Rome

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Rome

  1. 1. Rome: Importance <ul><li>“successor” to Greece </li></ul><ul><li>“carrier” of Greek civilization </li></ul><ul><li>political model for later Europe </li></ul><ul><li>measure of success for nations and individuals </li></ul>
  2. 2. Importance, con’t <ul><li>model for later monarchies </li></ul><ul><li>model for later, mixed constitutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain, U.S., etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>model for most European legal systems </li></ul><ul><li>model for the concept of citizenship </li></ul>
  3. 3. Roman History <ul><li>The Regal Age : ca. 779-509 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>The Republic : 509-27 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>The Empire : 27 B.C.-1453 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Empire : 27 B.C.-325 A.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later Empire : 325 A.D.-1453 A.D. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Location <ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Tiber River </li></ul><ul><li>between Etruscan and Greek cities </li></ul><ul><li>part of the Latin League </li></ul>
  5. 7. Early history <ul><li>Indo-European </li></ul><ul><li>entered Italy ca. 2000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>settled south of the Tiber </li></ul><ul><li>primitive institutions </li></ul>
  6. 8. The Kings <ul><li>Seven kings </li></ul><ul><li>Romulus </li></ul><ul><li>historical kings? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Etruscan kings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the last three </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. The Republic <ul><li>revolution </li></ul><ul><li>patricians (2-4%) and plebeians (96-98%) </li></ul><ul><li>constitutional government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>influenced by Athens? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the constitution of Cleisthenes? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Offices <ul><li>2 consuls </li></ul><ul><li>2 praetors </li></ul><ul><li>aediles </li></ul><ul><li>quaestors </li></ul><ul><li>dictator </li></ul>
  9. 11. Important institutions <ul><li>the assemblies </li></ul><ul><li>the elective offices </li></ul><ul><li>patron-client relationships </li></ul><ul><li>The Twelve Tables </li></ul>
  10. 12. Struggle of the Orders <ul><li>struggle for political participation </li></ul><ul><li>plebeian institutions: the tribunes </li></ul><ul><li>the secessions </li></ul><ul><li>the compromises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no political violence until 133 B.C. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Roman Expansion <ul><li>conquest of Veii: Rome’s “Trojan War” </li></ul><ul><li>gradual expansion for a century </li></ul><ul><li>the Latin League </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extension of citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans, half-citizens, Latins, allies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continuous expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Celts, Samnites, etc. </li></ul>
  12. 17. Expansion, con’t <ul><li>Etruscans </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>Carthage ??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>three Punic Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>254, 220, 146 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>control of Western Mediterranean </li></ul>
  13. 19. Expansion, con’t <ul><li>the Hellenistic Monarchies </li></ul><ul><li>the Greek Federal Leagues </li></ul><ul><li>lots of wars, Romans are dragged in...a lot </li></ul><ul><li>Romans get tired of it </li></ul><ul><li>control of most of the Med. basin by 100 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>but still essentially a city-state </li></ul>
  14. 20. Roman Religion <ul><li>rustic Italian cults </li></ul><ul><li>overlay of Greek religion </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan influences </li></ul><ul><li>Romans as “pack rats” </li></ul>
  15. 21. Roman art <ul><li>best we don’t even talk about that </li></ul>
  16. 29. Roman architecture <ul><li>great skill </li></ul><ul><li>engineers and architects </li></ul><ul><li>roads, cities </li></ul><ul><li>concrete </li></ul>
  17. 36. Roman Literature <ul><li>copied from Greek models </li></ul><ul><li>interests in rhetoric, law, and satire </li></ul><ul><li>Stoic and Epicurean philosophy </li></ul>
  18. 37. The Late Republic: 133-27 B.C. <ul><li>introduction of violence into domestic politics </li></ul><ul><li>competition for status and recognition </li></ul><ul><li>civil war </li></ul>
  19. 39. Important Figures <ul><li>Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus </li></ul><ul><li>Marius and Sulla </li></ul><ul><li>Pompey the Great, Marcus Crassus, Julius Caesar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Triumvirate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marc Antony, Marcus Lepidus, Octavian Caesar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Triumvirate </li></ul></ul>
  20. 41. Gaius Marius
  21. 42. Gaius Julius Caesar
  22. 43. Pompey the Great
  23. 44. Cicero
  24. 45. Octavian Augustus
  25. 46. Octavian as pontifex maximus
  26. 47. Marc Antony
  27. 48. The Empire <ul><li>unification of the Mediterranean basin and western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>extended citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>empire-wide commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Roman law </li></ul><ul><li>tolerance for local autonomy </li></ul>
  28. 52. The Julio-Claudians <ul><li>Augustus </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius </li></ul><ul><li>Caligula </li></ul><ul><li>Claudius </li></ul><ul><li>Nero </li></ul>
  29. 53. Changes <ul><li>reduction of political competition </li></ul><ul><li>end to expansion </li></ul><ul><li>reduction in the army </li></ul><ul><li>further extension of citizenship </li></ul>
  30. 54. The Flavians <ul><li>Year of the Four Emperors (69 A.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>Vespasian </li></ul><ul><li>Titus </li></ul><ul><li>Domitian </li></ul>
