Organisational Behaviour2


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Organisational Behaviour2

  1. 1. Communication and work place behaviour
  2. 3. <ul><li>Everything a manager does involves communication. </li></ul><ul><li>A manager can’t make a decision without information </li></ul><ul><li>But that information has to be communicated to the intended person </li></ul><ul><li>The receiver of the information has to give a feedback </li></ul>Communication – a tool for managers
  3. 4. <ul><li>This is the transfer and understanding of information </li></ul><ul><li>It includes sharing information, ideas and feelings between people . </li></ul><ul><li>It is a two way process </li></ul><ul><li>When you communicate you perceive the other persons responses and react with your own thoughts and feelings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is only by paying attention to the other person that you have any idea about what to say or do next. </li></ul></ul>So what is communication?
  4. 5. <ul><li>Communication must involve two parties </li></ul><ul><li>It is about a transfer of information </li></ul><ul><li>It involves some action on the party receiving the information </li></ul>So .......
  5. 6. <ul><li>When good communication is missing, misunderstandings may result  </li></ul><ul><li>You can probably think of many occasions when lack of communication has left you feeling angry or worried. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>The Basic Communication Model </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>The source is the person or group or organisation sending out the message /information. </li></ul><ul><li>The medium: The message is given out in some sort of medium - this is the means by which the message is sent. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Oral - spoken </li></ul><ul><li>Via electronic means - e-mail, fax or through the Web for example </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Paper based - letter, memo, scribbled note, poster etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Image/visual </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Silent communication - smell, touch, body language, colour, how letters or numbers are presented. </li></ul>This can either be:
  9. 10. <ul><li>The Receiver - the person, group or organisation that is receiving the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback - The source will not know whether the communication that they have sent has been successful unless they receive some feedback in the form of some action or changed behaviour. </li></ul>
  10. 11. What purpose does communication serve <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication acts to control employee behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication motivates by clarifying what is to be done to employees, how well they are doing and what can be done to improve performance. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Emotional expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication provides a release of emotional expression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals and groups need information to get things done in an organization </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Barriers to Communication <ul><li>Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Many physical and psychological barriers exist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture, background, and bias - We allow our past experiences to change the meaning of the message. Our culture, background, and bias can be good as they allow us to use our past experiences to understand something new, it is when they change the meaning of the message that they interfere with the communication process. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Filtering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtering is the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favourable to the receiver. Also if information being communicated up through organisational levels is condensed by senders is referred to as filtering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Words mean different things to different people. Age , educational and cultural background are variables that influence the language a person uses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Noise - Equipment or environmental noise impedes clear communication. The sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being sent to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Ourselves - Focusing on ourselves, rather than the other person can lead to confusion and conflict. The &quot;Me Generation&quot; is out when it comes to effective communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the factors that cause this are defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us), superiority (we feel we know more that the other), and ego (we feel we are the center of the activity). </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Perception - If we feel the person is talking too fast, not fluently, does not articulate clearly, etc., we may dismiss the person. Also our preconceived attitudes affect our ability to listen. We listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismiss those of low status. </li></ul><ul><li>Message - Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the idea. Sometimes we want to focus on the words rather than on the message </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Environmental - Bright lights, an attractive person, unusual sights, or any other stimulus provides a potential distraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Smothering - We take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic. Too often we believe that certain information has no value to others or they are already aware of the facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress - People do not see things the same way when under stress. What we see and believe at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames of references - our beliefs, values, knowledge, experiences, and goals. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>These barriers can be thought of as filters, that is, the message leaves the sender, goes through the above filters, and is then heard by the receiver. These filters muffle the message. </li></ul><ul><li>And the way to overcome filters is through active listening and feedback. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Active Listening <ul><li>Hearing and listening are not the same thing. Hearing is the act of perceiving sound. It is involuntary and simply refers to the reception of aural stimuli. Listening is a selective activity which involves the reception and the interpretation of aural stimuli. It involves decoding the sound into meaning. