of the bright spot
radiating outward from the
centre gives the range or the
distance of the target from the
radar transmitter while the
direction in which the spot
deflects at certain instant corresponds to the direction of
radar antenna (i.e. target direction) at that instant.