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  1. Designing Minnesota, 1783-1858: Lessons for the Community Enterprise in the 21st Century 2007 Rural Summit: Thriving By Design Jim Ramstrom, Land Management Information Center (LMIC) MN Department of Administration May 10, 2007 … a Sesquicentennial Story
  2. Eco-Regions: USGS, Bailey- Provinces Ecological Provinces in the Midwest, Minnesota in 3 Zones Great Plains Steppe Great Plains Dry Steppe Coniferous Forest Broadleaf Deciduous Tall Grass Prairie
  3. American Studies Group. University of Virginia Major Socio-Political Zones of the U.S. 1800, - Minnesota located in three zones
  4. Land Ordinance of 1775 Federal government had no power to tax Goal was to raise money by selling unmapped lands west of the original 13 colonies Establish basis for Public Land survey System (PLS) Section 16 set aside for public education Did not define how land would become states or how it would be governed
  5. Northwest Ordinance 1787 Laid out the process for U.S expansion westward Established the first U.S. territory and rules of governance U.S. Expansion would proceed by admitting new states Banned slavery in the new territory Set dividing line between free and slave states
  6. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota part of… Northwest Territory of Ohio, 1787 Indiana Territory, 1800
  7. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as part of… Illinois Territory… central Minnesota part of the Louisiana Purchase
  8. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as part of… Michigan Territory… and totally with the U.S.
  9. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as part of… Michigan Territory and Indian Land
  10. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as part of… Wisconsin and Iowa Territories
  11. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as a… Minnesota Territory, 1849
  12. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as a state… Minnesota Statehood, 1858
  13. Minnesota’s Geographic Lineage Original thirteen colonies (1609 Virginia claim) British control of the Red River Basin until 1818 French control until 1803 (Louisiana purchase) 1787 Territory Northwest of the Ohio River 1800 Indiana Territory 1809 Illinois Territory 1812 Missouri Territory 1818 Michigan Territory 1836 Wisconsin Territory 1838 Iowa Territory 1849 Minnesota Territory 1858 State of Minnesota
  14. U.S. Digital Map Library U.S./ Britain Proposed Boundary
  15. Mitchell Map is the common name used to refer to a map made by John Mitchell and all the various reprints made during the late 18th century . The Mitchell Map was used as a primary map source during the Treaty of Paris (1783) for defining the boundaries of the newly independent United States . The map remains important today for resolving border disputes between the United States and Canada and between states within the United States. The Mitchell Map is the most comprehensive map of eastern North America made during the colonial era. Its size is about 6.5 feet wide by 4.5 feet high. Map of British and French Dominions, John Mitchell,1757, U.S. Library of Congress Inaccuracies in Mitchell’s Map Lead to creation of Minnesota’s Northwest Angle
  16. Native American Indians mined Copper for thousands of years. Copper Arrowheads (shown above) were traded throughout the region. Jonathan Carver boasted of seeing Native American copper mines during his early trip in the region (1767). Carver’s Map, 1767
  17. U.S. Digital Map Library U.S. / Britain Proposed Boundary Franklin’s Proposal Corrected Line
  18. Lesson # 2 Timing Makes the Difference James Doty, Governor Wisconsin Territory Lewis Cass, Governor Michigan Territory Jedidiah Morse, Clergyman and Geographer, 1761-1826 … a proposal for an all Indian state
  19. Published geographic textbooks, periodicals and atlases that were widely used in schools, colleges, libraries and homes. Foremost in the field for of geography several decades. Clergyman from New England, concerned with treatment of Native Americans Hired by the War Department in 1820 to visit Native Americans and develop an enlightened Indian policy. Report to the Secretary of War in 1822 Jedidiah Morse “ Father of American Geography”
  20. United States from Morse’s School Atlas, 1820
  21. 1820- Cass, Doty and Schoolcraft Reconnaissance of Michigan Territory
  22. Generalized Area Covering Proposed Indian Settlement 1841-1842 H.H. Sibley- Rhoda Gilman, MHS
  23. The Great American Desert … an 1820’s concept Concept for the area west of the Mississippi in the early 19 th Century, devoid of wood, limited water and uninhabitable by man. The early explorer’s view... … was Minnesota included?