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Passive listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive listening is little more that hearing. It occurs when the receiver of the message has little motivation to listen carefully, such as when listening to music, story telling, television, or when being polite. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>People speak at 100 to 175 words per minute (WPM), but they can listen intelligently at 600 to 800 WPM. </li></ul><ul><li>Since only a part of our mind is paying attention, it is easy to go into mind drift - thinking about other things while listening to someone. </li></ul><ul><li>The cure for this is active listening - which involves listening with a purpose. It may be to gain information, obtain directions, understand others, solve problems, share interest, see how another person feels, show support, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>It requires that the listener attends to the words and the feelings of the sender for understanding. It takes the same amount or more energy than speaking. It requires the receiver to hear the various messages, understand the meaning, and then verify the meaning by offering feedback </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>The following are a few traits of active listeners: </li></ul><ul><li>Spend more time listening than talking. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not finish the sentences of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not answer questions with questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Are aware of biases. We all have them. We need to control them. </li></ul><ul><li>Never daydream or become preoccupied with your own thoughts when others talk. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Let the other speakers talk. Do not dominate the conversations. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan responses after the others have finished speaking, NOT while they are speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback, but do not interrupt incessantly. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze by looking at all the relevant factors and asking open-ended questions. Walk others through by summarizing. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep conversations on what others say, NOT on what interests you. </li></ul><ul><li>Take brief notes. This forces you to concentrate on what is being said. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Feedback <ul><li>When you know something, say what you know. When you don't know something, say that you don't know. That is knowledge. - Kung Fu Tzu (Confucius) </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of feedback is to alter messages so the intention of the original communicator is understood by the second communicator. It includes verbal and nonverbal responses to another person's message. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Providing feedback is accomplished by paraphrasing the words of the sender. </li></ul><ul><li>Restate the sender's feelings or ideas in your own words, rather than repeating their words. </li></ul><ul><li>Your words should be saying, &quot;This is what I understand your feelings to be, am I correct?&quot; It not only includes verbal responses, but also nonverbal ones. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Nodding your head or squeezing their hand to show agreement, </li></ul><ul><li>dipping your eyebrows shows you don't quite understand the meaning of their last phrase, or </li></ul><ul><li>sucking air in deeply and blowing it hard shows that you are also exasperated with the situation. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Five main categories of feedback. <ul><li>Evaluative: Making a judgment about the worth, goodness, or appropriateness of the other person's statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretive: Paraphrasing - attempting to explain what the other person's statement means. </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive: Attempting to assist the other communicator. </li></ul><ul><li>Probing: Attempting to gain additional information, continue the discussion, or clarify a point. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Understanding: Attempting to discover completely what the other communicator means by her statements. </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine how much better daily communications would be if listeners tried to understand first, before they tried to evaluate what someone is saying. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Nonverbal Behaviors of Communication <ul><li>To deliver the full impact of a message, use nonverbal behaviors to raise the channel of interpersonal communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact: This helps to regulate the flow of communication. It signals interest in others and increases the speaker's credibility. People who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth, and credibility. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Facial Expressions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness, friendliness, warmth, and liking. So, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and people will react favorably. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen more. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Gestures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as boring and stiff. A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention, makes the conversation more interesting, and facilitates understanding. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Posture and body orientation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You communicate numerous messages by the way you talk and move. Standing erect and leaning forward communicates to listeners that you are approachable, receptive and friendly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal closeness results when you and the listener face each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Proximity: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with others. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading the other person's space. Some of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze aversion. </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Vocal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking can signal nonverbal communication when you include such vocal elements as: tone, pitch, rhythm, timbre, loudness, and inflection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the major criticisms of many speakers is that they speak in a monotone voice. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Speaking Hints <ul><li>Speak comfortable words! - William Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>When speaking or trying to explain something, ask the listeners if they are following you. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the receiver has a chance to comment or ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to put yourself in the other person's shoes - consider the feelings of the receiver. </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Be clear about what you say. