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Roman Republic

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Roman Republic

  1. 1. The Roman Republic & the Punic Wars Chaney Early Western Civilization
  2. 2. Hypothetical reconstruction of Roman Forum in Imperial times. Watercolor (18th century), Giuseppe Becchetti
  3. 3. Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World? -Journal: 3 Ideas
  4. 4. Ancient Italy (c. 6 th century B.C.) PEOPLE : The Latins - Rome : “The First Romans” The Etruscans -Northern Italy -Urbanized Rome: Building Programs (the Forum) - Influence on Romans: the arch, alphabet The Greeks -Southern Italy and Sicily - Influence on Romans: art, architecture, literature, .. government, engineering GEOGRAPHY : -Tiber River & Mediterranean Sea -Fertile Soil & Strategic Location
  5. 5. Excerpt from Livy’s The Early History of Rome <ul><li>Think about… </li></ul><ul><li>What danger did the Romans face? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Horatius do to defend the Romans? </li></ul><ul><li>What qualities does Horatius demonstrate in this passage? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the moral of Livy’s account? What can we infer about Roman values based on this? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Beliefs & Values: Military Valor
  7. 7. Government: Republic
  8. 8. The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C. ) <ul><li>509 B.C. , Romans rejected Etruscan king (monarchy) and established a republic . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Rome, citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free-born male citizens. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C. ) <ul><ul><li>STRUGGLE FOR POWER: CLASS CONFLICT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patricians- wealthy landowners who held most of the power: inherited power and social status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plebeians- (Plebs) common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up the majority of the population: can vote, but can’t rule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tribunes- elected representatives who protect plebeians’ political rights. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C. ) <ul><li>A “Balanced” Government </li></ul><ul><li>Rome elects two consuls – one to lead army, one to direct government </li></ul><ul><li>Senate- chosen from patricians (Roman upper class), make foreign and domestic policy </li></ul><ul><li>Popular assemblies elect tribunes , make laws for plebeians (commoners) </li></ul><ul><li>Dictators- leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis (appt. by consuls and senate) </li></ul>
  11. 12. See Chart: Comparing Republican Governments <ul><li>What similarities do you see in the governments of the Roman Republic and the United States? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think is the most significant difference between the Roman Republic and that of the United States today? </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Roman Republic (509 B.C. – 27 B.C. ) <ul><li>THE TWELVE TABLES </li></ul><ul><li>451 B.C., officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets and hung in Forum. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws confirm right of all free citizens to protection of the law </li></ul><ul><li>Become the basis for later Roman law </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Twelve Tables : Primary Source Review <ul><li>What can we infer about Roman values based on the laws cited in the Twelve Tables? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the Twelve Tables compare to modern laws in the United States? </li></ul>
  14. 15. Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World?
  15. 16. Military Organization: The Roman Army
  16. 17. The Roman Army <ul><li>All citizens were required to serve </li></ul><ul><li>Army was powerful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization & fighting skill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legion- military unit of 5,000 infantry (foot soldiers) supported by cavalry (horseback) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Rome Spreads its Power <ul><li>Romans defeat Etruscans in north and Greek city-states in south </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of Conquered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forge alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 265 B.C. , Rome controls Italian peninsula </li></ul>
  18. 19. Rome’s Commercial Network <ul><li>Rome establishes a large trading network </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Mediterranean Sea provides many trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>Carthage , powerful city-state in North Africa, soon rivals Rome </li></ul>
  19. 20. Military Organization: The Punic Wars
  20. 21. Punic Wars (264-146 B.C. ) <ul><li>Three Wars between Rome and Carthage </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Punic War- Rome gains control of Sicily & western Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul>The destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection
  21. 22. Punic Wars (264-146 B.C. ) <ul><li>2 nd Punic War- Carthaginian General Hannibal’s “surprise” attack through Spain & France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60,000 soldiers and 60 elephants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans experience severe losses, but eventually ward off attacks & invade North Africa </li></ul></ul>The destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection
  22. 23. Hannibal's troops crossing the Rhone River on their way to attack northern Italy.
  23. 24. Punic Wars (264-146 B.C. ) <ul><li>3 rd Punic War- Rome seizes Carthage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scipio- Roman Strategist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquered people sold into slavery </li></ul></ul>The destruction of Carthage during the Punic Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection
  24. 25. Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy & the Mediterranean World? (Give a few reasons and explain) Do you think the Roman Republic owed its success more to its form of government, or its army? Why? How does Rome’s rise to power relate to modern efforts to gain power and authority?
  25. 26. Forthcoming… <ul><li>How did the struggle for power between patricians and plebeians affect the Roman Republic? </li></ul><ul><li>How does leadership impact the power and authority of a nation/republic/empire? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augustus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Good & Bad Emperors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diocletian & Constantine </li></ul></ul>
  • shobanar8

    Oct. 8, 2018
  • TomRushford

    Feb. 19, 2014
  • JaimeKaminski

    Nov. 25, 2013
  • potpourri

    Feb. 16, 2009


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