MINERALS - NOTES
MINERALS IN SOUTH ASIA
India’s future ‘Energy Vision’
“To reliably meet the demand for energy services of all sectors including the vulnerable
households in all parts of the country with safe, clean & convenient energy at the least
cost in technically efficient, economically viable and ecologically viable and sustainable
ways considering different fuels and forms of energy, both conventional and non-
conventional as well as new technologies and emerging energy sources."
•Coal, Petroleum, water, nuclear products etc constitute – main power resources
•South Asia – sufficient in coal, poor in petroleum
•Sufficient water in rivers and otherwise which ahs been successfully utilized for
•Coal is used for generation of electric energy to maximum possible extent
1. a. “India is rich in mineral resources.’ Justify the statement. (3)
* Nature has richly endowed India with iron ore, both in quantity and quality. It has more
20% of the world’s iron ore reserves.
* India is the world’s larges producer of mica and produces about 60% of the world’s
production of mica.
* India is the fifth largest producer of manganese in the world.
* There is extensive and sufficient deposits of bauxite in the country
b) Suggest some measures to conserve the minerals. (2)
* Wastage of minerals should be minimized.
* Export of minerals should be minimized.
* Modern technology should be used for the exploitation of minerals.
c. What are minerals? What is importance of minerals ? (3)
*Mineral is a solid substance found in nature and is made up of materials other than
plants or animals.
*Minerals are mainly classified as metallic and non-metallic minerals and energy
IMPORTANCE OF MINERALS: * The economic development of a country is
influenced by the availability of minerals.
*Minerals form the base of several large-scale industries .
* Agriculture, too, is influenced by the availability of minerals in the form of fertilizers
* They help us to earn foreign exchange from export of minerals.
* They are used in various industries as a raw material.
d. Mention any four minerals of India. (2)
Coal, mica, manganse and petroleum
E. Main minerals and power resources: their uses and location in india mineral use
1. IRON (Fe)
In all machines and tools.
Orissa - Sundargarh, Keonjhar, Mayurbanj
Chhatisgarh - Bastar, Durg, Dantewara
Jharkhand - Paschim, Purbi-Singhbum
Fuel, raw-material for steel industry
Jammu & Kashmir, Bihar, West Bengal. Orissa, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra
3. MINERAL OIL
* Fuel in aeroplane, buses, factories, etc
* basic input for petrochemical industry
Assam - Digboi, Naharkatia, Rudrasagar
Gujarat - Ankaleshwar, Koyali, Kalol
Maharashtra – Bombay High, Basin
f) Mention two advantages of Hydro-Electric Power over Coal and Petroleum.
Name any two important Hydro-Electric Power stations in Karnataka. (3)
* Hydro is a renewable source of energy whereas coal and petroleum are non-renewable
sources of power.
* Hydro provides clean energy whereas coal and petroleum causes pollution.
Important hydro-electic power stations of Karnataka are Tungabhadra and Srisailam.
g. What are the two types of minerals? Explain. (2)
* Metallic minerals * Non metallic minerals
METALLIC MINERALS: Minerals from which we get metals are called metallic
minerals. E.g. ores of iron, gold, copper, lead, tin
NON-METALLIC MINERALS: These are those minerals which do not contain metals.
E.g. coal, petroleum, mica, manganese.
h. Name a major nor-metallic mineral of India. (1)
Mica & limestone
i. What are conventional sources of energy? (1)
These are non-renewable sources of energy which once used cannot be used again e.g.,
j. Distinguish between the metallic and non-metallic minerals. (3)
1. Metals are malleable i.e. they can be beaten into sheets.
1. Non-metals are brittle in nature.
2. Metals are ductile i.e. they can be drawn into wires.
2. Non-metals are not ductile.
3. Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.
3. Non-metals are bad conductors of heat and electricity except graphite.
k. Distinguish between the commercial and non-commercial energy sources. (3)
NON COMMERCIAL ENERGY
1. Those sources of energy which are used by the people for commercial purposes.
1. Those sources of energy which are used by the people for home consumption.
2. The use of commercial source of energy can be used as an indicator of economic
development of the country.