  24. The concept of Manifest Destiny was, advertised publicized and argued by politicians throughout the nation American Progress by John Gast “ We are the nation of human progress, and who will, what can, set limits to our onward march? “ John L. O’Sullivan on Manifest Destiny, 1839
  25. Lesson #3 No Room for Intolerance “… should [Indians] stay the march of cultivation and improvement, and hold in a state of perpetual unproductiveness, immense regions formed by Providence to support millions of human beings?” Lewis Cass, Governor Michigan Territory Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. As a social construct, it is open to interpretation. Some define intolerance as an expressed, negative or hostile attitude toward another's views, even if no action is taken against them. - Wikipedia Lewis Cass 1782-1866
  26. “ Like the bear, the deer and the buffalo of his own forests an Indian lives as his father lived, and dies as his father died. He never attempts to imitate the arts of his civilized neighbor. Lewis Cass, Governor Michigan Territory Lesson #4 Incorporate Sustainability What did Governor Cass fail to consider?
  27. “ Man is a blind, witless, low brow, anthropocentric clod who inflicts lesions upon the earth.” Ian McHarg Landscape Architect
  28. Lesson # 6 Build a Constituency and Develop a Champion … becoming a territory Métis- his constituency Stephen Douglas, the Champion Library of Congress U.S. Senate Historical Office Photo Courtesy MHS Central figure- H.H. Sibley
  29. 1851 Map of the Minnesota Territory, Cowperthwait
  31. Lesson # 7 Turning a Negative into a Positive Henry Hastings Sibley “ Minnesota’s land was considered a desert country, that its cold winters made it unsuitable for habitation, and its land would therefore never have much value.” - Christianson … the general opinion about Minnesota in 1849 by Easterners… Becoming a territory…
  32. Long/Keating Map 1824 (Whittaker, London) Geographic Knowledge Was Poor in 1820’s
  33. The Great American Desert Concept for the area west of the Mississippi in the early 19 th Century, devoid of wood, limited water and uninhabitable by man. The early explorer’s view... … was Minnesota included?
  34. Lesson # 8 Invest in Education Sections 16 and 36 contained valuable stands of timber and minerals to support schools Minnesota’s 1849 Territorial Act left its mark on the landscape
  35. Source: Datanet Online, Census 2000 Mapped as a % of MCD
  36. Source: Datanet Online, Census 2000 Mapped as % of the MCD
  37. Source: Datanet Online, Census 2000 Mapped as % of the MCD
  38. Henry Rodgers and Alexander Johnston, National Map 1857
  39. Samuel Mitchell Map of Minnesota, 1860
  40. Minnesota’s Glacial history Minnesota Geological Survey Glaciers deposited an unsorted mixture of rocks, sand and clay known as till. Glaciers also created for many surface features such as moraines, kames, drumlins, and eskers.