  31. 55. The Antonines: the Good Emperors <ul><li>Edward Gibbon </li></ul><ul><li>the height of the Empire </li></ul><ul><li>the culmination of the pax Romana </li></ul><ul><li>succession by adoption of the most competent </li></ul>
  32. 56. The Good Emperors <ul><li>Nerva </li></ul><ul><li>Trajan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strong military leader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hadrian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>excellent administrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hellenophile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antoninus Pius </li></ul><ul><li>Marcus Aurelius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the embodiment of the philosopher king </li></ul></ul>
  33. 57. The Rise of Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher, prophet, revolutionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Jesus Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paul of Tarsus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural mixture: Jewish and Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>founder of Christianity </li></ul></ul>
  34. 58. Rise of Christianity, con’t <ul><li>disappearance of Jewish followers: 70 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>growth of the Pauline church </li></ul><ul><li>the poor, women, children, slaves </li></ul><ul><li>no success among men, the educated, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>benefits of Roman infrastructure and the pax Romana </li></ul>
  35. 59. Roman suspicion <ul><li>the First Jewish War </li></ul><ul><li>“ eastern religion” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>corrupted the mos maiorum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that is, “traditional family values” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>rumors of orgies and cannibalism </li></ul><ul><li>Second Jewish War </li></ul><ul><li>Trajan’s Rescript </li></ul>
  36. 61. The Crisis of the Third Century <ul><li>End of the practice of adoption </li></ul><ul><li>The Severian Emperors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the army as a social class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abandonment of the Augustan constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collapse of the senate and other organs of state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collapse of the civil adminstration </li></ul></ul>
  37. 62. Crisis, con’t <ul><li>collapse of society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>breakdown of social classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>collapse of the economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collapse of trade and coinage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>barbarian invasions </li></ul><ul><li>civil wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirty emperors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Danubian emperors (soldiers) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 63. Crisis, con’t <ul><li>Aurelian - restituor orbis </li></ul><ul><li>Decius - persecutions of those who corrupt traditional family values </li></ul><ul><li>Diocletian </li></ul>
  39. 64. Diocletian and Reform <ul><li>The Tetrarchy </li></ul><ul><li>The Annona </li></ul><ul><li>The Edict of Maximum Prices </li></ul><ul><li>The “new provinces” </li></ul><ul><li>The “eastern frontiers” </li></ul><ul><li>The “new capitals” </li></ul><ul><li>The “persecutions” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edict of Toleration, 311 </li></ul></ul>
  40. 65. Constantine <ul><li>The divided empire, united </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of the Milvian Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>The “conversion of Constantine” </li></ul><ul><li>The Edict of Milan - 314 </li></ul><ul><li>The First Ecumenical Council </li></ul><ul><li>The New Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantinople </li></ul></ul>
  41. 66. Books for you to read <ul><li>H.H. Scullard and M. Cary. A History of Rome to 325 </li></ul><ul><li>J.B. Bury. The Later Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>A.H.M. Jones. The Later Empire </li></ul><ul><li>J.J. Norwich. A Short History of Byzantium </li></ul><ul><li>E. Gruen. The Last Generation of the Roman Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Crawford. The Roman Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Colin Wells. The Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Averil Cameron. The Later Roman Empire </li></ul>
  42. 67. More Books <ul><li>M. Gelzer. Caesar </li></ul><ul><li>C. Meier. Caesar </li></ul><ul><li>A. Everitt. Augustus </li></ul><ul><li>E. Gruen. Diaspora: Jews among the Greeks and Romans </li></ul><ul><li>W.G. Kummel. Introduction to the New Testament </li></ul><ul><li>Keith F. Nickle. The Synoptic Gospels </li></ul>
  43. 68. And more books…. <ul><li>Joel Carmichael. The Birth of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>A. Schweitzer. The Quest for the Historical Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>W. Barnes Tatum. The Quest for Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>M. Grant. Jesus: An Historians Review of the Gospels </li></ul><ul><li>M. Grant. The Jews in the Roman World </li></ul><ul><li>M. Grant. St. Paul </li></ul><ul><li>E.P. Sanders. The Historical Figure of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Paula Fredrickson. Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews </li></ul>
  44. 69. More…. <ul><li>Bart Ehrman. Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millenium </li></ul><ul><li>Geza Vermes. Jesus the Jew </li></ul><ul><li>L. Michael White. From Jesus to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>S.G.F. Brandon. The Trial of Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>Hyam Maccoby. Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Morton Smith. Jesus the Magician </li></ul>
  45. 70. And yet more… <ul><li>www.etsu.edu/cas/history/religionsbib.htm </li></ul><ul><li>R. Helms. Gospel Fictions </li></ul><ul><li>R. Helms. Who Wrote the Gospels </li></ul><ul><li>H.Y. Gamble. The Canon of the New Testament </li></ul><ul><li>D.A. Carson. The King James Debate: A plea for realism </li></ul>

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