2. The use of non-commercial source of energy can be used as an indicator of living
standard of the country.
3. For eg. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydro-electricity.
3. For eg. Fire wood, charcoal and agricultural waste.
l. Distinguish between the conventional and non-conventional sources of energy. (3)
CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY
NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY
1. These are non-renewable sources of energy. e.g., coal and petroleum
1. These are renewable sources of energy. e.g., solar energy, wind energy
2. These are going to last just for 100-200 years.
2. These are going to last for ever.
3. These cause air and water pollution.
3. These do not cause any pollution.
m. Distinguish between natural gas and bio gas (3)
1. It is a mixture of combustable, gaseous hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbons occurring
frequently with petroleum in the rocks of the earth’s crust.
1. Bio-gas is formed by the decomposition of animal and plants waste with the help of
micro-organisms in the presence of water.
2. It is used as a raw material in the petro-chemical industry.
2. It is used as a fuel and for lighting homes.
3. It is transported from one place to another through pipe lines.
3. This gas is produced commercially in tanks by manure.
n. The distribution of mineral deposits in India is uneven. How does it affect
industrial development in the country? (2)
The minerals are the backbone of industry. There are mainly no minerals in northern part
of the country. So this part is backward in industry. These are mainly agricultural states.
Jharkhand and Orissa have rich resources of minerals so they are also rich in industry.
o. Why there is need to conserve minerals? (2)
* Minerals are limited.
* Minerals are basic component of economic development.
* Alternative sources of energy have not developed in most of the countries.
p. What are power resources? In India, which power resources we can find? (3)
Coal, Petroleum, water, nuclear products etc are main power resources. South Asia is rich
in water, coal but very poor in petroleum. As water and coal is sufficient in India, so
power generation become possible to the maximum extent.
6.a. Which South Asian country is the largest producer of iron ore? Mention any
two uses of iron. (3)
India is the largest producer of iron ore in South Asia.
· It is the backbone of modern industry.Iron is used in the manufacture of iron and steel.
· It is also used in the manufacture of machines, agricultural implements, nails, wires, etc.
· It is used in making alloy steels.
b. State the SAARC COUNTRY which has the largest iron ore reserves. Mention
two states in the country named by you, where the reserves are abundant. (3)
India has the largest iron ore reserves.
i) Goa ii) Jharkhand iii. Bihar iv. Orissa
c. Mention any three features of iron ore deposits in India. (3)
* India is fairly rich in iron deposits.
* The quality of iron ore found in India is also one of the best in the world.
* Haematite, magnetite and limonite varieties of iron ore are found in India.
d) State the SAARC country which has the largest Iron ore reserves . Mention two
states in the country named by you, where the reserves are abundant. (3)
India is the largest producer of iron in the SAARC countries. Goa and Jharkhand are the
states which are the leading producer of iron ore.
e. Name the different types of iron found in India. Name any two iron ore belts. (3)
Magnatite and Haematite, limonite, siderite
Orissa – Jharkhand belt
Durg – Bastar – Chandrapur belt.
f. A mineral ‘X’ is used for making iron and steel. It increases the strength of steel.
Identify the mineral. Which country of South Asia is the leading producer of that
Mineral X is manganese. India is the leading producer of manganese.
g. Which is the best quality iron ore? Mention its two characteristics. (2)
* It contains more than 70% of iron.
*It has excellent magnetic qualities.
h. Name different types of iron found in India. (2)
Magnatite and Haematite, limonite, siderite
j. Mention one place in Nepal where iron ore is found. (1)
Godavari, south of Kathmandu
k. Name one area in Orissa and one area in Chaatisgarh where iron ore is mined. (2)
Orissa – Mayurbhanj, Sundargarh
Chattisgarh – Bailadila in Bastar district,
l. Name a few areas where iron-ore is found. (2)
Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
m. Which Indian state leads in the production of iron ore? Name any 4 centres of
iron in Goa.(3)
Goa. It accounts for nearly 27% of the iron output in India.