  42. Minnesota Elevation Elevation- Shaded Relief Vegetation, 1847-1907
  43. Pioneer Settlement Lacked Knowledge about the Land 1977 Forest Cover Normal Temperature Digital Composite Map + =
  44. Date of Public Land Survey 1847-1907
  45. 1851 Survey and Vegetation Before Settlement 1851 Survey Coniferous Forest
  46. We exploited resources… … Courtesy MHS … the quality was magnificent
  47. … the harvest increased Courtesy MHS
  48. The number of lumberjacks increased to 20,000 in the 1890’s Courtesy of MHS … the quantity seemed endless
  49. … railroads and steam power increased efficiency Courtesy of MHS
  50. Natural systems were pushed to their limit… Taylor Falls log jam of 150 million feet Courtesy of MHS
  51. Courtesy of MHS took one lifetime to remove centuries of growth
  52. Learning to manage our resources meant a lot of trial and error… Courtesy of MHS
  53. Courtesy of MHS
  54. World’s Largest Load Hauled, 1909 World’s Largest Load in MN or Wisconsin, 1909 Courtesy of MHS
  55. … the plow flows the axe Courtesy of MHS
  56. Reduction of the Big Woods 1850’s 1977
  57. … land clearing, Hubbard County, MN, 1913 Courtesy of MHS
  58. … little thought to reforestation Courtesy of MHS
  59. Forest fires gave rise to environmental problems … Courtesy of MHS
  60. Slashing after government logging… Courtesy of MHS … we lacked the social institutions to manage forests
  61. Courtesy of MHS Many wildfires threatened our communities… 42 lives lost, 150,000 acres
  62. Chisholm, 1908
  63. Cloquet Fire, 1918 Courtesy of MHS … Loss of 500 lives and $20 Million of property
  64. Moose Lake Wildfire 1918 ..the bakery Courtesy of MHS
  65. Courtesy of MHS
  66. … a homestead Courtesy of MHS
  67. Resource management issues were not confined to forestry…. Contour plowing, Wabasha County, 1937 Courtesy of MHS
  68. Intensive Agriculture started in Southeast MN Wheat, 1879 Wheat,1920 Wheat, 1974 Wheat, 2002
  69. Crops turned to dust… … a combination of cut worms and heat destroyed crops, east of Appleton, Swift County, 1936 Courtesy of MHS Area most affected by 1930’s drought July Annual Precipatation, 1941-1970 High Low Low High
  70. Dust storms turned day into night… NOAA Photo “ The soil is the one indestructible, immutable asset that the nation possess. It is the one resource that can not be exhausted” Federal Bureau of Soils, 1878 “… on Minnesota highways motorists had to operate their cars with lights turned on in the middle of the day.” T. Christianson
  71. … the drought brought men to their knees South of Beardsley, Big Stone County, 1936 Courtesy of MHS
  72. Dust covered the fence poles… Swift County, MN 1935 Courtesy of MHS
  73. Farmsteads were abandoned … Near Breckenridge, MN. 1936 Courtesy of MHS
  74. Rivers and wells ran dry... … the St. Croix River, 1931 Courtesy of MHS
  75. Wet Prairie at Time of Settlement Source: Marschner, MN Environmental Atlas
  76. DNR estimates that 90% of the prairie biome wetlands have been drained Source: MSU/ Tester Natural Heritage Photo’s Courtesy MHS Marietta, Lac qui Parle County, 1910
  77. In summary, it would be very easy to criticize the management of our resources during our pioneer days. Our mistakes had exceptional visual impacts on the landscape. The challenges today may be even greater. As Art Mehrhoff’s book points out, “ One of the most fatal flaws in the new global economic system is its inability to recognize that it consumes the very source of its existence.” We do not see or pay for the environmental damage that occurs half way around the world.
  78. Lesson # 10 Develop a Transition Strategy “ No enterprise will last forever” Whether it is your business or community, it will go through a natural life cycle. As your enterprise reaches maturity and begins to decline you need develop a transition plan. A community may find ways to renew itself or a business may re-invent itself, but one thing is for sure… … story of the Western Outfit MHS Treaty Story U.S. Bureau of Ethnology … the fur trade lasted 200 years in Minnesota
  79. The transition plan … 1837 Treaty with the Ojibwe- Fur traders received 75% of the money. The American Fur Co. received $3,500 of the $4,700 given to the Ojibwe . 1842 Proposed Treat Failed - American Fur company closed 12 days later (departments sold) Western Outfit (created from AMC) involved Hercules Dousman, Henry Sibley, et al were partners in the company. Also, major players in the treaty negotiations. 1851 Treaty- One more attempt to bail out the failing fur trade. Traders were needed to convince Indians to sign. Traders needed to recover losses on their books. The highest level partners in the fur trade could pursue new ventures in land speculation, timber or politics.