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your words match your tone and body language (Nonverbal Behaviors). </li></ul><ul><li>Vary your tone and pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be vague, but on the other hand, do not complicate what you are saying with too much detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ignore signs of confusion. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Communication flow <ul><li>There are several ways in which information can flow in an organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Downward communication flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is any communication that flows from a manager to employees. This method is used to inform, direct, co-ordinate and evaluate employees. Eg giving out job descriptions, informing about organisational policies etc. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>Upward communication flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is when information flows from employees to managers. This methods keeps managers informed of how employees feel about their jobs, co-workers and the organisation in general </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward communication provides managers with ideas and how things can be improved. Eg of this are performance reports prepared by employees, employee messages in suggestion boxes, attitude surveys etc </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Lateral communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This refers to communication that takes place among employees on the same organisational level . May be meeting of divisional heads, staff associations etc. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Diagonal communication flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is communication that crosses both work areas and organisational levels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is rampant now in these days of information technology where emails can be sent to any one in the organisation </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Organisational Communication networks <ul><li>chain </li></ul>wheel All channel
  42. 43. Types of Communication Networks <ul><li>In a chain network, communication flows according to the formal chain of command </li></ul><ul><li>This is both downward and upward. </li></ul><ul><li>In a wheel network, communication flows between a clearly identifiable and strong leader and others in a work group or team </li></ul><ul><li>In an all channel network, communication flows freely among all members of a work team </li></ul>
  43. 44. The Grapevine <ul><li>....The informal organisational communication network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The grapevine is active in almost every organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is an important source of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a survey conducted in the USA, 63% of employees said they heard about important matters through rumours or gossip on the grapevine </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>To hear something through the grapevine is to learn of something informally and unofficially by means of gossip and rumor. </li></ul><ul><li>The usual implication is that the information was passed person to person by word of mouth, perhaps in a confidential manner among friends or colleagues. </li></ul><ul><li>It can also imply an overheard conversation or anonymous sources of information. </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>It has been shown that informal communication or grapevine communication occurs when formal communication is not sufficient </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>The way grapevine communication works is </li></ul><ul><li>one person, Person 1, sends a message to Person 2 and Person 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, Person 2 tells Person 4 and Person 5. </li></ul><ul><li>And Person 3 tells Person 6. </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>Not all participants within the grapevine send messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Some participants are just receivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Liaisons within an organization usually help facilitate grapevine communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of this type of communication is common among managers as well as subdivision employees. </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>The types of rumors that are spread through grapevine communication can be classified into two groups, spontaneous and premeditated. </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous rumors are spread when people are stressed or in an untrustworthy environment. </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>Premeditated rumors spread within highly competitive environments. </li></ul><ul><li>These two groups can be broken down into four classifications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wish fulfillment, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>these express the wishes and hopes of those who circulate rumors and these are the most positive and they help to stimulate the creativity of others. often solutions to work problems are a result of employees verbally expressing desire for changes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><ul><li>anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comes from employees' fears and anxieties causing general uneasiness among employees such as during budget crunch. In this case, employees will verbally express their fears to others. These rumors are sometimes damaging, such as a rumor about possible lay-offs, and need a formal rebuttal from management. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. <ul><ul><li>wedge drivers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>divide groups and destroy loyalties. They are motivated by aggression or even hatred. They are divisive and very negative rumors. They tend to be demeaning to a company or individual and can cause damage to the reputation of others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>home stretchers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These are anticipatory rumors. These rumors occur after employees have been waiting a long time for an announcement. There may be just one final thing necessary to complete the puzzle and this in effect enhances the ambiguity of the situation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>nearly all of the information within the grapevine is undocumented and is thereby open to change and interpretation as it moves through the network </li></ul><ul><li>It often travels faster than formal channels </li></ul><ul><li>It provides people with an outlet for their imaginations and apprehensions as well. It also helps satisfy a natural desire to know what is really going on. </li></ul>