Sahqualim, Sanguem, Satari, Ponda
m. Which Indian state ranks second after Goa in the production of iron-ore? Give
the important iron-ore fields in the state. (2)
Jharkhand. The important iron-ore fields are Singhbum and Palamau
n. List the important iron-ore fields in the state of Orissa. (2)
Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj, Cuttack, Koraput, Keonjhar, Badamphar, Kirburu, Bohnai
o. Which Indian states are rich in iron-ore production?(2)
Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goa, Tamil
p. Which two districts of Chhattisgarh are the leading producers of iron ore? (1)
Bastar and Durg
q. Name any two countries to which iron ore is exported. (1)
Japan, Korea, European and Gulf countries.
r. State the SAARC country which has the largest iron ore reserves. Mention two
states in the country named by you, where the reserves are abundant. (2)
India is the largest producer of iron ore in South Asia. Goa, Jharkand, Karnataka
7.a. What is an ore? (1)
A naturally occurring deposit which contains a mineral or minerals in sufficient
concentration to justify commercial exploitation, e.g. Bauxite is ore of Aluminium.
b. Name the major iron ore belts of India with one important characteristics of each.
The major iron ore belts in India are :-
1. ORISSA-JHARKHAND BELT: This belt is the leading producer of iron ore found in
Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts. Palaman and Singhbhum
districtsof Jharkhand are the important producers of haematite iron ore.
2. DURG-BASTAR-CHANDARPUR: The belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.
The belt is known for high grade haematites which is found in the famous Bailadila range
of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. It is exported to Japan and South Korea via
3. BELLARY-CHITRADURGA-CHIKMANGLUR-TUMKUR – The belt is in
Karnataka. It has large reserves of iron ore. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western
Ghats of Karnataka are a 100 per cent export unit. Kudrekukh deposits are known to be
one of the largest in the world.
4. MAHARASHTRA-GOA BELT: Thisbelt includes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri
district of Maharashtra. Though the ores are not of very high quality yet they are
efficiently exploited. Iron ore is exported through Marmagao port.
c. Give an account of distribution of iron ore in India. (3)
India has rich resources of iron ore, both in quantity and quality. It has more than 20% of
the world’s iron ore reserves. There are four varieties of iron ore which are available in
India i.e. haematite, limonite, magnetite and Siderite. Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa,
Goa and Karnataka are the leading producers of iron ore in India.
MINERAL RESOURCES - COAL
Coal is valuable if used right…
L Low cost
Clean Coal Technologies provide solutions to control EMISSIONS
Abundance of coal resources compared to oil and gas
Indian energy supply is largely dependent on coal
• Coal contributes to about 55% of the commercial energy
• consumption as compared to 27% world average
• India is the 3rd largest coal producing country.
• More than 65% of electricity generation capacities are
• coal based.
• Surging oil and international coal prices compels coal Industry to play key role
for energy security of the country.
Important source of power in south Asia
•Used in generation of electric power in thermal plants, in industries, in railways for
locomotion and also for domestic purposes.
•Important raw material for various industries
•India and Pakistan – main producers
•India’s coal is mainly associated with Gondwana series of rocks and is primarily found
in peninsular India.
•About 2% Indian coal is of new (tertiary)type and is found in Assam, Jammu and
•Gondwana coal is mainly found in Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, in
various river valleys such as Damodar-Jharia, Bokaro, North and South Karanpura,
Daltonganj, Giridih, all in Bihar and Raniganj in West Bengal;
•Son Valley – Simiroklli, Umeria, Tatapani, Sohagpur, Jhilmili, Chirmiri in Madhya
•Mahanadi Valley – Cobra, Sonhat, Talcher, Raigarh and Sambalpur
•Godavari Vardha Valley – Singharani, Tandur, Kothagudam, in Andhra Pradesh
•Panch Valley and Ballarpur in Maharashtra
•Tertiary coal is found in Namchak and Nakum in Assam
•Kalakot, Metka and Ladda in Jammu and Kashmir
•Lignite Coal is mined in Neyveli in south Arcot district of Tamil Nadu
•Also export to neighbouring countries
•Minor producer of coal
•Is of sub bituminous and of lignite type
•Coal seams are thin and tilted and deposits are found in remote areas making
exploitation difficult and limited to about one million tonnes per year
•Major deposits – Makerwal area in North West Frontier Province
•Largest reserves – Baluchistan province where Sharikh field has coking coal
•It lies along Sibi railway line.
