Language 8086


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Language 8086

  1. 1. Language Of the Machine 8086 Simulation Using MASM
  2. 2. Language Of the Machine 8086 <ul><li>8086 is a 16bit N-Channel, HMOS Microprocessor. </li></ul><ul><li>It Consumes less power. </li></ul><ul><li>It draws 360 mA on 5 Volt. </li></ul><ul><li>It is manufactured for standard temperature range 32’f – 180’f as well as extended temperature range from 40’f – 180’f. </li></ul><ul><li>Its clock frequencies for different versions are 5, 8 and 10 MHz. </li></ul><ul><li>It is built on single semiconductor chip and packaged in 40 pin IC package. The type of package is DIP (Dual Inline Package). </li></ul><ul><li>It uses 20 address lines & 16 data lines. </li></ul><ul><li>It can directly address upto 2 20 = 1Mbit of memory. </li></ul><ul><li>16 bit data word is divided into low order byte & high order byte. </li></ul><ul><li>20 address lines are multiplexed lines – 16 low address lines are time multiplexed with data & 4 high address lines are time multiplexed with status signals. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 8086 CPU is divided into independent Functional Parts: <ul><li>Bus Interface Unit (BIU) </li></ul><ul><li>Execution Unit (EU) </li></ul><ul><li>BIU sends out addresses, fetches instructions from memory, reads data from ports & memory and write data to ports & memory. </li></ul><ul><li>It handles all transfers of data & addresses on buses or execution unit. </li></ul><ul><li>EU tells BIU where to fetch instruction or data from & decodes instructions & execute instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>EU contains control circuitry which direct internal operations, decoder in EU translates instructions fetched from memory into series of actions which EU carries out. </li></ul><ul><li>EU has 16 bit ALU which can add, subtract, AND, OR, XOR, increment, decrement, complement or shift binary numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>A 16 bit register in EU has 9 active flags where flag is a flip-flop that indicates some conditions produced by execution of instruction produced by execution of an instruction. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Register Organization of 8086 <ul><li>8086 has fourteen 16 bit registers classified as : </li></ul><ul><li>General purpose Register : Ax, Bx, Cx, Dx </li></ul><ul><li>Pointer & Index Register : SP, BP, SI, DI </li></ul><ul><li>Segment register : CS, DS, SS, ES </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction pointer & status register </li></ul>
  5. 5. Language levels used to write a program for a microcomputer: <ul><li>Machine Language </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly Language </li></ul><ul><li>High level Language </li></ul><ul><li>Statement in Assembly Language </li></ul>; AL, 07H ADD NEXT: Comment field Operand field OP code field Label Field
  6. 6. Simulation Using MASM (Microsoft Assembler) <ul><li>Need for Assembler : </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how computer works at low level. </li></ul><ul><li>Write device drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize program for speed & size. </li></ul><ul><li>Debug, hack & dissect other programs </li></ul><ul><li>Bootstrap new computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with input, output directly </li></ul><ul><li>Write utilities in HLL using features not available in those languages. </li></ul><ul><li>MASM for microprocessor can be used in 2 ways: </li></ul><ul><li>With models that are unique to a particular assembler </li></ul><ul><li>With full segment definition that allow full control over the assembly process & are universal to all assemblers. </li></ul>