  53. 54. <ul><li>Dealing effectively with the grapevine is a challenge that will always be a part of a manager's job. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who are able to understand the power of the grapevine will be better prepared to utilize it to provide stability and credibility in the work environment that is needed in order to achieve organizational goals. </li></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>Since it is unstructured and not under complete control of management, it moves through the organization in every direction. </li></ul><ul><li>It moves upwards, downward, and diagonally, within and without chains of command, </li></ul><ul><li>between workers and managers, and even within and out of a company. </li></ul>
  55. 56. Location of the grapevine <ul><li>Since the grapevine arises from social interactions, it is as fickle, dynamic, and varied as people are. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the expression of their natural motivation to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the exercise of their freedom of speech and is a natural, normal activity. </li></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><li>The grapevine starts early in the morning in the car pools. </li></ul><ul><li>Once everyone has arrived at work, grapevine activity takes place nearly all day long down hallways, around corners, in meetings, and especially by the coffee machine or coffee room. </li></ul>
  57. 58. <ul><li>The peak time of the days are breaks and lunch hour during which management has little or no control over the topics of conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>In the late afternoon the work day has finished but the grapevine has not. </li></ul>
  58. 59. <ul><li>After a short time interval, some employees meet again. </li></ul><ul><li>They are on company football teams, golf clubs, and keep fit clubs. </li></ul><ul><li>The grapevine at that time goes into full swing again and remains active with one final activity peak at a local bar. </li></ul><ul><li>The following day, the cycle is repeated. </li></ul>
  59. 60. <ul><li>It is the wide range of locations where the grapevine takes place in combination with the fact that grapevine participants come from informal social groups within the organization which points out it's difference from formal management communication. </li></ul>
  60. 61. <ul><li>Structured management uses verbal messages to communicate through the chain of command, while grapevine communication jumps from one department to another and from any level of management to another. </li></ul><ul><li>It moves up, down, horizontally, vertically and diagonally all within a short span of time. </li></ul>
  61. 62. How Accurate is the Grapevine? <ul><li>most rumors start as a report of an actual episode - that is to say, with someone's perceptual experience of an event which he deems of sufficient interest and importance to communicate to others </li></ul><ul><li>Once this central theme, the actual episode, has been accepted there is a tendency to distort subsequent news or events in order to make them consistent with the central theme. </li></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>In a normal work situation, upwards of 80% of the information that comes over the grapevine is accurate. </li></ul><ul><li>While the day-to-day accuracy may be good, people believe the grapevine is less accurate because the times it is wrong are more dramatic. </li></ul>
  63. 64. <ul><li>A communication may be 80% correct in details but that last 20% is often the most important part of the message. </li></ul><ul><li>Messages from the grapevine are often lacking in all the details so that the message is subject to misinterpretation; while the grapevine generally carries the truth it seldom carries the whole truth. </li></ul>
  64. 65. <ul><li>An interesting note about the informal communications network is that an estimated 80% of grapevine information is oriented toward the individual while 20% concerns the company </li></ul>
  65. 66. Management's Response to the Grapevine <ul><li>The key thing to remember is that the grapevine exists, always has and always will, and you can't stop it. </li></ul><ul><li>So managers should accept the fact and decide how they can use it to their own benefit. </li></ul>
  66. 67. <ul><li>Vanessa Arnold contends that &quot;Managers interested in creating effective organizational communication will use information from the grapevine to improve communication throughout the firm. </li></ul><ul><li>The real value of the grapevine should be in revealing to management those issues that generate from the grass roots. </li></ul>
  67. 68. <ul><li>As Donald Thompson said &quot;its usefulness is seldom acknowledged, its voice often muffled, its insights ignored.&quot;[27] </li></ul>
  68. 69. Should Managers Participate? <ul><li>In many cases lower and middle managers are already active participants. </li></ul><ul><li>They hold strategic positions in the communication channel because they filter and block two-way communication between higher management and operating employees. </li></ul>
  69. 70. Managers basically have three options when it comes to their participation in the grapevine <ul><ul><li>1. Ignore the grapevine, be no part of it. This is difficult in most organizations, but can be accomplished. They do their job and let it operate unnoticed around them. In effect they become an &quot;isolate. &quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Participate only when it serves their purpose. In this case they may seek out the grapevine and tap it to learn what is being said concerning a specific situation or issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Become an active and full-time participant. </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. <ul><li>IT has radically changed the way in which people in an organisation communicate </li></ul><ul><li>It has enabled managers to monitor performance of workers </li></ul><ul><li>Has made information available and faster to management and employees </li></ul><ul><li>Has made it possible for people within an organisation to be fully accessible, any time and any where. </li></ul>Information Technology and Communication
  71. 72. <ul><li>Networked systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is where an organisations computers are linked together and employees can talk to each other through yahoo groups, instant messenger, blogs, emails intranet websites. </li></ul></ul>
  72. 78. Thoughtful communication <ul><li>In these modern times our vocabulary has been modified to reflect modern concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Person with disability instead of disabled person or handicapped person </li></ul><ul><li>Visually impaired instead of blind </li></ul><ul><li>We must be sensitive to how our choice of words might offend others and may be politically incorrect </li></ul>