•Is also found in Mack field in Bolan pass area
•Some deposits are found in Koistan region of western Sind
•Lignite and pete coal deposits exist in Peshwar
•Most – poor quality (pete and lignite) having large moisture content
•Found in Sylhet, Tippera, Mymensingh, Faridpur districts
•Some coking coal is found in Bogra district and the mines are deep
•A small quantity of good quality is found in Paharpur area.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:
a. Which is the best quality of coal? Name two states of India where it is found. (1)
Anthracite is the best variety of coal. It is found in Jammu and Kashmir.
b. Why is it called black gold? Name one state where it is found in India (3)
It is called black gold because of its high utility as a source of energy and as a raw
material for a large
number of Industries.
State: Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa, M.P., Chhatisgarh and Andhra Pradesh
c. Name the four types of coal. Which is the best for industrial purposes? Justify
your answer. (3)
Anthracite – (90% carbon) : It is jet black in colour and burns slowly without smoke or
soot. It is clean to handle and has a high heating value.
Bituminous coal (50-80% carbon) : Coke required for smelting of iron ore is derived
from bituminous coal.
Lignite (40% carbon) : It is brown or brownish in colour. It has large quantities of ash
moisture. Its by-products can funish several materials for industries.
Peat - It is considered to be inferior to other three varieties due to least carbon content.
Anthracite coal is the best for industrial purpose because it has high heating value and
burns without smoke..
d. How the India coal field have been classified? Mention any three features of
Gondwana coal fields of India. (3)
The India coal fields have been classified as : i) Gondwana coal fields ii) Tertiary coal
* It accounts for about 98% of the total reserve and 99% of the total coal production in
· These coal fields occur mostly in the river valleys such as Damodar, Mahanadi,
Godavari, and Narmada
· The Gondwana coal is a luminated bituminous coal within which dull and bright layers
· It is about 250 million years old.
· Gondwana coal is almost free from moisture but it contains variable quantities of
sulphur and phosphorous. In general, Gondwana coal is good steam or gas coal.
e. Give India’s ranking in the world after China and USA in production of coal.
Which state produces the most coal? Also name the main coal fields of this state. (2)
India ranks third in the world after China and USA in production of coal.
The main coal fields are Jharia, Bokaro, Karanpura, Ramgarh and Girdih
f. Mention any two uses of coal. (2)
* Manufacturing or iron and Steel & variety of chemicals depend upon the availability of
* It is used for power generation.
g. Name any four Indian states where coal is found. (3)
Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh
h. Distinguish between Gondwana and tertiary coalfields. (3)
GONDWANA COAL FIELD
TERTIARY COAL FIELD
1. It accounts for 98% of the total reserves and 99% of the total coal production in India.
1. It has very less reserves.
2. These are 250 million years old.
2. These are 15 to 60 million years old.
3. These coal mines provide superior quality coal.
3. These provide inferior coal.
4. less moisture compared to Tertiary coal.
4. higher moisture content and more sulphur.
i. State two main draw backs of the coal found in India. (2)
* The distribution of coal is unevern. This involves high transport cost to carry heavy
like coal over long distances.
* Indian coal has high ash content and low calorific value.
* The coal seams are too thin (0.5m thick only) to allow modern machinery to work on
* Obsolete methods of mining, in most of the coal mines, reduces the total output.
j. What are the four varieties of coal? (3)
a) Anthracite (90% carbon) b) Bituminous (50-80% carbon) c) Lignite (40% carbon)
k.) Name an important coal producing state in India and a coal-mine located in that
The important coal producing state in India are :
i) Jharkhand - important mines are Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih
ii) Orissa – important mines ae Dhenkanal, Sambalpur, Sundargarh
l) Classify the Coal-fields in India. Name one State for each classification. (2)
GONDWANA COAL FIELS :
i) Jharkhand – Jharia
ii) Bihar – Chandrapura
iii) West Bengal – Raniganj
iv) Chhattisgarh – Korba
TERTIARY COAL FIELDS :
i) Assam – Nazira
ii) Rajasthan – Palna
m. Name an important coal producing state in India and a coal-mine located in that
The important coal producing state in India are:
i) Jharkhand – important mines are Jharia, Bokaro and Giridih
ii) Orissa – Dhenkanal, Sambalpur, Sundargarh are important coal mines.
n. i) Which quality of coal is best for industrial purposes? (.5)
ii) Name a region of India where coal is found? (1)
Gondwana coal fields, Jammu and Kashmir
iii) Which is the most popular coal for commercial use? (.5)
iv) Which is the largest producer of coal in South Asia? (.5)
v) Which is the poorest quality of coal? (.5)
Peat is the poorest quality of coal. Bihar
vi) Which are the two richest and oldest coalfields of India? (1)
Jharia and Raniganj. They are in Bihar
vii) Which state is the largest producer of coal? (.5)
viii) Which state is major producer of Anhracite and Bituminous? (1)
Anthracite – Jammu and Kashmir
Bituminous – Jharkhand and Orissa
ix. Name the largest coalfield in India (.5)
Lower Gondwana coalfield is the largest coalfield
o. Name the states where Gondwana coal is found. (2)
Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashrtra, Andhra Pradesh
p. Name the main coal fields in the states of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh,
Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. (3)
Jharkhand - Jharia, Bokaro, giridih
West Bengal –Raniganj
Orissa - Raigarh, Talcher, Sonhat and Sambhalpur, Sundargarh, Dhenkanal
Andhra Pradesh – Singhareni, Kothagudem and Tandur
Maharashtra – Umrer, Kamptee and Wardha
Madhya radish – Chindwara and Singrauli
q. Name the states which tertiary coal fields are found. (2)
Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir
r. Which state has maximum deposits of tertiary coal? (.5)
s. Which INDIAN State supplies coal to Bangladesh? (.5)
t. Why are tertiary coal fields considered inferior? Name two states, one from North
India and one from South India having such reserves. (1)
Such reserves have a less carbon content since they are new and young.
North – Riasi/Lakhimpur
South – Neyveli
u. What is lignite? Name one place in India where it is mined. (1)
Lignite is a brown coal with high moisture and low carbon content.
Tamil Nadu - Neyveli
v. Name two states with large deposits of coal. Name the coalfields in the states that
you have named. (1)
West Bengal – Raniganj Jharkhand – Jaria
9.a. What are the advantages of the anthracite coal? (1)
It has a carbon content of 90 percent and burns slowly without smoke. it burns for a long
time and leaves very little ash behind.
b. Which type of coal has the maximum carbon contents? Which coal variety has
the least carbon contents? Which type of coal is used for smelting iron-ore? Which
type of coal has a large quantities of ash and moisture? (3)
* Maximum carbon contents - Anthracite (more than 80 % carbon)
* Least carbon content - Peat
* used for smelting iron-ore - Bituminous
* coal that has large quantities of moisture and ash - Lignite
c. Which is the most important source of power in India? (.5)
d. ‘Coal plays major role in the industrialization process”. Justify the statement by
giving two examples. (2)
* It is the main source of energy. More than 60% of commercial energy is obtained from
* It is used as basic input in iron and steel industry.
e. Name any four major centres of coal mining in South India. (2)
# Adilabad # Karimnagar # Warrangal # Khamman
f. Name two centres of coal mining of the following states: West Bengal and
WEST BENGAL – Raniganj and Daling Kot
MAHARASHTRA – Kamptee and Wardha Valley
g. Which varierty of coal is used for the production of coke and gas ? Name a state
of India where it is found. (2)
Bituminous is used for the production of coke and gas. It is found in Bihar, Orissa and
h. How coal is powerful power resource? (2)
Coal is used in generation of electric power in thermal plants. In railways, coal is used for
locomotion. It is most important raw material for various industries. In this way, it is
powerful power resources.
i. Describe in detail coal under the following heads: i) Distribution of coal in India
ii) Demerits of Indian coal (any two) iii) Need of conservation of coal. (3)
i. Nearly three fourth of the coal deposits are located in the Damodar river valley. The
Raniganj, Jharia, Giridih, Bokaro and Karanpura
The other river valleys associated with coal deposits are the Godavari, Mahaadi, Son, and
The coal fiels of Singreni in Andhra Pradesh, Talcher in Orissa and Chanda in
Maharashtra are also
ii. DEMERITS OF INDIAN COAL:
* The quality of coal required for producing coke as an essential input in steel industry is
* the Indian coal has high ash content and low carorific value.
iii. NEED OF CONSERVATION OF COAL:
· Because it is a non-renewable resource.
· It is backbone of industrialization process.
10.a. Name some countries which are the main producers of coal. (1)
India and Pakistan are the main producers of coal.
b. In Pakistan, where we find coal? Which type of coal we find in Pakistan? (1)
In Pakistan, we find coal in Baluchistan, Mack field and Koistan region of western Sind.
In Pakistan, we find sub-bituminous and lignite varieties of coal.
c. Which type of coal we find in Bangladesh? In which part of Bangladesh , coal is
In Bangladesh, we found poor quality coal. (Pete and lignite)
In Sylhet, Tippera, Mymensingh and Faridpur discticts we find coal in Bangladesh.
d. What steps should be taken to conserve coal?(2)
Following steps should be taken to conserve coal.
i) Wastage of coal should be prevented by discouraging selective mining.
ii) New reserves of coal are needed to be explored.
iii) New technology should be adopted in mining, production and use of coal.
iv) Inferior coal should be blended with superior quality coal.
v) Private sector investment in the coal mining should be encouraged.
e. Explain why coal is often used near the source of production and mineral oil is
often transported to great distances.(2)
Coal is often used near the source of production because it is found abundantly in many
regions in India which is sufficient for various industries and power plants.
Mineral oil is often transported to great distances because a major part of its requirement
is met through import. So, it has to be transported from the port to the refineries.
f. How is the poor quality Indian coal being utilized? (2)
The poor quality Indian coal, specified as Lignite is used mainly in combustion in the
industries of fertilizers, paints, chemicals, etc.
Another poor quality coal, the Peat, is usually used as fuel in households and various
small-scale or cottage industries.
g. What are the uses of coal? (2)
* Coal is known as the basic source of energy. It plays an important role in the growth of
industries. The electricity (Thermal Power) is generated by coal.
* Our Railway system is still dependent on coal.
* Coal is not only used as energy resources, but also it is used as a raw material in
smelting iron ore.
11.a. Briefly mention how petroleum is obtained?(3)
Petroleum is being obtained from the sedimentary rocks. It is formed from the organic
decomposition of the remais of marine products deposited in silt or mud inside the sea
bed for a long period of time. The pressure due to overlying sediments along with the
movements of earth converts the silt and mud into rock and the afore-originated pores
with the rock are occupied by the organic remains. High heat and pressure changes those
organic remains into mineral oil and natural gas.
b. Why does India have to import mineral oil? (2)
* Less reserves as compared to production.
* Increasing number of automobiles and industries day-by-day.
* Lack of technology and capital for exploiting the present reserves.
c. Why petroleum is called mineral oil? (2)
The word ‘petroleum’ has been derived from two latin words ‘petro’ meaning rock and
‘Oleam’ meaning oil. It is obtained from rocks, particularly sedimentary rocks of the
earth. So it is called mineral oil.
d. Distribution of mineral-oil in India. (2)
Assam : It is the oldest oil producing state of India. Major oil fields are:
i) Digboi: It is the oldest oil field of India.
ii) Naharkatiya: It is located in S.W. Digboi . Rudrasagar, Sib, Sagar are other oil fields
e. Name two important oil fields in India. (2)
Mumbai High (Mahrarashtra), Ankaleshwar, Digboi, Maharkatla, Rudrasagar, Numati,
Hansapang and Morah (Assam), Koyali, Kosamba and Kolar (Gujarat).
f. Name two centres in North-East of India where petroleum is found. Which is the
largest petroleum producing country in South Asia? (2)
Digboi and Naharkatiya are two centres in North-East of India where petroleum is found.
India is the largest producer of mineral oil in South Asia.
g. Name two regions in Pakistan where petroleum is found. (2)
Two regions in Pakistan where petroleum is found are –
ii) Potwar Plateau
h) State the conditions necessary for the formation of Natural Gas. Mention two
advantages of using Natural gas as a source of energy.(3)
Natural gas accompanies petroleum accumulations. Whenever a well for is drilled, it is
natural gas which is available before oil is truck. Natural gas is formed under the earth by
the decomposition of vegetable matter lying under water. The decomposition is carried
out by anaerobic bacteria in the absence of oxygen.
* It can be used both as a source of energy and also as an industrial raw material in petro-
* It takes less time to build a power plant based on natural gas.
* For Indian agriculture, it has a capacity to boost its production through the building of
fertilizer plants based on natural gas.
* It is easy to transport gas through pipe lines.
i) Mention two products of an Oil refinery. Name two Oil refineries in India, one
along the coast and one away from the coast. (2)
Two products of an oil refinery are – Natural Gas and LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas)
Oil refinery along the coast – Vishakapatnam
Oil refinery away from the coast - Bongaigon
j. Where is petroleum found in the earth’s crust? (1)
Petroleum is found in sedimentary rocks.
k. Which two India states are leaders in oil production? Name an oil field from each
of these. (1)
Assam – Digboi/Naharkatia/Moran
Gujarat – Ankleshwar/Kalol
l. Why are petroleum refineries located near the coast of India. Name two of its by-
Two-thirds of the petroleum required is imported, thus refineries are near the coast.
By-products – Lubricants/kerosene/caselene/tar
m. What is Off-Shore Drilling? What is Bombay High? (3)
The drilling which has been carried out not in the main land but along the sea-shore line,
i.e. drilling at the submerged portion of the sea-shore, is called off-shore drilling.
Bombay High is the most productive oil field which is 176 km off Mumbai in the
Arabian Sea. Oil was discovered by ONGC in 1974.It is the largest reserve of natural gas
and mineral oil in India. The drilling functions has been happening here along the off-
shore line. Two refineries has ben established there to minimize the cost of transporting
the crude oil towards the refinieries.
n. Name the following:(2)
a) A private sector oil refinery - Reliance Petroleum Limited.
ii) A joint sector oil refinery - Mangalore Refienry and Petro-chemical Limited
o. Name the two main belts of India where oil is found. (2)
i) The Assam-Arakan belt which runs from extreme north-east of Assam to the eastern
border of the
Brahmaputra and Surma Valley.
ii) The Gujarat Cambay belt which extends from Mahesana (Gujarat) in the north to the
off the coast of Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) in the south.
p. Mention two uses of mineral oil. Name an old and new mineral oil producing
* It is used to generate thermal power..
* It is used as a lubricating agent and is used as raw material for various petro-chemical
* Petrol and diesel obtained from mineral oil are used as fuels for automobiles, aircrafts
and railway engines.
* Kerosene oil, by-product of petroleum is used as a domestic fuel.
* It gives several valuable by-products such as lubricants, terylene, paraffin wax, tar and
Old – Digboi New – Mumbai High
q. Name one important oil field each in Bangladesh and Pakistan. (1)
Oil field in Bangladesh - Sylhet
Oil field in Pakistan - Khaur
r. Demand for petrol and petroleum products is increasing. Why? (2)
# It is one of major sources of commercial energy.
# Due to increased pace of industrialization in South Asian countries.
s. Which region is the largest producer of petroleum in India? Name the refinery
where the production is refined? (2)
Mumbai High is the largest producer of mineral oil. It produces more than 60% of the
total production. The mineral oil obtained from the region is refined in Trombay.
t. Name the agency which explores mineral oil in India. (1)
The Oil and Natural Gas Commission. (ONGC)
u. With reference to Bombay High oil field, answer the following:
i) Where is it located? Ii) Name the platform designed? iii) When was it found? (3)
i) It is located on the continental shelf of the coast of Maharashtra about 176 km north-
west of Mumbai.
ii) Sagar Samrat
iii) In 1974
v. With reference to Indian oil fields , name; (3)
i) Any two oil fields of North East India. - NORTH-EAST – Digboi and Naharkatiya
ii) Any two oil fields of Western India. - WESTERN INDIA – Ankleshwar and Kalol
iii)Any two off shore oil fields of India. - OFF SHORE OIL FIELD – Mumbai High and
iv. Oldest oilfield in India - Digboi oilfield situated in Lakhimur district of Assam
v. Two coastal oil refineries - Trombay Refinery (BPCL) in Gujarat in West Coast
Barauni Refinery - east coast of India
vi . Two important oil fields - Digboi in Assam, Kalol in Gujarat
vii. Two important oil belts - Assam-Arakan belt and Gujarat Cambay belt
Digboi oilfield situated in Lakhimpur district of upper Assam
· India is rich with minerals.
· Metallic minerals are obtained from igneous and metamorphic rocks. eg iron ore,
bauxite, copper, gold etc
· Non metallic minerals include limestone, gypsum, diamonds, potassium etc
· India got 7th position in production of manganese.
· Mica is non-metallic mineral.
· Singbhumi district of Bihar in India is the leading producer of copper.
· We get aluminium from bauxite ore.
· Petroleum is fossil fuel.
· Goa produces about 27% of Iron ore in India.
· Manganese is Ferro alloy mineral.
· In Pakistan copper is found in Baluchistan.
· coal, petroleum, water and nuclear products are power resources.
· India has about 762 million tones of petroleum.
· ONGC discovered oil near Mumbai in 194.
· Lime stone is used in the cement industry.
· Pete and lignite are poor quality coal.
· Digboi, Naharkatiya, Rudrasagar, Nunmati are in Assam.
· The capacity of coal to give energy depends upon its carbon content.
· Anthracite is a superior quality coal having 90 per cent carbon content.
· The coal fields of India are divided into two groups , namely i0 gondwana coal-fields,
ii) Tertiary Coal-fields
· About 99 per cent of the total coal production in India is from the Gondwana coalfields.
· There are 12 refineries in India where crude petroleum is refined.
· The main oil-fields in India are: i) Bombay High
ii) Oil-fields or Western region which include Ankaleshwar, Kosamba, Koyali, Kathana,
Kalor, Navgaon, Sanand in Gujarat
iii) Oil-fields of Eastern region which include Digboi, Rudra Sagar, Nunmati, Naharkatla,
Hansapung and Bappapung in Assam.
•Important fossil fuel – south Asia-deficient
•Spend huge amount of valuable foreign currency to import crude oil
•India and Pakistan – important producers
•Some oil and natural gas are also found in Bangladesh
•Has about 0.5% of world’s petroleum reserves amount to about 762 million tonnes
•Oil- first discovered in Inida at Makum in North East in Assam in 1867.
•More were discovered in different parts of the county.
1.Off shore sea near Mumbai
2.Digboi, Naharkatiya, Rudra Sagar and Nunmati in Assam
3.Ankleshwar, Koyali, Kalor and Navgaon in Gujarat
1. OIL FIELDS IN THE EASTERN REGION
•Oil – first discovered in Makuk (Assam)in 1867,
•First well – drilled- DIGBOI in Lakhimpur district of Upper Assam
•Other centres of oil in Assam are at Bappapung, Hansapung, Naharkatiya and Moaran
2. OIL FIELDS IN THE WESTERN REGION
•In the Western Region, the oil fields are scattered over a large area from Rajasthan to
•Some areas-Ajmleshwar, Nawagaon, Kalol, Kosamba, Sanand, Kathana
3. Bombay High
•ONGC- discovered oil on the continental shelf area off the coast of Maharashtra about
176 km North West of Mumbai in 1974
•Structure containing oil in Mumbai High and Bassein basins named Sagar Samrat, are
spread over 2500 km
•Prodn started in 1976
•Another structure HIRA is also in operation
•Region produces 1/3rd of crude oil output of India, - it is refined in the refineries of
•Cauvery, Krishna, Godavari basins.
•Possibility of oil- in Coramandel continental shelf area, Sunderban delta of Sher area
and Gulf of Cambay region
•Important refineries are at Cochin, Chennai, Vishakhapattnam, Haldia and Barauni